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2018年04月22日 14:47:32 | 作者:百度云飞华 | 来源:新华社
Health care in Vietnam越南卫生保健Limping along一路跛行Ordinary folk are sick and tired of their public hospitals老百姓厌烦了公立医院Full to overflowing完全超载WAS the tumour malignant? Nguyen Thi Hoats doctors could not tell because their public hospital lacks brain-scanners. Ms Hoats only option was to travel 130km (80 miles), on the back of her sisters motorbike, from her village to a crowded public hospital in the capital. Yet her state insurance policy covers just 30% of any medical expenses incurred outside her home province. The 0 that Ms Hoat, a rice farmer, put towards blood tests and a brain scan is equal, for her, to a months earnings.该肿瘤是恶性的吗?阮霍特的医生们无法确认,他们所属的公立医院缺乏相应的脑部扫描仪。霍特毫无选择,只能坐在的托后座上从她所在的村庄驱车130km前往首都人满为患的公立医院治疗。然而如果不在她的家乡治疗,国家保险政策就只能报销所有医疗消费的30%。霍特是一个米农,用在验血和脑部检查上的150美元等同于她一个月的收入。It is the job of the authorities to look after health care. The Communist Party of Vietnam first pledged health-sector reform as early as the 1920s, well before it declared the country independent in 1945. It developed a publicly financed healthcare system even as it was fighting wars against France and then America. The provision of health care is supposed to be one of the pillars on which the partys legitimacy is based.提供医疗保险是政府的分内事。早在1945年宣布国家独立之前,在二十世纪二十年代,越南共产党就承诺了卫生部门改革。甚至在先后与法国和美国交战时,越南开发出了公共财政持的医保体系。关于医保的规定应为共产党正统性的基石之一。Yet the health-care system, like the state-dominated economy, is limping. The 3% of GDP the state spends on the system (nearly half of total health spending) is not enough to improve health infrastructure. Hospitals have outdated facilities and maddeningly opaque bureaucracies. A law on health insurance passed in 2008, created to assist the poor and ethnic minorities, is far from comprehensive. But the government knows that providing proper health care is key to preventing the kind of social unrest that undermines its authority.但是医保体系如同越南的国家主导经济一样举步维艰。国家将GDP的3% 用在医保体系上,但不足以改善健康困境。医院的设备过时,其官僚作风也令人发指。2008年旨在扶持穷人和少数民族所通过的医保法案就太过复杂。然而政府明白,保障社保是预防威胁其统治的社会不安定因素的关键。Some reform is under way. The government has given some hospitals more autonomy. And in June the national assembly passed a new version of the insurance law designed to make participation compulsory. The idea is to lure into the fold poorer and black-market workers who have long avoided paying insurance.一些改革正在进行中。政府给了一些医院更多的自主权。并且在6月是,国家共同通过了保险法的新版本,强制民众参加医保法案。旨在诱导长期不付保金的贫困户和黑市工人参保。Yet distrust of the system runs deep. Some public hospitals have built flashy new wings which cater to well-heeled patients but do little to meet general demand. Bed-sharing is common, especially in urban wards flooded by patients from the countryside.然而人们对该体系积怨已深。一些公立医院为迎合富有的病人设立了崭新的设备,这些设备却很少能去满足多数人的需求。尤其是在涌满乡村而来的病人的城市病房内,共用一张病床十分普遍。Though this is an authoritarian state, ordinary Vietnamese are remarkably outspoken about social issues. In health, they complain of the prevalence of “out of pocket” payments, which happen in around half of health-care transactions. Many of the payments are really bribes paid on top of formal hospital fees. They mean that affordability is often a larger factor than need, for all but the richest patients. In a typical case, a university lecturer in Hanoi says she slipped doctors and nurses about 0 to ensure attentive treatment when she gave birth at a public maternity hospital. The rate, she says, was per injection, for a bath and to sidestep a queue.尽管越南是专制国家,越南人仍对社会话题直言不讳。在健康方面,他们抱怨在当今风气下,医疗交易上半数的费用都用于“塞红包”。许多费用事实上用在了正规医药费之外。对他们而言,除了那些最有钱的病人,普通病人的付能力比病人的需求更为重要,。举一典例,河内大学的讲师表示,当她在公立妇女医院生产时曾为能得到悉心照料,塞给了医生护士们约250美元。她说,按比例细算,注射1美元,洗澡2美元,免排队5美元。The health minister, Nguyen Thi Kim Tien, has faced blistering criticism this year after a parade of health scandals, including a measles outbreak that killed more than 100 children. Online, thousands have called for her resignation. A popular television satire advises sick patients to avoid corrupt doctors by curing themselves. The fault is not all the ministers—or the doctors; they have long earned as little as 0 a month, for instance.今年,卫生部长阮氏金因一系列健康方面的丑闻而受到强烈谴责,其中包括一场致死100个孩子的麻疹爆发。数千人在网上要求其辞职。一档知名的电视节目讽刺地建议人们可以通过自救以远离受贿的医生们。责任也并非全在官员们和医生们身上;通常来说,他们每月也只能拿到仅仅100美元。In order to get by, doctors moonlight at private hospitals and clinics that are popping up in cities, led by Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, to serve foreigners and affluent Vietnamese, people who would otherwise opt for treatment in Singapore or Hong Kong. One such institution is Vinmec International Hospital, a 600-bed facility financed by Vingroup, a property developer. Its director, Nguyen Thanh Liem, says private hospitals help to minimise overcrowding elsewhere. And they showcase an international standard of care that may one day sp to the public sector.为了谋生,潜伏在私立医院和诊所中的医生来到了各个城市中给外国人和富裕的本国人治病,首选是河内和胡志明市,病人们若不在此,则会选择在新加坡或在香港就诊。越南国际医院就是这样一个机构,房地产开发商潘日旺赞助了600个床位。医院主管表示私立医院缓解了其他医院的拥挤。他们展现了国际保健的水准,并可能在某一天推广到公共医疗部门。That is cold comfort for Nguyen Thi Hoat, the rice farmer with a brain tumour. She says if her tumour proves cancerous, she will need to borrow from her brother and sister for surgery in Hanoi. Her family is worried. Yet poorer neighbours, she says, have fewer options. She considers herself lucky.这并不能慰藉阮霍特,这个长了脑瘤的米农。她说如果他的肿瘤是癌的话,就得从住在河内的哥哥那儿借钱治病了。她的家庭陷入了焦虑。她还说,更贫穷的邻居们选择更少。她觉得自己算是幸运的。 /201409/332533The current negotiations over the contracts are continuing pretty much out of the spotlight. Theres a delicate balance that both sides are trying to pull off.Detroit News business columnist Daniel Howes shared the ;wants; and ;needs; of both sides in these contract talks with us.He penned a column today in the News about the talks.First, the automakers ;wants,; according to Howes:;They want to keep their costs down, and remain competitive with the foreign competitors operating in the ed States,; Howes says. ;And theyre going to be dragging their feet a little bit on base wage increases, and sweetening to health care, because health care is consuming, yet again, a big chunk of cash for them and they want to get their arms around it.;And the ;wants; for the UAW, according to Howes:;Start with base wage increases, I think, for both the so-called legacy workers and also for the second-tier workers who started getting hired after the 2007 agreement … More for the second-tier, I think, they want to get a little bigger chunk for them and maybe a little less for the legacy guys, but I dont think you get this deal ratified without base wage increases,; he says.Howes also says the UAW also wants to address where plants are moving and where products are made in these deals.He says these talks are ;very delicate; in nature for new UAW president, Dennis Williams.;Theyre on the other side of what has been a real roaring back of Detroit financially, and from a product perspective,; says Howes. ;And I think the union is in a difficult position for a few reasons. One is, yes, theres no question these companies have made a lot of money. How can they can extract and reach a deal that enables these companies to continue to make money, but also rewards the workers in a way that makes sense?;Howes says its unusual for the talks to be so ;under the radar; this close to the end of negotiating time. Usually stories leak out about the talks. He says the fact that theres been so little attention on the talks reflects how Dennis Williams works.201508/394403Stray dogs in Chile智利的流浪犬Spray as you go想去哪就去哪The state orders a sterilisation of stray mutts国家下令给流浪犬们杀菌IT IS one of the first things that visitors to Santiago, the Chilean capital, ask: “Why are there so many dogs everywhere?” Patricia Cocas, founder of ProAnimal Chile, an animal-rights group, reckons that some 180,000 stray hounds wander the city of six million people; a further 80,000 are let out by their owners to roam as they please. The area around the presidential palace is a favoured hangout. Most mutts are harmless enough—Chile is free of rabies, which helps explain why they are tolerated. But some attack passers-by or chase cars down Santiagos main thoroughfare, the Alameda, occasionally ripping tyres with their teeth.游客们去智利首都圣地亚哥旅行时,最初会打听的问题之一是:“为什么这儿到处都是呢?”智利的动物权利小组专业动物组织发起人Patricia Cocas估计大约十八万只流浪犬逡巡于六百万城市人口之间;有超过八万只流浪犬被它们的主人遗弃,任它们流浪。总统府附近地区就是他们最喜欢闲逛的位子。大部分流浪对人无害—智利没有狂犬病。这也就是流浪犬被容忍的原因。但是一些流浪犬攻击行人或者在圣地亚哥的主干道——林荫大道上追逐车辆,它们有时会用牙齿撕咬轮胎。The government is now taking action. In her state-of-the-union speech last month, President Michelle Bachelet announced a national sterilisation programme for stray dogs (the details are still to be fleshed out). A bill on responsible pet ownership is due to come before Congress this month. It envisages tougher penalties for those who abuse or abandon their pets, and the establishment of a register of dangerous dogs.政府现在正在采取措施应对。在上个月总统米歇尔?巴切莱特的国情咨文演说中声明了一项针对流浪的国家除菌项目(细节还在补充当中)。这个月一份针对宠物所有权的法案将被交付国会。它预期针对那些虐待或遗弃宠物的人实施更重的惩罚,并且建立一家危险流浪管理处。Ms Bachelet is trying to make the pooches political, weaving them into a broader narrative about inequality. Chiles cities need affordable veterinary centres where pets can be vaccinated and sterilised, she said in her speech. “In our country wealthy people can do that, but people without money have no way of caring for their pets.” But she insists there will be no cull of strays. For now, the mongrels on the lawns outside the palace where she works can sleep in peace.巴切莱特正试图将处理流浪问题正式化,将它们同一个更宽泛意义上的不平等陈述结合到遗弃。她在演说中说智利的各个城市需要建立可付得起的收益中心,在那儿宠物们可以接种疫苗以及除菌。“我们国家富人们可以实施那项行动但是穷人们就无法照看他们的宠物。”但是她坚持否定屠杀流浪。至少现在,总统府外,她散步的草坪上的流浪们能安闲地睡觉。译者:彭威译文属译生译世 /201601/420224Last Thursday, there were huge headlines that Dan Gilbert, the billionaire who has bought much of Detroit, wants to invest a billion dollars to build a major league soccer stadium and complex in the citys downtown.This was largely greeted with sort of the breathless excitement youd expect when your team finally wins the World Series. There was a little mention of the fact that the land on which Gilbert wants to build his 25,000 seat stadium not only doesnt belong to him, but in fact is part of Wayne Countys criminal justice complex.Whats there now is the county courthouse, the Frank Murphy Hall of Justice, a modern juvenile detention facility, and the famous unfinished jail, which sits open to the elements. Construction was halted three years ago because of cost overruns during the famously incompetent Ficano regime.Wayne County Executive Warren Evans, who beat Bob Ficano and others in a landslide less than two years ago, has determined that the most sensible, economical and practical solution was to just finish the jail, and the county intends to seek bids this fall.However, now the Quicken Loans and Rock Financial czar wants the land. Theres a sort of assumption in Detroit these days that, as one woman I know put it, ;whatever Dan Gilbert wants, Dan Gilbert gets.; That seemed to color much of the media coverage.But Evans doesnt feel that way—and after talking with him for an hour, I came to see why. Evans has earned credibility. When he took office in January 2015, the county had huge budget deficits and health care liabilities.There was talk of bankruptcy and emergency management. But Evans, a savvy lawyer in his own right, instead worked out a consent agreement with the state, and went to work on the financials. Evans learned his way around budgets as both Detroit police chief and Wayne County sheriff, and he knew the experts he should be consulting.Today, the deficits are entirely gone, and health care is on a better footing. But criminal justice and finances are still important. When it comes to where to put the stadium and the jail, Warren Evans says, ;I dont have a dog in this fight; as far as location is concerned.But he notes that the area has been a criminal justice site for a century, and that it makes sense to have criminal justice facilities centrally located and easily accessible.And he does have one bias. He told me ;(Gilberts) project cant cost Wayne County taxpayers any more than continuing,; as they are now, and there can be no further delays.Indications are that the county commissioners are with Evans on this. The only way he said hed consider selling to Gilbert is if somehow the mortgage tycoon could pay for them to build a new jail, courthouse and state of the art juvenile facility elsewhere, and have it y first. ;Clearly that has got to cost more than us finishing this project. So whatever the difference is, thats what they have to guarantee.;You never know how negotiations may go. But Detroit is a city with vast vacant spaces, and destroying a criminal justice complex that works where it is may not make a lot of sense.Jack Lessenberry is Michigan Radios political analyst. Views expressed in his essays are his own and do not necessarily reflect those of Michigan Radio, its management or the station licensee, The University of Michigan.201605/440779

Nuts, botanically speaking, are made up of both the seed itself and a hard outer layer that is the fruit, which does not split open when ripe.从植物学角度上讲,坚果是由坚硬果皮和内含种子组成的果实。成熟时外壳也不会开裂。Some examples of true nuts are acorns, hazelnuts and chestnuts.比如橡果,榛子和栗子等就是这样的坚果。Walnuts, pecans and almonds, in contrast, are edible seeds from a bigger fruit.相比之下,核桃、胡桃和杏仁则是种子可以食用更大一点的水果。Most of the inedible fruit is removed at harvest so when you buy walnuts and almonds in the shell, youre buying the seeds enclosed in woody endocarp, which is the remaining layer of the fruit wall.大多数不宜食用的水果会在收获时被剔除,因此当你购买到带壳的核桃和杏仁,你实际上买的是仍然在果皮层,封装在木质、坚硬内果皮里面的种子。Brazil nuts are also seeds.同样巴西坚果也是种子。They come from a capsule like fruit, in which several of the triangular seeds grow inside, arranged like the segments of an orange.巴西坚果有类似水果的荚,内部是三角形形状的种子,就像橙子瓣一样排列。Peanuts are the seeds of a legume, or member of the bean family.花生是豆类的种子,或者豆家族的成员。Pistachios, cashews, macadamias and pine nuts are all seeds rather than nuts.开心果、腰果、夏威夷果、松子都是种子,而非坚果。 201411/343414

Metropolitan Detroit is getting a brand new baseball league.The ed Shore Professional Baseball League is preparing for its inaugural season in the summer of 2016, and a big part of that is a new baseball stadium now under construction in Utica.Andy Appleby is the founder of the USPBL.;Minor league baseball has actually been a real national phenomenon for many many years, but for whatever reason, we in Metro Detroit have never had minor league baseball,; says Appleby.Appleby sees minor league baseball as a great avenue for family entertainment, focusing less on wins and losses, and more on the fun of the experience.;... we believed in it enough ... to put our own money behind it.;Theyve aly broken ground on their new field in Utica, and Appleby says that as long as winter construction goes as planned, the USPBL will be starting three teams on Jimmy Johns Field in June 2016.Appleby tells us the stadium will include 2,000 grandstand seats, another 2,000 seats in what theyre calling ;corporate picnic areas,; as well as 22 suites.;It has kind of all of the modern amenities of major league sports, but maybe at a minor league price,; he says.He also says that the field and the league is almost entirely privately funded.;About 98% of the ballparks in America are publicly funded, but in Metro Detroit we had a little bit of a deficit position in the sense that people didnt know how great minor league baseball was,; Appleby says.He tells us that the organization is also sensitive to the fact that the communities theyre talking to and working with arent exactly flush with cash.;So we believed in it enough … to put our own money behind it,; he say.The USPBL is holding a contest that will determine their teams names, and is accepting submissions until July 24, 2015.You can submit your team name idea and keep track of developments in the ed Shore Professional Baseball League on their website.201507/387441

Google and the EU谷歌向欧盟低头On being forgotten公民可以要求Google将你“被遗忘”The right to be forgotten sounds attractive. But it creates more problems than it solves.这个可以申请被谷歌“遗忘”的权利现如今看来十分具有吸引力。但是这却使得其解决的问题难以覆盖更多的新问题。MAX MOSLEY enjoyed sexual practices which many might find odd. But that was his business, so when in 2008 a now-defunct British tabloid wrongly dubbed him a participant in a “sick Nazi orgy”, he sued it for breaching his privacy and won. The allegations, however, remain on the internet. If you type in “Max Mosley”, Google helpfully tries to complete the search: the first four options are “”, “case”, “pictures” and “scandal”. He—and many others who feel their lives are tainted by the smears and irrelevancies which search engines link to their names—want redress.马科斯·莫斯利对性惯行十分陶醉,而这却会成为人们眼中的怪异举止和癖好。但是这是他个人私事,因此在2008年,一个现已停止经营的英国小报错误授予其“病态纳粹狂欢者”的“荣誉”称号,对此他提出起诉,一纸将该报刊告上法庭,宣称其侵犯了自己的个人隐私,并最终获得胜诉。然而,这一事件的指控,在互联网上依然得以保留。如果你轻触鼠标,键入“马科斯·莫斯利”,谷歌会有效地弹出所有关于马科斯的相关搜索:最前的四个搜索结果就是“视频”、“案件”、“艳照”以及“绯闻”。马科斯以及和他一样倍感自己生活被一些将其名字与名誉污点以及无关事宜相捆绑的搜索引擎给抹黑了—他们需要匡正。 Many European politicians are sympathetic to this. Countries such as France and Britain have long allowed the erasure of criminal records once convictions are spent. The European Parliament has backed a “right to be forgotten”, though to become law it would need the approval of all the European Unions 28 member states. Mr Mosley has won the first round of a legal battle in Germany to block the images appearing on Google searches there.很多欧洲政客对于这一点也深表赞同。诸如法国和英国这些欧洲国家有很长一段历史时期允许一旦判决罪被定夺,犯罪记录被删除。欧洲委员已经开始重新审视“公民‘被遗忘的权利”,尽管要成为法律文书仍然需要得到所有欧盟28个成员国的共同认可。莫斯利已经在德国的合法战争中赢得了第一轮的胜利,屏蔽了出现在谷歌的搜索结果上的相关照片。Now the European Court of Justice (ECJ), the EUs highest court, has boosted this cause in a landmark case (see article). A Spanish lawyer, Mario Costeja González, sued Google because its search results linked his name to a newspaper article from 1998 about a now-resolved lawsuit. The court ruled that Google was a “data controller” under the 19-year-old European law on data protection, which gives individuals strong rights over data that others hold on them. It said Google could be required not to display links to information that is “inadequate, irrelevant...or excessive”, given the purpose for which they are processed, and the time elapsed. Individuals will be able to appeal to their national data watchdogs if they are turned down.现在欧洲法院,即欧洲最高法院已经在努力促成此案例作为划时代的案例。一个西班牙的律师,马里奥科特加冈萨雷斯,因谷歌搜索结果将其姓名与一报纸1998年报道的一起现今已经结案的诉讼案件的文章链接在一起,而起诉了谷歌。法庭根据欧洲的一项数据保护法律判定谷歌的行为属于“数据控制”,该法律已实行19年之久,规定个人用户们享有对于别人持有关于个人数据的极大掌控权利。法院裁决谷歌应该被要求不再将其链接信息展示出来,比如那些“不充足、无关紧要或是过度夸大”的信息,只用给用户们希望获得的信息即可,并且时间也会使人们淡忘掉这一切。个人用户将会向他们国家数据监测者提起申诉,以查看是否这些内容已被关掉。The courts desire to protect victims of misunderstanding and malice is understandable. But a right to be forgotten would be hard to implement. Even if Google is made to censor its search results in Europe, in America the First Amendments free-speech provision usually trumps privacy concerns. With modest technical know-how, European internet users will be able to make American-style searches. Europe will hardly want to build a Chinese-style firewall to prevent that.法院期望能够保护那些被大众误解和仇恨的受害者的这一愿望是可以理解的。但被遗忘的权利将很难实现。即使谷歌在欧洲、在美国被审查其搜索结果,宪法第一修正案的自由言论的规定通常胜过隐私问题。仅仅需要使用谦和的技术诀窍,欧洲的互联网用户将能成为美式的自由网页搜索者。欧洲将很难想建立起一个中国式的防火墙,以防止这一问题的产生。And even if it were practicable to force companies to erase the past, it would do more harm than good. It would hamper everyone interested in finding out inconvenient truths about those who would like their past covered up. The ECJ ruling makes allowance for a public-interest defence, but it will mostly make commercial sense for Google and other search engines to take down material as soon as someone complains, rather than to weigh the merits of each case.而且,即使迫使企业抹去过往历史的这一做法是可行的,将会造成弊大于利。它会妨碍每个人去查明他们所热衷寻求的不易真相,而这一真相是部分人希望掩盖的关于自己的过往。欧洲法院的裁决考虑到公众利益的捍卫和保护,但其主要将会使得具有商业意识的谷歌和其他搜索引擎一旦出现有人抱怨的情况,就撤销相关信息,而不是权衡每种情况下的利弊。Watch out for silent encroachments留心无声的侵犯The right to be forgotten would also undermine the internets great strength. The internet is, in effect, a library of unimaginable size—full, as all libraries are, of news, gossip, archive material and other stuff which may to varying degrees be irrelevant, wrong or mad. It has made the best and worst of such information more freely available than ever before. Search engines should be like library catalogues—comprehensive and neutral, and without fear or favour of what the contents may reveal, or how they may be used. It should be up to individuals, not governments, to distinguish what is right or wrong, useful or immaterial. People should be wary of ceding the power to make that judgment, even to a court that thinks hard about it and backs the underdog. As James Madison said, “I believe there are more instances of the abridgment of the freedom of the people by gradual and silent encroachments of those in power than by violent and sudden usurpations.”被遗忘的权利也将破坏互联网的强大力量。互联网,实际上是难以想象的大规模图书库,正如图书馆一样,其中库含了几乎所有的内容,包括新闻、八卦、档案材料,并可能与其他内容在不同程度上是不相干的、错误的或者疯狂。它使这些无论最佳还是最糟糕的信息,比以往任何时候更可自由查看。搜索引擎应该像图书馆目录一样——全面、中立,而不用担心或是偏爱可能会透露的内容,或者是它们该如何被使用。它应该是由个人而不是政府来决定,要分清哪些是对还是错,有用或是不重要的信息。人们应该警惕割让作出这样的判断的权力,甚至是对于法院都认为很难对此作出判断或是持劣势者。正如詹姆斯·麦迪逊说,“我相信仍存在很多当权者逐步无声地侵犯民众自由的例子,这些例子比暴力和突然的强取豪夺更为猖獗”。译者:肖登怡译文属译生译世 /201506/381346

Taxing corporate cash税收磨刀霍霍向“猪羊”A tempting target一个诱人的目标South Koreas government tries to get firms to spend their accumulated riches韩国政府试图向企业现金储备征税来充盈国库SINCE becoming South Koreas finance minister in July, Choi Kyung-hwan has been busy. First came a 41 trillion won stimulus package. Now Mr Choi is trying to pep up the economy further by getting South Korean firms to spend more on wages and dividends.自7月担任韩国财政部长一职以来,崔炅焕一直在忙碌中度过。首轮就抛出41万亿韩元的经济刺激计划。现在崔部长正试图通利用韩国企业的收入和利润进一步激励经济。Mr Chois scheme, submitted to South Koreas parliament this week, will tax companies cash piles on the grounds that corporate stinginess is holding the country back. Cash reserves at South Koreas ten biggest chaebol, or conglomerates, have doubled in five years. Together, the countrys non-financial firms hold over 450 trillion won. Though corporate earnings trebled between 2000 and 2012, household income in Korea barely doubled. The pace of salary growth has dropped, from 4.4% a year between 2001 and 2005 to just 0.3% a year since 2011.崔部长在本周将要提交给韩国国会的计划中指出,政府将要向企业的现金储备征税,其原因在于企业不去投资发展而是大量现金储备的行为影响了经济的前行。韩国十大财阀企业集团的现金储备量在五年内翻了一番。与此相对应的,该国的非金融公司持有量超过450万亿韩元。虽然从2000年到2012年,韩国企业的盈利增长了两倍,家庭收入几乎翻了一倍,但是工资增长的速度却在下降,增速从2001年到2005年间的4.4%下降到2011年以来每年的0.3%。If the plan is approved, the 4,000 or so South Korean firms with over 50 billion won in capital will pay a 10% surcharge on their corporate tax rate unless they have spent a certain proportion of their income on dividends, investment and wages. The government has yet to set the threshold, but it is likely to be 60-80%. Firms will also be exempt if they spend 20-40% of income on dividends and wages alone, a nod to the low investment rate of the service sector.如果该议案被批准,那么约有4000家资本超过500亿韩元的企业要将占其收入一定比例的利润用于分红,投资或者职工薪酬,否则就要缴纳其企业所得税10%的附加费。政府尚未设置临界值,但及其可能为60%—80%。如果企业将其公司20%-40%的收入用于股息和工资的发放,那么将获得政府扶持投资的低利率贷款。Companies are stockpiling cash in the face of mounting Chinese competition and slowing domestic demand as South Koreans age. Their bosses also remember the Asian financial crisis of 1997-8, when many firms ran out of cash and were forced to sell assets. They are miserly with dividends. Yields on South Korean equities are among the lowest in the world, at around 1.2%. Payouts dropped by 15% in the first half of this year, to 455 billion won.公司现金储备面临着越来越多来自中国的竞争和国内需求放缓和人口老龄化的考验。企业老板们依稀还记得1997—1998年席卷亚洲的金融危机,当时,许多公司资金耗尽,被迫出售资产。他们削减股息(见图表)。韩国股市的收益率是世界上最低的国家之一,约为1.2%左右。今年上半年出为4550亿韩元,下降了15%。Low dividends are thought to be part of the reason for the “Korea discount”: the relatively low valuations of Korean firms. Daishin Securities, a local broker, estimates that Mr Chois scheme will boost dividend payments by about 3 trillion won a year, a 28% increase.低股利被认为是韩国公司估值相对较低的一部分原因。韩国本土的大信券公司估计,崔部长的计划将使得每年的股息付增加大概3万亿韩元,较之前增加了28%。It is less clear, argues Shaun Cochran of CLSA, another broker, how much the tax will help the economy. Foreigners, who hold a third of the shares of South Koreas 200 biggest companies, will be some of its chief beneficiaries. Forcing companies to spend their cash could lead to unproductive investments. Many will squirrel away their reserves in property. Last week Hyundai, another chaebol, bought a plot of land for new headquarters in central Seoul for a whopping billion. Kim Hak-soo of the Korea Institute of Public Finance, which advises the government, says it ought to be lowering corporate tax rates to achieve higher growth, not raising them.里昂券的经纪人肖恩·科克伦则认为,目前还不太清楚,税收收入的多少将有助于经济。外国投资者持有三分之一的韩国200家最大的公司的股票,将成为此项规定的主要受益者。而该计划也迫使企业拼命花掉现金,导致非生产性投资。许多人会将现金购入资产作为资产储备。上周,另一个财阀——韩国现代气团,在首尔市中心购入价值高达100亿美元的地皮作为新的总部所在地。韩国公共财政研究所的金正日建议政府,应该降低企业所得税税率,以实现更快的经济增长,而不是提高税率。Firms may choose to pay the tax rather than make marginal investments or raise wages . Mr Chois ministry insists that it wants “zero revenue” from the scheme. It, too, may soon find itself with lots of cash on its hands.企业可以选择纳税而不是进行边际投资或提高工资。崔炅焕的发言人坚称,政府希望企业可以更多分红或者涨工资。但是往往事与愿违,那些财阀们宁愿交税也不分红涨工资呢。 /201409/332535

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