遵义/绥阳县切埋线双眼皮多少钱同城分类
时间:2017年10月18日 02:54:34

The EU’s top environmental official alerted his colleagues that motor manufacturers were gaming European emissions tests more than two years before US authorities uncovered widesp cheating by Volkswagen, according to internal European Commission documents obtained by the Financial Times.据英国《金融时报》得到的欧盟委员会(European Commission)内部文件,欧盟最高环境官员早就曾提醒他的同僚,汽车制造商们在操纵欧洲尾气排放检测,他发出这番警告的时间比美国监管机构发现大众汽车(Volkswagen)存在普遍作弊行为早了两年多。Despite the warning sounded by Janez Potocnik, the then EU environment commissioner, Brussels did not take swift action to crack down on the practice but instead left in place an earlier plan that allowed the emissions loopholes exploited by Volkswagen to remain through to 2017.尽管时任欧盟环境专员的乔纳兹珀多尼克(Janez Potocnik)发出了警告,但欧盟并没有迅速采取措施打击汽车制造商的这种做法,而是继续实施一项到2017年截止的计划,该计划使大众得以利用排放检测的漏洞。Volkswagen has now suspended about 10 senior executives as part of its inquiry into the crippling emissions scandal that has rocked Europe’s biggest carmaker. VW last month admitted, in response to the US investigation, to using an illegal piece of software in its diesel engines to cheat in tests for dangerous nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions.在对排放造假丑闻进行调查的过程中,大众已暂停了大约10名高管的职务。丑闻已使这家欧洲最大汽车制造商元气大伤。作为对美国方面的调查的回应,大众上月承认在柴油发动机中使用了非法软件,在氮氧化物(NOx)排放检测中作弊。In a letter to Antonio Tajani, the European commissioner in charge of industrial policy, written in February 2013, Mr Potocnik said ministers from several EU countries believed the “significant discrepancy” between how cars performed in the real world compared with in the testing laboratory was the “primary reason” air quality standards were not falling to levels required by EU law.在2013年2月写给负责工业政策的欧盟专员安东尼奥吠贾尼(Antonio Tajani)的一封信中,珀多尼克表示,几个欧盟国家的部长们认为,汽车在实际上路驾驶中的表现与在检测实验室中的表现存在“巨大差异”,是空气质量标准没有降至欧盟法律规定水平的“主要原因”。“There are widesp concerns that performance [of cars] has been tailored tightly to compliance with the test cycle in disregard of the dramatic increase in emissions outside that narrow scope,” Mr Potocnik wrote. Cars are required to comply with EU emissions limits “in normal driving conditions”, he wrote.珀多尼克写道:“人们普遍担心,(汽车的)表现严格遵照检测周期进行调整,而不顾在这一狭窄周期以外排放量的大幅增加。”他写道,汽车在“正常驾驶状况”下应遵守欧盟排放限制。He urged Mr Tajani to quickly propose new measures to strike back at carmakers, such as withdrawing emissions approvals for entire model lines and requiring “remedial action” from manufacturers.他敦促塔贾尼迅速提出新的措施打击汽车制造商,例如取消全部汽车型号的排放许可,要求制造商采取“补救措施”。People involved in the talks said concerns at the time centred on legal techniques used by manufacturers to improve their results, rather than on the possibility carmakers might be breaking a 2007 EU law using software, known as “defeat devices”, that VW has admitted using.参与讨论的人士表示,当时主要担忧的是汽车制造商利用合法技术改善排放结果,而非汽车制造商可能利用被称为“欺诈装置”的软件,触犯欧盟2007年出台的一项法律。大众汽车承认利用了这种欺诈软件。At the centre of the internal commission wrangling was the discrepancy between NOx emissions recorded in laboratory tests conducted by regulatory authorities and the much higher levels detected during road tests.欧盟委员会内部争议的核心是监管部门的实验室检测中所记录的氮氧化物排放水平与实际道路检测出的排放水平存在差异,后者要高得多。The discrepancies were highlighted as early as 2011 by the commission’s joint research centre . Those same irregularities, when uncovered by US investigators earlier this year, led the US Environmental Protection Agency to confront VW directly, leading to the admission it had been cheating.欧盟委员会的合作研究中心早在2011年就强调了这一差异。今年早些时候,美国调查人员发现了这些不法行为,致使美国环保署(Environmental Protection Agency)与大众汽车正面对抗,促使大众汽车承认存在欺诈行为。 /201510/406155

The Earliest and Longest Man一made Canal一Jinghang Canal京杭大运河Jinghang Canal is called canal for short. It is known as the greatest chi-na ancient project with the Great Wall. Since being founded in 5th ten-tury,the canal has had two large-scale expeditions within Sui and Yuan two dynas-ties. Having the length of 1794 kilometers,15 times longer than Suez Canal and 32 times Panama Canal,Jinghang Canal is the main sea line combining the north and the south in our country.京杭大运河简称运河,与万里长城并列为中国古代最伟大的工程之一。始建于公元前5世纪,后经隋、元两次大规模扩建。全长1794千米,是苏伊士运河的16倍,巴拿马运河的33倍,是中国重要的一条南北水上干线。The canal begins from Beijing and ends in Hang Zhou crossing Tianjing,He-bei,Shangdong,Jiangshu and Zhejiang,linking not only Haihe River,the Yellow River but also Huaihe River and Yangtze River. So it is the second prime channel only following Yangtze River in China.它北起北京,南至杭州,经过北京、天津、河北、山东、江苏、浙江六省市,沟通了海河、黄河、淮河、长江、钱塘江五大水系,是中国仅次于长江的第二条“黄金水道”。Though the canal cannot be wholly open to navigation currently,its seasonal navigation length has reached 1100 kilometers,mainly distributed in the south of Huanghe River. It reduces the burden of railway goods transportation,especially for the short and middle distance transportation of coal and building material,mak-certain difference in promoting the district economic and enforcing the north-communication. The canal continues to play an important role in ocean ship-目前,大运河虽不能全程通航,但季节性通航里程已达1100千米,主要分布在黄河以南的山东、江苏和浙江三省。对分担铁路的货流,特别是承担煤炭、建材等的中短途运输任务,对发展地区经济,加强南北交流,起到了一定的作用。今天,大运河将继续发挥其重要的作用。The whole course of the Great Canal covers seven sections:the one from the city zone of Beijing to Tongxian County is called the Tonghui River, from Tonpxian County to Tianjin called the North Canal,from Tianjin to Linqing called the South Ca-nal,from Linqing to Tairzhuang called the Lu Canal,from Tairzhuang to Huaiyin called the Central Canal,from Huaiyin to Yangzhou called the Inner Canal,and across the Yangtze River the one from Zhenjiang to Hangzhou called the Jiangnan Canal.京杭大运河是由人工河道和部分河流、湖泊共同组成的,全程可分为七段:(1)通惠河:北京市区至通县(今北京通州区);(2)北运河:通县至人津市;(3)南运河:天津至临清;(4)鲁运河:临清至台儿庄;(5)中运河:台儿庄至清江;(6)里运河:清江至扬州,人长江;(7)江南运河:镇江至杭州。 /201512/410685


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