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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年12月16日 05:50:22
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Imagine if, over the next 60 days, the European Commission staged a series of press conferences and bombarded journalists with a battery of announcements of pocket-sized investigations into the condition of the continent’s technology industry. 想象一下,如果欧盟委员会(European Commission)在今后60天里召开一系列记者招待会,宣布对欧洲科技行业展开一连串袖珍调查。 One investigation might delve into the rate at which PhDs are granted to students of science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects at Europe’s 20 leading universities. This might contain an appendix showing the percentage of Nobel Prizes given to people born and resident in Europe over the past 100 years. 一项调查可能是研究欧洲20所领先大学里的科学、技术、工程和数学专业的学生被授予士学位的比例。这可能包括一个附录,显示过去100年出生并居住在欧洲的诺贝尔奖得主百分比。 Another inquiry might examine the state of science education in high schools across the EU and how this compares to countries such as China, Singapore, Israel, India and the US. An appendix of this report might summarise the number of European high school students and college graduates that have elected to study in, or emigrate to, the US. 另一项调查可能是考察整个欧盟的高中的理科教育状况,并在这方面与中国、新加坡、以色列、印度和美国等国进行对比。该报告的附录可能概述选择去美国留学(或者移民美国)的欧盟高中生和大学毕业生的人数。 Other lawyers and social scientists on the vast EU payroll might be dispatched to the patent filing libraries to see how the rate of European invention in critical fields has kept track with what has occurred in China and the US since 1990. Then, assuming there are still lawyers available — not an insurmountable challenge in Brussels — another taxpayer-financed squadron could be sent to examine why the rate of formation of technology companies in Europe trails that in other countries. 欧盟雇用的庞大律师和社会科学家队伍的其他成员,可能被派到专利库,去查看自1990年以来欧洲在关键领域的发明速度与中国和美国相比表现如何。接下来,假如还有律师闲着——在布鲁塞尔这不是一个不可逾越的挑战——另一个纳税人资助的团队可能被派去考察欧洲科技公司的形成速度为何落在其他国家后面。 Instead, the commission has chosen to launch a new investigation into one of its bête-noires — Google. This new witch-hunt, seeking to uncover skulduggery and anti-competitive practices in the way that Google has licensed its Android operating system, is in addition to a separate Commission probe into the company’s search business. Add to this the EU probes into the privacy policies and tax payments of US technology companies, and the chief executives of Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google, Netflix and Qualcomm — six of the greatest businesses built over the past 30 years — must be thinking that, within Europe, no success goes unpunished. 相反,欧盟委员会偏偏选择对其看不惯的一家企业——谷歌(Google)发起新的调查。最新的“猎巫”行动旨在发现谷歌在授权使用Android操作系统上的欺诈和垄断行为,此前欧盟委员会还对谷歌搜索业务展开调查。除此之外,欧盟还对美国科技公司的隐私政策和纳税行为展开调查,亚马逊(Amazon)、苹果(Apple)、Facebook、谷歌、Netflix和高通(Qualcomm)——过去30年打造起来的最伟大企业中的6家——的首席执行官们必定认为,欧洲是一个惩罚成功的地方。 This same sentiment seems to be sping to European boardrooms. Recently, the founders of Spotify, the Stockholm-based music-streaming service that has been engaged in a tooth-and-nail fight with some of the largest US technology companies, did the unthinkable. They voiced a distinctly American viewpoint by castigating Swedish politicians for the conditions they have to battle in their homeland. These included the acute housing shortage in Stockholm, the manner in which gains from stock options are taxed and the shortcomings of technical education — particularly for girls and young women. Little wonder that they threatened to move much of their company — lock, stock and smoked herring — to more hospitable climes. 这种情绪似乎正蔓延至欧洲企业的董事会。最近,总部位于斯德哥尔的音乐流媒体务公司、一直在全力对抗美国一些大型科技公司Spotify的创始人做了一件不可思议的事情。他们表达了典型的美国式观点:针对他们不得不应对的国内艰难条件指责瑞典政客。这些条件包括斯德哥尔住房严重匮乏,来自股票期权的收益被征税的方式,以及技术教育的不足之处(尤其是对女孩和年轻女性而言)。难怪他们威胁要将公司整个搬到营商环境更好的地区。 The commission might find some solace in an odd place — its own investigation of Microsoft which started in 2000 and extended for more than a decade. The accusations against Microsoft were every bit as pointed as the charges now levelled at Google. Yet consider what’s happened since. The EU filed its charges against the leader of the personal computer industry before Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp, Snapchat or Skype were even formed and at a time that Google was barely a year old. However, the inventiveness of these companies that had a much greater effect on Microsoft’s apparent ironclad lock on the technology industry than any set of mandarins infusing legal charges with a political marinade. 欧盟委员会可能在一个诡异的地方找到一些慰藉——当年它对微软(Microsoft)展开的调查。那项调查始于2000年,持续了十多年。对微软的指控和现在针对谷歌的指控一样尖锐。然而想想自那以来发生的情况吧。欧盟对这家个人计算机行业的领军企业提出指控的时候,Facebook、Instagram、WhatsApp、Snapchat或Skype甚至还未诞生,谷歌成立仅一年。然而,与带着政治动机提出法律指控的官僚们相比,这些公司的创造力对微软对科技行业貌似稳固的霸主地位产生了大得多的冲击。 The commission should examine one other fact. Over the past five years the eight most valuable technology companies developed in Europe have assembled a combined market value of around bn. That’s not a figure to be sneezed at any more than the admirable young European technology entrepreneurs who, despite all odds, are more inclined to take a risk than members of their parents’ generation. But EU legislators should be wondering why Europe’s eight most valuable companies are only worth about 10 per cent of Facebook or 6 per cent of Google. 欧盟委员会还应反省另一个事实。过去5年里,欧洲发展起来的8家最有价值的科技公司的市值总额达到320亿美元左右。这个数字不容小觑;欧洲许多年轻科技创业家也值得钦佩——尽管面临重重困难,他们仍比父辈中的某些成员更愿意冒险。但欧盟立法者应该纳闷的是,为何欧盟8家最有价值的公司的总市值只有Facebook的10%,或者谷歌的6%。 There’s nothing new about this strain of anti-Americanism running rampant in Brussels. Some of its intellectual roots stretch back 50 years to Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber, the French publisher and journalist, who tried to galvanise Europeans into countering the threat from across the Atlantic with the publication, in 1967, of The American Challenge. Its echoes can be heard in this week’s press conferences in Brussels. Forget the fact that American ingenuity and daring has brought to hundreds of millions of Europeans phones cheaper and more powerful than the supercomputers of the 1970s, thousands of films and TV shows that can be streamed at the touch of a button, free text-messaging services, books that are delivered overnight and thousands of comfortable cars that can be summoned at a moment’s notice. 布鲁塞尔反美情绪高涨并不是什么新鲜事。这其中的一些理论渊源可以追溯至50年前的法国出版人和记者让-雅克#8226;塞尔旺-施赖伯(Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber),他在1967年出版了《美国的挑战》(The American Challenge),试图激励欧洲人反制大西洋对岸的威胁。该书的回声在布鲁塞尔最近的记者会上可以听到。忘掉如下事实吧:美国人的智慧和胆识让数亿欧洲人的手机比上世纪70年代的超级电脑更便宜更强大、点击一下就可以观看数千部电影和电视剧、免费的文字聊天务、次日就能送上门的图书,以及很快就能叫到的舒适汽车。 Rather than pointing across the Atlantic and seeking scapegoats, the Commissioners who have just launched another fusillade against one of their favourite American bogeymen may want to start a series of investigations into Europe’s own shortcomings. This may be a more fruitful exercise than reigniting the spent flames of the 1960s. 与其指责大西洋对岸和寻找替罪羊,刚刚再次炮轰他们最爱的美国靶子的欧盟委员会,不如对欧洲本身的不足之处展开一系列调查。相比重新点燃上世纪60年代的余烬,这么做可能更有成效。 /201605/440553China’s oldest auto company revs up for India entry 中国最老的汽车公司China’s Changan Automobile Company is planning to set up its first India factory, with a capacity to manufacture 200,000 vehicles a year. The company recently visited Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu and, according to sources, is looking for a local partner. 中国长安汽车公司计划建立第一家印度工厂,年产能20万辆汽车。据消息人士称,公司最近先后考察了安得拉邦和泰米尔纳德邦,寻找一个当地合作伙伴。 Changan Automobile Company, China’s oldest automobile manufacturer, is headquartered in Chongqing. The company is a state-owned enterprise, which manufactures cars ranging from entry-level hatchbacks to sedans to sport utility vehicles to vans to pick-up trucks. It also has a range of electric and hybrid vehicles.长安汽车公司,中国最老的汽车厂商,总部在重庆。公司是国有企业,生产从入门级掀背车到轿车,再到SUV和货车等车辆,也生产电动汽车和混合动力汽车。While an e-mail questionnaire sent to the company was not immediately answered, sources in both the state governments confirmed that officials from Changan’s head office had visited the states.发给长安公司的邮件并未立即得到回复。不过两个邦政府的消息人士实,长安公司的高管访问了两个邦。According to sources, the new facility could attract around Rs 1,000 crore (Rs 10 billlion) during the initial phase.消息人士称,新工厂最初阶段会吸引大约100亿卢比的投资。In 2014, Beijing-based commercial-vehicle maker Beiqi Foton Motor Company announced plans for a factory at Chakan near Pune to produce a full range of commercial vehicles, but there has been no launch so far.2014年,总部在北京的商用车厂商北汽福田汽车公司,宣布计划在普纳附近的Chakan建立工厂,生产全系列的商业车,然而迄今为止尚未动工。 Sources added that the company would set up a facility with capacity to produce 200,000 units a year initially, which will be expanded gradually.消息人士称,公司会建立一家年产能20万辆车的工厂,然后逐渐扩大。Recently, Japanese auto major Isuzu inaugurated a Rs 3,000 crore (Rs 30 billion) facility at SriCity.最近,日本汽车厂商五十铃为在SriCity投资300卢比的工厂举行落成仪式。An official said Changan is also scouting for a joint venture partner. Its joint ventures in China include the likes of Suzuki, Ford and PSA Peugeot Citroen. 一位官员表示,长安也在寻找合资企业的合作伙伴,公司在中国的合资伙伴有铃木、福特和标致雪铁龙。It has six manufacturing bases in China and four research and development centres at Turin in Italy, Yokohama in Japan, Nottingham in England and Detroit in US.目前,长安汽车在中国有6个生产基地,4个研发中心,分别在意大利的图灵、日本的横滨、英国的诺丁汉和美国的底特律。 /201607/453852

  Chinese football fans were delivered Boxing Day relief when cash-strapped tech group LeEco made a last-minute payment to ensure it could broadcast English Premier League games, but the future of its football broadcasts still hangs in the balance. 中国足球迷在节礼日得到了一些安慰:现金困难的科技集团乐视(LeEco)在最后时刻作了一笔付款,以确保它能够转播英格兰超级足球联赛(English Premier League),但其足球赛转播权的未来仍有很大变数。The current owner of EPL broadcasting rights in China, Beijing-based Super Sports Media Group, at the weekend said LeEco subsidiary LeSports had missed a payment of m due on December 20, and threatened to cut off its broadcasts of highly-anticipated Boxing Day matches.英超联赛目前在中国转播权的所有者、总部位于北京的新英体育(Super Sports Media)周末曾表示,乐视子公司乐视体育(LeSports)错过了12月20日应付的一笔3000万美元款项。新英体育威胁要切断乐视转播球迷们热切期盼的节礼日球赛。The standoff was temporarily resolved on Monday, when LeSports paid “a small portion” of the amount, a Super Sports spokeswoman who asked not to be named told the Financial Times.这场对峙在周一得到暂时解决。新英体育一位要求匿名的女发言人告诉英国《金融时报》,乐视体育付了“一小部分”应付金额。The two companies have agreed on a repayment plan which ends at the Lunar New Year on January 28 and guarantees LeSports broadcasts until next Tuesday, the spokeswoman said. “If LeSports cannot stick to its promise to pay within the agreed time, we can cut off their signal at any time,” she added.这位发言人表示,两家公司已经约定一个截至1月28日农历新年的还款计划,并保乐视体育截至下周二的转播权。“如果乐视体育不能兑现在约定时间内付款的承诺,我们随时可以切断他们的信号,”她补充说。An unnamed LeSports spokesperson told Shanghai-based media Yicai on Monday: “There will be no problems with our English Premier League broadcasts.”乐视体育一位姓名不详的发言人周一告诉上海媒体第一财经:“我们的英超联赛转播不会有问题。” /201612/485921

  More kung fu masters have risen to the challenge posed by a mixed martial arts (MMA) fighter in China after the man defeated a tai chi master in just 10 seconds.仅仅十秒,一名综合格斗选手便击败了太极大师。这场格斗过后,许多功夫高手开始向这名格斗选手下战书。The duel last week between MMA fighter Xu Xiaodong and tai chi master Wei Lei in Chengdu, Sichuan province, sparked heated debate over which is superior – modern combat tactics or traditional martial arts – after a of the fight was widely shared online.上周,发生在综合格斗选手徐晓冬和太极大师魏雷之间的一场格斗在四川成都拉开帷幕。此次搏斗的视频在网上广为流传,引发了网民对现代格斗与传统武术孰强孰弱的热议。Mr Xu told The Beijing News on Monday (May 1) that a handful of other kung fu masters had since responded to his open challenge.5月1日,徐晓冬在接受《新京报》采访时称,许多功夫高手已经对他的公开约战作出回应。“I will surely accept the challenge,” he said.他说:“我肯定会接受这个挑战。”Mr Xu had issued the challenge to various kung fu masters and even said on his Weibo account that he could defeat two or three of them together.徐晓冬向好几个功夫高手下了战书。他甚至在微上放言,自己可以同时击败他们当中的两到三个。Among Mr Xu’s challengers were two tai chi masters Lu Xing and Wang Zhanhai; Guangzhou native Li Shangxian who specialises in the Shaolin Meihua Zhuang form of Chinese boxing; and Yi Long, a monk known for his martial arts prowess.在向徐晓冬发出挑战的人中,有太极大师路行和王占海。广东少林梅花桩拳大师李尚贤及著名武僧一龙也向徐晓东发出了“英雄帖”。Mr Lu, who is president of the Sichuan taichi pushing hands research institute, told the Chengdu Business News that he had invited Mr Xu to a public duel to “teach him a lesson”.四川太极推手研究会会长路行在接受《成都商报》采访时表示,自己已经向徐晓东发出挑战书,公开决斗,要“给他一个教训”。“He is deeply biased against the traditional martial arts and his words were insulting. I challenged him so he could have a fresh perspective of tai chi and the true traditional martial arts,” said Lu, who specialises in a form of tai chi known as tuishou, or pushing hands.“他对传统武术存在着深深的偏见,说了很多有辱传统武术的话。我之所以向他挑战,是希望他能对太极和中国传统武术有个全新的认识。”身为太极推手专家的路行如是说。Mr Lu said he was 80 percent sure of winning the fight as tai chi masters had “iron fist, air foot and iron back, which need more than 20 years of hard practice”.对于这场决斗,路行有八成的胜算。“太极大师有铁拳、无影脚和铁背,这些都需要20年以上的苦练。”Mr Xu’s form of martial arts was more about projecting an explosive force, he said.而徐晓东的功夫更多在于释放爆发力,路行说道。Mr Wang, the other tai chi master, also accepted Mr Xu’s challenge in a public statement.另一位太极大师王占海也公开接受了徐晓东的挑战。The Henan native who practises the Chen style of tai chi said it was not necessary to justify the martial art, but that he decided to fight Mr Xu in order to silence online dissenters.这位河南陈家沟太极拳大师说,太极无须正名,迎战徐晓冬是为了“别让朝生暮死的网络水军毁了华夏五千年涵养出的一片静气”。The Chen style of tai chi is characterised by a “silk-reeling” movement that alternates fast and slow motion and bursts of power.陈家沟太极拳以“缠丝功”为一大特色。“缠丝功”的动作快慢结合,时而蓄气,时而发力。Mr Yi, the fighter monk, wrote on Weibo that he, too, accepted Xu’s challenge. He would not stand for the MMA fighter insulting traditional Chinese martial arts and deceiving the public, he said.武僧一龙在微上表示,他也会接受徐晓冬的挑战。他说,综合格斗选手侮辱中国武术,欺骗大众,自己不能坐视不管。Xu is a trained kung fu free-combat sportsman who taught himself MMA fighting. In his duel with Mr Wei Lei, he pummelled the tai chi master to the ground within 10 seconds.徐晓冬是一名专业自由搏击运动员,自学综合格斗。在与魏雷的决斗中,他在十秒之内便将这位太极大师击倒在地。Mr Wei Lei is a practitioner of the Yang style of tai chi, characterised by its slow, steady movements.魏雷练习的是杨氏太极拳。动作柔和缓慢是杨氏太极拳的一大特点。Mr Xu said traditional Chinese martial arts were all about form but not practical. Tai chi could not be compared to real combat tactics, he said.徐晓冬称,中国传统武术皆为形式,毫无实用之处。太极根本无法与真正的搏击术相提并论。 /201705/507746。

  

  China#39;s famed ;bike wars; may soon be fought on foreign shores, as Bluegogo and Mobike compete with fellow cycle hire company ofo in the British market.随着Bluegogo、拜与自行车租赁同行企业ofo在英国市场展开竞争,我国声名远扬的“单车大战”或将很快在海外打响。Aly locked in a battle for market share across China, the bike-sharing startups now have London in their sights.此前将战场锁定在全国市场份额的这些共享单车初创企业如今又将目光转向了英国伦敦。Ofo is launching a pilot bike-hiring scheme in Cambridge in the UK this month.本月ofo将在英国剑桥推出自行车租赁试点计划。Mobike is reportedly interested in launching similar projects in Birmingham and Manchester.据报道,拜对在伯明翰和曼彻斯特推出类似项目颇感兴趣。The Sunday Times recently reported Bluegogo and Mobike were looking at London.据《星期日泰晤士报》近日报道,Bluegogo和拜正将目光投向首都伦敦。The capital#39;s transport authority, Transport for London (TfL), has expressed interest in the new technology.伦敦交通部门伦敦交通局已对这项新技术表现出了兴趣。TfL#39;s head of strategy and outcome planning, Lilli Matson, said: ;We are always keen to talk to companies to explore advancements in technology and discuss new ideas, and have spoken with a number of companies, to understand their plans.;伦敦交通局战略和成果规划部门负责人莉莉·马特森称:“他们一直渴望与探索科技进步的企业进行交流,探讨新的理念。目前他们已和部分企业进行洽谈,以便了解他们的计划。” /201704/503993BEIJING — If there is ever a time when one truly understands what it feels like to live alongside 1.4 billion people in the world’s most populous nation, it is the annual Golden Week holiday in China.北京——如果说真有那么一个时刻可以让你体会到,和世界人口第一大国的14亿人一起生活是什么感觉,那就是中国一年一度的黄金周了。The holiday always begins on Oct. 1, the celebration of the Communist founding of the People’s Republic in 1949. And this year, the crowds have gotten even more epic in scale, with hordes of travelers taking to the highways, the rails and the air. (Also, of course, to tourist camels in the Gobi, horses on the Tibetan Plateau and boats on the Yangtze River.)这个庆祝共产党1949年建国的假期一向从10月1日开始。今年,人群的规模更大,游客成群结队地涌向公路、铁路和空中。(当然,也有不少人涌向戈壁滩上用于搭载游客的骆驼、青藏高原上的马匹和长江上的游船。)People’s Daily, the Communist Party newspaper, said 589 million people were expected to travel this week — almost twice the population of the ed States.党报《人民日报》称本周预计会有5.89亿人出游,这几乎相当于美国人口的两倍。Though tourists may gripe about the crowds, they are a welcome sight for Communist Party leaders who say that China must move to a more consumer-driven economy. The country’s economic growth has been fueled for many years by infrastructure investment, which officials say is economically and environmentally unsustainable.尽管游客可能会抱怨人群拥挤,但对共产党领导人来说,这是一个他们乐见的迹象,他们认为中国必须转向更依赖消费驱动的经济。多年来,推动中国经济增长的一直是基础设施投资。官方称这种方式在经济和环境上不可持续。But “sustainable” means different things to different people. Photographs of miles-long traffic jams on highways and oceans of people at the country’s top attractions are circulating online this week.但“可持续”对不同的人来说含义不同。本周,网上流传着长达数英里的公路交通堵塞和中国著名景点人山人海的照片。On Tuesday, the official Twitter account of People’s Daily posted one such photo from the Forbidden City, in Beijing. It said the palace had sold 20,000 tickets within two hours on Sunday, or 166 tickets a minute.周二当天,《人民日报》的官方Twitter账号就发布了这样一张照片。照片的拍摄地是位于北京的故宫。该报称周日当天,故宫两小时内售出了两万张门票,相当于一分钟售出166张。The newspaper also pointed out the miseries of being on the road. Early Tuesday, it reported via Facebook (which, like Twitter, is blocked in China) that 500 people had become stuck on Mount Hua overnight after heavy winds forced a cable car to stop operating.《人民日报》还指出了在路上的痛苦。周二凌晨,该报通过Facebook(和Twitter一样,在中国属于被屏蔽状态)报道,在大风迫使一辆缆车停止运行后,500人在华山上被困一夜。One photograph online showed fog and mist enveloping the mountain, and others showed many elderly tourists and women and children gathered in a cave near the mountaintop cable car station. Mount Hua, or Huashan in Mandarin, is a sacred Taoist mountain in Shaanxi Province that is about 7,067 feet tall. The West Peak, where the cable car station is, has an altitude of 6,850 feet.网上的一张照片显示华山被云雾笼罩,其他一些照片上则是很多上了年纪的游客,以及女性和儿童聚集在山顶索道站附近的一个岩洞内的情景。华山是道教圣地,位于陕西省境内,高约7067英尺(约合2154米)。索道站所在的西峰海拔约6850英尺。China Central Television, the main state television network, reported on Monday that 14.4 million people traveled by train on Saturday, the first day of the holiday week, an increase of 15 percent over the same time last year. More than 500 additional trains were put into service, it said.主要官方电视台中央电视台周一报道,上周六——长假开始的第一天——有1440万人乘坐火车出行,比去年同期增加了15%。报道还称此次增开了逾500列火车。Air passengers that day numbered 960,000, a 6.4 percent increase over 2015.飞机乘客人数达到96万,比去年增加了6.4%。Driving was also popular because governments do not collect tolls on roads during this time, “which led to the inevitable gridlock on the country’s highways,” the television network said. The same report said traffic on a six-mile stretch of road in Shanghai ground to a halt.自驾也非常流行,因为政府在节日期间不收公路过路费,“这不可避免地导致公路上出现交通大堵塞”,中央电视台报道。其中还提到,在上海一段六英里长的道路上,交通陷入了停顿。Police officers were using drones to help monitor traffic conditions during the holiday, according to Xinhua, the state news agency. It ed the Ministry of Public Security as saying that 214,000 officers were on the roads on Saturday. There were 55,000 cases of speeding violations, 1,100 cases of drunken driving and 3,100 cases of the illegal use of emergency lanes, the report said.据官方通讯社新华社报道,十一期间警方使用无人机监控交通状况。报道援引了公安部的说法称,上周六有21.4万名警察在路上执勤。报道还称,当天有5.5万违规超速案件,1100起醉驾和3100起非法使用紧急通道的案件。A photograph in a slide show on the website of Xinhua showed cheek-by-jowl crowds beneath an outdoor archway at the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Nanjing.新华社网站上发布的一组幻灯片中,一张照片显示了南京中山陵一道牌坊下肩接踵的人群。Domestic tourism has been on the rise in China for years, with the Golden Week period generating more revenue for most tourism-related businesses than any other week of the year.多年来,中国境内游规模一直在增长,与旅游相关的大多数生意在黄金周期间产生的收入,比一年中的任何其他周都多。In 2015, Chinese tourists made four billion domestic trips, twice as many as in 2010, according to government data. That number is also much more than the 122 million trips they made abroad last year.官方数据显示,2015年中国境内游达40亿人次,是2010年的两倍。这个数字也远远多于去年的1.22亿人次境外游数量。Beijing has been quiet outside of the most popular tourist attractions like the Forbidden City, the Great Wall, the Temple of Heaven and the Summer Palace. On streets that are usually clogged on workdays, there are few cars. Many restaurants are closed.在故宫、长城、天坛和颐和园等热门景点之外的北京非常安静。工作日,街道上往往会出现交通拥堵,节日期间却少有车辆。许多餐馆也停止营业了。One resident, Mu Shuhua, said he was staying in town this week. Outside it, he said, “there are too many people traveling.”一位名为穆舒华(音)的市民表示,他这周一直待在城里。外面“太多游客了”,他说。 /201610/469773

  

  YANJIAO, China — Artists in need of cheap, affordable studio space are often drawn to out-of-the-way or hardscrabble neighborhoods. 中国燕郊——需要便宜、租得起的工作室的艺术家们通常会被吸引到偏僻或贫穷的地方。The visual artists who flocked to SoHo in Manhattan decades ago helped resurrect what had been a deteriorating factory and warehouse district.几十年前蜂拥来到曼哈顿SoHo区的视觉艺术家们帮助复兴了这个曾经日益衰落的工厂和仓库区。Young artists also helped revive parts of Brooklyn neighborhoods like Williamsburg and Bushwick, 年轻艺术家也帮助复兴了布鲁克林(Brooklyn)的部分地区,比如威廉斯堡(Williamsburg)和布什威克(Bushwick)。and a similar pattern has occurred in many other major cities, including Berlin, Paris and Detroit.类似的模式也出现在其他很多大城市,比如,柏林、巴黎和底特律。In China, a small and decidedly nondescript city called Yanjiao, about an hour’s drive from Beijing, has been experiencing a similar influx of artists, though it is highly unlikely that they will initiate the kind of renaissance that has tourists flocking to Williamsburg and SoHo.在中国,距北京1小时车程的毫不起眼的小城市燕郊也在经历类似的艺术家蜂拥而入的过程,虽然他们不大可能实现上述的那种复兴,吸引游客像蜂拥前往威廉斯堡和SoHo那样来到这里。That’s because the artists’ inexpensive studios in Yanjiao lack exposed brick walls or distressed wood beams. 那是因为,艺术家们在燕郊租住的廉价工作室没有暴露的砖墙和古旧木梁。Instead, they tend to feature concrete walls and cheap metal fittings, and they are generally in large, uninspired apartment blocks.相反,它们大多由混凝土墙和廉价的金属固件构成,通常位于庞大的、平淡无奇的住宅区。Yanjiao, with a population of about 300,000, was once known mostly as a sleeper city, whose residents commuted to jobs in Beijing. 燕郊大约有30万人,曾以睡城闻名,那里的居民通勤去北京上班。During the day, its wide, dusty streets are nearly empty, flanked by apartment buildings waiting for tenants to return from work.白天,尘土飞扬的宽阔街道上几乎空无一人,两侧的公寓楼等着住户们下班回家。The idealistic but impoverished artists here, many of them young graduates from Beijing’s elite art schools, work and live in these apartment blocks.贫穷的理想主义艺术家——很多是北京顶尖艺术学校的年轻毕业生——在这些住宅区工作和生活。Driven by high rents and the constant threat of demolition in Beijing, many artists who might previously have hunkered down in the city, China’s unofficial cultural capital, are flocking to Yanjiao as a low-cost spot from which to chase their dreams.很多艺术家可能曾经蜗居在中国的非官方文化之都北京,但那里高昂的房租和持续不断的拆迁威胁迫使他们蜂拥来到燕郊这个生活成本低廉的地方,继续追逐自己的梦想。The only reason for artists living in Yanjiao is that it’s cheap, one of them, Zhang Yongji, 27, said with a laugh.只是因为便宜,我们才住在燕郊,27岁的张永基笑着说。Like many young artists, Mr Zhang dreamed of making it big in Beijing. 和很多年轻艺术家一样,张也曾梦想在北京大展宏图。But after graduating from the prestigious Central Academy of Fine Arts there in 2012, he looked into renting a studio in the city and found he could not afford one. 但是,2012年,他从著名的中央美术学院毕业后,想在北京租一间工作室,却发现自己租不起。A friend of his was living in Yanjiao, and after visiting, he decided to move here.当时他的一个朋友住在燕郊,他去看望那位朋友后决定搬来这里。Eventually, he settled into an apartment complex called the South Side of Hawaii, one of the city’s many sprawling, 最后,他在一个名叫夏威夷南岸的小区住下来。colorfully named residential complexes designed in a faux European style. (Others include the North Side of Hawaii, Hawaii Valley and Sweet Seoul City.) 它是这座城市很多名字起得很炫的庞大仿欧式住宅区之一(其他的还有夏威夷北岸、夏威夷溪谷和首尔甜城等)。In 2013, he and a group of friends founded On Space, an apartment turned experimental art gallery.2013年,他和一群朋友成立了On Space工作室——一个用公寓改造而成的实验艺术画廊。In the last decade, urbanization and gentrification have accelerated in Beijing. 在过去十年里,北京的城市化和中产阶层化进程加快。These forces are pushing artists to think of alternative models for running art spaces, including, yes, spaces in Yanjiao, said Kira Simon-Kennedy, a co-founder and the director of China Residencies, a nonprofit arts organization.这些压力正推动艺术家们思考开设艺术空间的其他模式,是的,包括在燕郊设立工作室,非赢利艺术组织中国艺术交流(China Residencies)的联合创始人兼总监孟金兰(Kira Simon-Kennedy)说。Many of China’s most famous contemporary artists emerged from so-called artist villages on the urban fringes of Beijing, where rent was low and distractions from making art were few.中国很多最著名的当代艺术家都是从北京郊区所谓的艺术家村走出来的,那里租金便宜,而且几乎没有分散艺术创作注意力的东西。One of the best known of these enclaves is Caochangdi Village, which became an artists’ hub after Ai Weiwei built his studio there in 1999. 其中最出名的一个地方叫草场地,1999年艾未未在那里开设自己的工作室后,它成为一个艺术家聚集地。However, as Beijing’s city limits have expanded, many smaller artist villages have been torn down to make way for new development.但是,随着北京的城区范围不断扩大,很多小型艺术家村被拆除,让位于新的地产开发项目。Art is always pushed to the edge, said He Miao, a curator of contemporary art in Beijing. 艺术总被推到边边角角的地方,北京的当代艺术策展人禾苗说,In China, contemporary art cannot be made in cities. 中国的当代艺术不可能诞生于城市,Where the urban meets the rural, that’s where art happens.而是诞生于城乡结合部。Yanjiao initially attracted attention from the artistic community in 2006,2006年,中央美院在离夏威夷南岸不远的地方建了一个校区。 when the Central Academy of Fine Arts established a satellite campus not far from the South Side of Hawaii. 自此,燕郊开始引起艺术家群体的注意。Art supply, printing and framing shops quickly popped up to serve the students, teachers and artists who would be living and working nearby.很快,附近涌现出很多艺术创作用品店、印刷店和装裱店,为在这里生活和工作的学生、老师和艺术家务。The first artists found it lonely. 搬来这里的第一批艺术家当时觉得很孤单。When I first got here, my building was completely empty, and there were no lights at night, said Pange Yang, 26, 我刚到燕郊的时候,我的楼完全是空的,晚上的时候一片黑,26岁的潘戈阳说。who arrived in 2012. 他2012年搬来这里。I was the only person in the building.楼里面只有我一个人。But as word of mouth about Yanjiao sp, more artists began coming.但是,随着燕郊的口碑散播开来,越来越多的艺术家来到这里。 /201611/475339

  

  Most complaints made by Chinese consumers last year were about online shopping, a report from China#39;s top legislative body said on Monday.中国最高立法机关于周一在一份报告中称,去年中国消费者的投诉大都是关于网上购物。The number of complaints and disputes related to shopping on the Internet rose sharply and the network has become a breeding ground for counterfeits, the report by a law enforcement team under the Standing Committee of the National People#39;s Congress said.全国人民代表大会常务委员会执法检查组的一份报告称,与网上购物有关的投诉和争执的数量急剧增长,网络已经变成了滋生假冒产品的温床。In 2014, Chinese industrial and commercial authorities dealt with 78,000 complaints concerning online shopping, up 356.6 percent year-on-year.2014年,工商部处理了78,000件与网上购物相关的投诉,与去年同期相比增长了356.6%。Of the total of 20,135 cases taken on by consumer associations, 92.3 percent concerned online purchases, the report said. Yan Junqi, vice-chairwoman of the NPC Standing Committee, said: ;Ignoring consumers#39; rights and selling counterfeits are very prominent in the online shopping industry.;报告称,消费者协会总共受理案件20,135例,其中92.3%都是关于网上购物的。全国人大常委会副委员长严隽琪说:“网购产业中,无视消费者权利,出售假冒伪劣产品的现象十分严重。”She revealed that just 58.7 percent of products sold online were found to be authentic during a random inspection in 2014 by the State Administration of Industry and Commerce.她透露说,在2014年国家工商行政的一次随机抽样检查中,网上出售的产品中只有58.7%是真实可信的。With the boom in complaints, the number of disputes caused by online purchases also went up, she said.严隽琪说,随着投诉量剧增,由网购造成的争端也越来越多。Beijing Chaoyang District People#39;s Court has handled 107 such disputes since the revised Chinese Consumer Protection Law took effect on March 15 last year, she said. A typical example, from Anhui province#39;s financial website, described how a woman surnamed Xu paid a 2,000 yuan (6) deposit before she bought sanitary ware priced 1,000 yuan cheaper online than she could find elsewhere.严隽琪说,自去年3月15日修订后的《中华人民共和国消费者权益保护法》生效以来,北京市朝阳区人民法院已经处理了107起类似争端。安徽省的金融网站上有一个典型的例子:一位许姓女士在网上发现了一件卫生洁具,比别处卖得要便宜1000元,购买之前,她先付了2000元(316美元)订金。But when it was delivered, Xu found it was poor quality and she was told the deposit could not be repaid because it was a sale product.然而当货物送达时,许女士发现其质量极差,且许女士还被告知由于这件卫生洁具是特价商品,订金不予退还。Yan suggested that the Supreme People#39;s Court should clarify the revised law by the end of this year and appealed to consumer associations to play their role.严隽琪建议,年底之前,最高人民法院应阐明修订后的法律,并呼吁消费者协会发挥好其作用。Qiu Baochang, head of the lawyers#39; group for the China Consumers#39; Association, said: ;We are always overloaded with work since the revised law came into effect.中国消费者协会律师团团长邱宝昌说:“自修订后的法律生效以来,我们常常超负荷工作。”;We have asked officers to update their knowledge of the law and how the online industry works, including means of payment, to catch up with the pace at which e-commerce is developing.;“我们已经要求相关办事人员更新其关于法律以及网购产业运作方式的知识,其中包括对付方式的了解,以此来赶上电子商务发展的步伐。” /201511/407870

  HONG KONG — Sainty Marine Corporation started small, buying and selling a few ships in the 1980s. But the state-owned Chinese company went on a debt-fueled binge over the last few years, opening its own shipyards and signing orders worth hundreds of millions of dollars apiece.香港——舜天船舶股份有限公司一开始是家小公司,在1980年代曾经买卖过一些船只。但过去几年,这家中国国有企业依靠贷款大肆扩张,开了几间造船厂,还签下几个价值数亿美元的订单。Now, heavily indebted companies like Sainty Marine are at the center of the economic troubles in China that have unsettled currency, commodity and stock markets of late.现在,中国的经济问题引起了货币汇率、大宗商品和股市的波动,而像舜天这样负债累累的公司,则处在问题的核心。Sainty Marine just found itself in court, as one of China’s biggest banks asked to dismantle the company to recoup overdue loans. Government regulators are investigating the accuracy of the company’s financial reports, its bank accounts have recently been frozen and its shares have not traded on the Shenzhen stock market since August.舜天公司刚刚发现自己成了法庭上的被告,中国最大的一家要求法院判处这家公司破产,以便赔偿它所欠下的逾期贷款。政府监管者正在调查这家公司财务报告的真实性,其账户最近已被冻结,这家深圳上市公司的股票从去年八月开始停止交易。“It’s pretty dire,” said Matthew Flynn, a Hong Kong shipping consultant.“情况很糟,”香港船运业咨询人士马修·弗林(Matthew Flynn)说。Shipbuilding is part of a long list of Chinese industries, including steelmaking, coal mining and auto, that borrowed heavily from state-run banks to expand during the good years, helping to propel the country’s three decades of double-digit economic growth. But growth has now slipped to around 7 percent, and many companies are running low on cash.在经济行情好的时期,许多行业会从国有大量贷款以持扩张,造船业只是其一,其他还有钢铁制造、采矿和汽车制造等,它们助推中国经济在过去三十年保持了两位数增长。但中国经济增长率现在已经下滑至大约7%,很多企业开始出现资金匮乏的情况。It is adding to concerns about the direction of the Chinese economy, which has made global investors nervous and weighs on the price of oil. And troubled companies like Sainty Marine are clouding the outlook.这加重了外界对中国经济走向所持的各种担忧,全球投资者紧张不安,由此给石油价格带来很大压力。像舜天这样的企业让这一前景更加不明朗。For years, state-owned companies could regularly mark up their prices to help them pay their loans. As customers now pull back and deflationary pressures set in, companies are being forced to cut prices, while facing the same debt payments.多年来,国有企业一直能持续提高产品价格,助其偿还贷款。随着消费者收紧荷包,通缩压力显现,这些企业被迫降低产品价格,但它们背负的贷款并没有减少。The corporate crunch is clouding the government’s efforts to manage the economy. To keep growth from falling off a cliff, authorities are pushing a raft of stimulus measures, like building more high-speed rail lines and encouraging state-owned banks to keep lending.企业的困境给政府的经济管控雪上加霜。为避免经济增长速度出现剧烈下滑,中国当局正加紧实施一系列刺激措施,比如建造更多高铁线路,鼓励国有持续提供贷款。But ever more borrowing leaves China vulnerable, as company blowups add to the pressures. Last year, total debts of all sorts in China — household, corporate and government — increased by an amount equal to 12 percent of the entire country’s economy. Overall lending expanded in December at the fastest pace since June, figures released by the central bank on Friday show.但随着企业破产给中国带来更多压力,贷款持续增多只会让中国经济愈发脆弱。去年,中国各类债务——家庭、企业和政府债务——增长的总额,相当于中国经济总量的12%。中央周五发布的数据显示,总体贷款额度在去年12月大幅增长,增速达到去年6月以来的最高水平。Companies in industrial sectors, which accounted for the bulk of borrowing, are navigating a treacherous environment.借贷大部分贷款的工业企业,正在进入一个十分危险的环境。Low or falling prices mean that companies need to sharply increase their sales volume every year to have enough revenue to cover their debt payments. But increasing sales is hard in a slowing economy.产品价格低,或不断下降,意味着企业需要每年大幅增加销售额才能有足够的收入偿还贷款。但在经济增长放缓的时候,企业实现销售增长比较难。China is not the only country with falling producer prices. They are also down in the ed States from a year ago amid weak prices for oil and other commodities.中国不是唯一一个生产价格下降的国家。由于石油和其他大宗商品价格疲软,美国的生产价格也从一年前开始下降。What makes China unusual is that companies are coping with sharply rising labor costs. Blue-collar wages are up nearly 10 percent a year, as the work force ages and more young people prefer white-collar jobs. Overinvestment in many sectors is also resulting in too many factories and other businesses chasing the same limited sales.中国特别的地方在于,它还要应对劳动力成本急剧上升的问题。随着劳动力年龄增大,以及更多的年轻人倾向于找白领工作,蓝领工人的工资一年要增长将近10%。很多行业出现过度投资,也导致有太多工厂和其他企业在争夺有限的生意。“The combination of rising staff costs and lower prices is a real challenge,” said Sabine Bauer, a senior director for financial institutions in the Hong Kong office of Fitch Ratings.“劳动力成本上升,产品价格下降,这两项加在一起是个不小的挑战,”惠誉金融机构香港办公室高级董事鲍冰娜(Sabine Bauer)说。Shipbuilders like Sainty Marine illustrate the litany of problems.从舜天等造船企业的情况可以看出这些问题的严重程度。Up and down the Chinese coastline, in harbors and along coastal rivers, companies bought big plots of land, purchased cranes, and hired large numbers of welders. China expanded from one-fifth of global shipbuilding capacity in 2008 to two-fifths by last year.中国的海岸线沿岸各个港口和沿海诸河两岸,都有不少企业买下大块土地,购买起重机,聘用大量焊工进行建设。中国的造船产能在全球所占比例从2008年的五分之一,增长到去年的五分之二。Quality control was a problem from the start. “In China, building what are supposed to be two identical ships in two adjacent slips, you get two different vessels,” said Basil Karatzas, a Manhattan ship broker. “In Japan, they can build 10 ships and they are all the same.”质量控制从一开始就是个问题。“接连制造出来的两艘船原本应该一模一样,但在中国就是两艘不同的船,”曼哈顿船舶经纪人巴兹尔·卡拉察斯(Basil Karatzas)说。“在日本,他们连着造十船,也是一样的。”With many Chinese shipyards dogged by complaints, competition was fierce. Japanese and South Korean shipyards demanded 20 percent down payments for orders, plus a guarantee from an international bank to pay the rest of the cost if the buyer defaulted. Although Chinese shipyards demanded the same deposits, they did not require the guarantees, and accepted orders from what were effectively shell companies with weak finances.尽管不少中国造船厂都遭到很多这样的投诉,但这个行业竞争非常激烈。日本和韩国造船厂要求买家为订单付20%的定金,另外还要有一家国际为其担保,如果买家违约,将由负责付剩余款项。尽管中国造船上也要求同样买家预付同样比例的定金,但他们不要求国际担保,会接受那些财务状况并不稳固、实际上是空壳公司的企业所下的订单。That put Chinese shipyards at risk.这让中国造船厂处在非常危险的境地。If ship prices fell sharply, buyers could forfeit their deposits and not pay for the rest of the vessel, leaving the shipyard stuck with the project. As global demand for commodities withered in the last two years, ship prices dropped more than 20 percent — and in some cases, more.如果船只价格剧降,买家可以放弃定金,不再付剩余船只费用,让造船厂自己解决这个烂摊子。因为全球大宗商品需求在过去两年有所萎缩,船只价格下降了逾20%——有些情况下降幅要更大。For the 58,000-ton bulk freighters that Chinese shipyards were churning out, prices have plunged from nearly million in 2013 to just million now. Buyers who bought at the high end chose to forfeit their deposits instead of paying for finished vessels worth less.中国造船厂大量生产的5.8万吨散货船,价格已经从2013年的3000万美元降至现在的1600万美元。这种情况下,在价格比较高的时期下单的买家会放弃定金,而不是全款买下已经贬值的完工船只。Chinese shipyards are now littered with half-finished shells, like immense steel earthworms cut in two. Many shipyards lack the money to complete vessels and sell them at a discount that might allow them to recover some costs.在中国造船厂随处可见造了一半的船体,看起来就像被切成两半的钢铁蚯蚓。很多造船厂没有资金完成船只的建造,以便将其折价卖给别的卖家,那样或许还能让它们拿回一些成本。Even strong buyers are balking at completing deals. Sainty Marine has four finished vessels that were rejected by Precious Shipping of Bangkok. Precious Shipping backed away, in a dispute over the quality that has triggered an arbitration case in London.即便是实力比较强的买家也无法完成交易。舜天有四艘完工船只,都被曼谷的珍宝航运公司拒收。之前交付的一艘船也因质量争端被要求退回,在伦敦引发了一起仲裁案件。The Bank of China, one of the country’s biggest commercial banks, pushed Sainty Marine into court on Tuesday in the shipyard’s hometown Nanjing, in Jiangsu Province. The bank requested the appointment of a liquidator, as Sainty Marine is aly overdue on million in loans.周二,中国最大的商业之一中国将舜天公司告上法庭,地点是该造船公司创始地江苏省。中国要求对该公司进行清算,因为它的违约贷款已经达到8100万美元。A Sainty Marine official who gave only her family name, Ma, said that the court had held hearings this week, but added that she was not aware of any decisions. The bank and the court had no comment.舜天公司一位马姓高级职员表示,法院本周举行了几场听会,但她同时表示,据她所知法院尚未做出任何裁决。中国和法院都没有对此事置评。It is rare for state-owned banks to pursue debts so aggressively.国有如此积极地索偿债务,在中国非常少见。Authorities periodically send signals about shutting down such zombie companies. “Zombie enterprises are not new, but as the economy feels downward pressure, their seriousness and danger becomes evident,” People’s Daily, the Communist Party’s main newspaper, recently said..中国当局不时发出关闭此类的信号。“并非新生事物,随着经济下行压力加大,其严重性和危害性日益凸显,”中国主要的党报《人民日报》最近表示。But banks usually keep rolling over debts and lending more, particularly for state-owned companies like Sainty Marine, where the controlling shareholder is Jiangsu province. The government has been hesitant to completely shut down companies, over fears that large-scale layoffs might lead to protests.不过,往往继续让贷款展期并提供更多贷款,尤其是对舜天这样的国有企业。该公司控股股东是江苏省政府。对于完全关闭这些公司,政府一直很犹豫,因为担心大规模下岗可能会引发抗议活动。The shipbuilding industry, though, is in complete disarray, with dozens of Chinese companies lacking any orders. The government, which has halted export credits for the sector, seems determined to force some closings.然而,造船业正处于彻底的混乱之中,有几十家公司没有任何订单。政府下令停止给该行业提供出口信贷,似乎已经下定决心要强制关停一些企业。In other circumstances, a weaker currency might offer relief.若非如此,人民币贬值或许本可以让情况有所缓和。When the currency drops, it makes imported goods more expensive. That helps stave off deflationary pressures that hurt companies’ ability to raise prices. It also makes labor costs look lower in dollar terms, which in turn can help attract overseas investment.人民币汇率下降,会使进口商品价格上涨。这有助于减轻会损害企业提高产品价格能力的通缩压力。它也使中国劳动力价格在换算成美元后显得比较低,有助于吸引海外投资。Those dynamics are a big reason the Chinese government has been letting the renminbi fall.这些因素是中国政府近期一直在让人民币贬值的一个重要原因。But the currency is also challenging.但货币问题也颇具挑战性。A weaker renminbi could further dampen Chinese demand for imported commodities, which are typically priced in dollars. As Chinese appetite wanes, freight stagnates and shipping companies have even less need for new vessels.人民币走低可能会进一步遏制中国对通常以美元定价的进口商品的需求。随着中国需求的减少,货运业停滞不前,船运公司对新船只的需求会变得更少。It’s a disastrous situation for Sainty Marine. “Even for what’s in the order books,” said Mr. Flynn, the shipping consultant, “people don’t want to take delivery of the vessels.”对舜天这样的企业而言,这种状况是灾难性的。“即便是已经签下订单,”船运业咨询人士弗林说,“买家现在也不想收货。” /201601/423722

  It is unfortunate that Chinese wine drinkers seem to be deserting the produce of their own vineyards for imported alternatives. In my experience, the quality of the best Chinese wine has recently turned a corner — in the right direction.不幸的是,中国的葡萄酒消费者似乎正抛弃国产葡萄酒,转向进口酒。根据我的经验,中国最佳葡萄酒的质量最近出现了变化——向着好的方向变化。For years, it looked as though Chinese producers put more effort into the packaging than the liquid. After all, until fairly recently the great majority of Chinese consumers had no experience of what wine should taste like. So the many fraudsters, the sort who labelled questionable concoctions as “chateau Lafeet” or “Bordeaux Port”, could get away with murder.在多年期间,中国葡萄酒酿造商好像把更多的努力放在包装上,而非葡萄酒本身。毕竟,直到不久以前,绝大多数中国消费者没有品尝过真正的葡萄酒,不知道它们应该是什么滋味。因此,很多骗子在品质可疑的酒的瓶子上贴上“Chateau Lateet”或“Bordeaux Port”之类的山寨标签,竟然也能蒙混过关。The rampant fakery of old, as well as food safety scandals, presumably played a part in encouraging the country’s wine consumers to see imported wine as a more reliable product. It also tends to be priced much more sensibly. China’s wine producers are apparently still influenced by old gifting habits, with too many overpriced bottles aimed at providing a patriotic official with a domestically produced status symbol rather than a good-value drink.肆无忌惮地假冒陈年佳酿,以及多起食品安全丑闻,想必在一定程度上促使中国的葡萄酒消费者把进口葡萄酒视为更可靠的商品。进口酒的定价也往往理智得多。中国的葡萄酒酿造商显然仍受到过去送礼风气的影响,太多定价过高的葡萄酒旨在为“爱国”官员提供一种国产的身份象征,而非一款物有所值的饮品。The great majority of the imported wine is fairly ordinary stuff. France in general and Bordeaux in particular used to be the model for all wine to aspire to in China, but imports from Chile and Australia have surged in the past year or two, thanks to friendly trade agreements. Spain, too, offloads vast quantities of incredibly cheap wine to China.绝大部分进口葡萄酒的品质都相当普通。法国,尤其是波尔多地区,曾经是所有葡萄酒希望在中国效仿的模板,但过去一两年,在友好的贸易协定推动下,来自智利和澳大利亚的进口葡萄酒飙升。西班牙也向中国出口了大量葡萄酒,价格低廉得令人难以置信。Meanwhile, at the top end of the market, Chinese consumers used to be seen as ignorant stooges by the many exporters who cast China as their potential saviour in a sluggish European wine market. But they are becoming increasingly sophisticated and knowledgeable. The global leader in wine education, the London-based Wine amp; Spirit Education Trust, has almost as many Chinese students as British — and the University of Bordeaux is teeming with them.与此同时,在市场高端,中国消费者曾经被很多出口商视为不识货的小卒(这些出口商现在把中国列为低迷的欧洲葡萄酒市场潜在的救星)。但他们正变得愈发精明和学。葡萄酒教育领域的全球领导者、总部位于伦敦的Wine amp; Spirit Education Trust的中国学生与英国学生几乎一样多,而波尔多大学(Université de Bordeaux)也有大批中国留学生。Chinese producers are nothing if not determined and efficient. Last year, the country’s total vineyard area overtook France’s to become the second biggest in the world, after Spain’s. Often with local government help, producers have invested heavily in new vineyards and built wine “chateaux” more fantastic, quite literally, than any in the Loire or Hollywood, all aimed squarely at Chinese wine tourists.中国葡萄酒酿造商的特点是坚定和高效率。去年,中国葡萄园总面积超过法国,位居世界第二,仅次于西班牙。葡萄酒酿造商往往获得地方政府的帮助,他们大举投资于新的葡萄酒园,还建造了“酒庄”,比卢瓦尔河谷或好莱坞的任何酒庄都更加风景如画,吸引着中国的葡萄酒游客。If wine imports continue their dramatic growth, then Chinese exports will have to increase considerably. So far they have been modest, but UK consumers have apparently shown more interest than expected in such Chinese bottles as have so far been presented to the customers of Sainsbury’s supermarket and the off-licence chain Wine Rack.如果葡萄酒进口的戏剧性增长趋势延续下去,那么中国的葡萄酒出口将不得不显著增长。迄今为止,中国的葡萄酒出口增速温和,但英国消费者显然对中国葡萄酒显示出了超出预期的兴趣,中国葡萄酒已在英国塞恩斯伯里超市(Sainsbury’s)以及连锁酒类商店Wine Rack上架。There is one potential handicap, however. The countries that have had the most success in establishing export markets in the modern era have had a USP. New Zealand has carved a niche for the world’s most valuable per-bottle prices by offering uniquely, refreshingly fruity Sauvignon Blanc. Australia saw massive success with its friendly Chardonnay and rich Shiraz. Argentina has blitzed North America with its bold Malbec.不过,还存在一个潜在的阻碍。那些在现代开拓出口市场最成功的的国家都有一个独特卖点。新西兰通过提供独特的果香沁人心脾的长相思(Sauvignon Blanc)白葡萄酒,打造出了世界单瓶价格最贵的葡萄酒细分市场。澳大利亚受人喜爱的霞多丽(Chardonnay)和气味馥郁的西拉(Shiraz)获得了巨大成功。阿根廷大胆的马尔贝克葡萄酒(Malbec)在北美市场风靡一时。But Chinese vineyards are dominated by the red Cabernet and Merlot grapes that grow in abundance all over the wine world — not least in Bordeaux, which produces massive quantities of inexpensive examples every year, typically made by co-ops that do not have the debt that recent investors may be saddled with.但中国的葡萄园主要种植红色赤霞珠(Cabernet)和梅洛(Merlot)葡萄,这些葡萄在所有葡萄酒产地大量种植,特别是波尔多地区,每年生产大量不贵的葡萄,一般由合作社生产,它们没有近期投资者可能背负的债务。The reaction of many Chinese producers to market trends has been to acquire foreign vineyards and wineries. Chinese investment in Australian wine production, in particular, has recently gathered pace, and current estimates are that almost 200 (relatively minor) Bordeaux chateaux are in Chinese hands.很多中国葡萄酒酿造商对市场趋势的反应是收购外国葡萄园和酒庄。特别是,中国在澳大利亚葡萄酒酿造领域的投资最近加速,同时据目前估计,近200个(规模相对较小)波尔多酒庄由中国投资者所有。Chinese buyers were out in force once more at the primeurs tastings in Bordeaux at the beginning of this month. One thing seems sure: Chinese influence in the world of wine will only increase.4月初,中国买家再次在波尔多期酒品鉴会上大举出动。有一点似乎是肯定的:中国在葡萄酒世界的影响力只会上升。 /201705/507698

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