时间:2018年01月19日 03:48:43

Artificial sweeteners may evict good gut microbes人工合成甜味剂可能会清理掉肠道内部的有益细菌To avoid the calories in sugar, dieters often sweeten foods and drinks with no-calorie substitutes, such as saccharin. But this fake sugar could have unexpected side effects, a new study finds. Its authors show that a high-saccharin diet causes changes in mice and people that could lead to obesity or type 2 diabetes. The sweetener did that by altering microbes in the gut. Other sweeteners would likely cause similar problems, the researchers say.为避免糖分中过多的热量,节食者通常会在饮料和食物中添加零热量替代物将其变甜,比如说糖精。但是一项新研究发现这种;伪糖;也可能会产生意想不到的副作用。作者说明了高糖精饮食会引起老鼠和人体内部系统发生改变,通过改变肠道内的微细菌最终导致肥胖或二型糖尿病。研究者表示其他甜料也会引起类似的问题。This research suggests ;there could be unintended consequences; of using sugar substitutes, Robert Margolskee told Science News. He#39;s a neuroscientist at the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia, Pa. He was not involved in the new work. ;This is very interesting and scary if it really does hold for humans,; he says.宾夕法尼亚州费城莫奈尔化学感官中心的神经系统科学家Robert Margolskee告诉科学新闻使用糖的替代品会有;意外结果;产生,Robert没有参加此次研究,但他表示如果这一发现真的会给人类带来这样的结果那么真的是既有趣又恐怖。Until recently, most people thought artificial (no-calorie) sweeteners passed through the body without doing anything. That#39;s what makes them appealing. They add a sweet taste without the caloric cost. Many diet foods, from soft drinks to desserts, are sweetened with these substances. But that may come with a different cost.近来很多人仍以为食用过人工甜味剂(零热量糖精)后不会给身体造成任何影响。这也是它们吸引人的原因之一。它们会在不增加任何热量的情况下把食物变甜。许多减肥食物,像软饮和甜品等添加过这种甜料后都会变甜,但更大的代价可能也会随之出现。To probe the sweeteners#39; effects, Eran Segal and Eran Elinav ran tests on mice. Segal is a computational biologist. Elinav is an immunologist. Both researchers work at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel. The researchers added artificial sweeteners to the animals#39; drinking water. Those sweeteners included saccharin, aspartame and sucralose.为了探究甜料对食用者的影响,Eran Segal和Eran Elinav对老鼠进行了实验。前者是一名计算生物学家,后者是一名免疫学者。两位研究员均在以色列雷霍沃特威茨曼科学研究学院工作。他们把糖精,阿斯巴甜和三氯蔗糖等人工甜料加进动物的饮用水中。After 11 weeks, the animals showed problems with their metabolism. Unusually high levels of a type of sugar called glucose circulated in their blood after meals. This suggested the sweeteners impaired their bodies#39; ability to process glucose.11周后,这些动物的新陈代谢开始出现问题。通常饭后他们血液里会循环流淌着一种叫做种葡萄糖的糖类,这一现象说明了人工甜料已经损坏了他们自身加工处理葡萄糖的能力。 /201506/381531

A nine-year-old boy from Morden, Manitoba, Canada, has taken up the lost art of letter writing — and he#39;s not writing to just anyone, he#39;s written to every world leader for whom he could find a mailing address.加拿大马尼托巴省莫登的一名九岁男孩重拾起消逝的写信艺术,而且他的信不是写给随便什么人的,而是给那些他能找到邮寄地址的各国领导人们。Levi Voth has written more than 230 letters and he#39;s received 27 responses.利维·沃斯已经寄出了230多封信,并且收到了27封回信。Among the 27 countries that responded to the nine-year-old#39;s request for information: Andorra, Germany, Brazil, Liechtenstein and North Korea.给9岁小男孩回信的27个国家包括:安道尔共和国、德国、巴西、列敦士登和朝鲜。;I#39;m always pretty happy when I get a letter back,; Voth said, but he thinks his favourite response was the one from North Korea, often called the Hermit Kingdom, due to its lack of interest in pursuing international diplomatic relations.沃斯说:“在收到回信时我非常的开心!”不过,他说他收到的最喜欢的回复来自朝鲜。人们通常称之为幽闭国度,因为他们对国际外交关系没什么兴趣。;I really wasn#39;t expecting one from there,; he added. ;They didn#39;t say anything, they just sent me some newspapers and some books.;他说:“我没想到他们会给我回复,他们什么也没写,只是寄给我一些报纸和书籍。”Voth told C#39;s Radio Noon that it has been a learning experience for him, ;Andorra, I had no clue about. Same with Lithuania and Lichtenstein.;沃斯在C的午间广播中说这对他来说是一种学习经历,“完全不了解安道尔共和国,立陶宛和列敦士登也不太知道。”Voth said he got the idea from a book his father to him, ;I thought it would be pretty cool to write letters to all the world leaders.;沃斯称他的想法产生于他父亲给他读的一本书。他觉得给世界各地的领导人写信很酷。Voth asked very specific questions to the leaders:沃斯对这些领导人问了一些细节的问题:If I went to your country, what should I make sure I see or do on my visit?如果我去你的国家,我一定要看或要做的事情是什么?What are you really proud about in your country?你们国家什么最让你自豪?What would you like the whole world to know about your country?你愿意让整个世界了解你们国家的什么方面?What is the best thing about living in your country?在你的国家生活,最好的事情是什么?If you could change one thing in your country, what would it be?如果你能够改变你们国家的一件事,那会是什么?;And at the bottom I wrote, #39;I can#39;t wait to hear back from you. If you#39;re ever in Manitoba, Canada I would like to go for ice cream with you,; Voth said.沃斯说:“在信的结尾,我是这么写的,#39;我迫不及待地想要收到你的回信,如果你在加拿大马尼托巴省的话,我想跟你一起吃冰淇淋。’”Botswana advised Voth that if he were ever in the country, to visit the Okavango Delta, which was listed as a World Heritage Site in 2014.Denmarktold him to check out Dyrehavsbakken, the world#39;s oldest operating amusement park.兹瓦纳在回信中建议沃斯,如果他来这个国家的话,记得参观奥卡万戈三角洲,这里在2014年被列入世界文化遗产。丹麦建议他去巴肯游乐场玩一玩,那是目前还开放的世界上最古老的游乐场。Voth said his next project will be to write to all the provinces in Canada and states in the U.S.沃斯说他下一个计划是写信给加拿大所有的省和美国所有的州。 /201506/382908

文章编辑: 中国极客