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来源:安康分类    发布时间:2018年03月23日 07:37:23    编辑:admin         

Remember that scene in ;My Cousin Vinny; where Marisa Tomei says, ;My biological clock is ticking likes this; and she starts stomping hard on the floor? When someone says that a woman#39;s biological clock is ticking, it usually means that she actively wants to have a baby and feels time may be short. Scientists debate whether this is a real physiological response from the body as fertility decreases or if it#39;s all in the head. While men can feel a biological clock ticking too, it#39;s generally not with the same urgency, as their time to father a child is much longer than a woman#39;s is to have one. At least, that was conventional wisdom. As both men and women are becoming parents at older ages, scientists have discovered that the father#39;s age may have more to do with a child#39;s genetic health than that of his or her mom. That#39;s just one use of the term ;biological clock.; Turns out that every living thing – men, women, animals, plants, insects, and algae – all have internal ;body clocks; determined by a variety of biological rhythms. These physical, mental and behavioral patterns follow a predictable cycle every day, one that is determined largely by the body#39;s response to light and dark. So why do we have these clocks, and what do they do for us? Here are 10 facts that may surprise you.大家还记得电影《我的堂兄文尼》中的一个场景吗?玛丽莎·托梅说:“我的生物钟正在滴答作响!”然后她开始在地板上疯狂地跺脚。当有人提到一个女性的生物钟正在滴答作响,那通常意味着她很渴望生一个孩子而且感到时间实在是太紧迫了。科学家们就这一生物钟是否是因生育能力下降而导致的真实生理反应,亦或是纯粹的心理作用而争论不休。不过男人也可以体会到生物钟滴答作响的感觉,但它通常并不像女人的生物钟那样让人倍感紧迫,因为他们当爹的时间比女人生娃的时间长多了。但不管怎样,这都是一种传统的说法。随着年龄的不断增大,男人和女人终会为人父母,科学家们发现,父亲的年龄对孩子基因健康的影响要比母亲大。这仅仅只是“生物钟”的作用之一。结果表明,每一个生物——男人、女人、动物、植物、昆虫、藻类——它们的身体内部都有一个生物钟——由不同的生物节律决定。这些生理、心理和行为模式绝大部分取决于身体对光线强弱做出的不同反应,每天在可预测的周期内循环。所以我们为什么会拥有生物钟?它们能为我们做什么?下面10个事实大概会让你震惊。10.It#39;s a Complex Clock10.生物钟很复杂The body clock isn#39;t some rinky-dink Mickey Mouse watch. In fact, it#39;s a series of clocks controlled by a single ;master clock; located in the brain. The system works like this: Genes within the body include instructions for making proteins, which are produced in waves that rise and fall over the course of a day in a type of 24-hour cycle.生物钟绝对不是一块破旧的普通米老鼠手表。事实上,它是一系列由大脑的“主时钟”控制的时钟。生物钟系统是这样运作的:身体内的基因,包括那些合成蛋白质的指令都是在一天24小时循环的人体波动中形成的。The master clock manages these circadian rhythms using a group of roughly 20,000 nerve cells called the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), located in the hypothalamus. This section of the brain sits above the optic nerve and produces the hormones that govern body temperature, hunger, sex drive and other workings of the body. The patterns created not only dictate when we eat and sleep, but also control heart rate and the production of blood cells and blood sugar. Although the genes and proteins generally determine individual rhythms, outside factors related to light and dark can also have a significant impact on how your body ;tells time;.主时钟调节这些昼夜节律需使用大约20000个位于下丘脑的神经细胞——视交叉上核。下丘脑位于视神经之上,其产生的荷尔蒙能控制体温、摄食、性欲和身体的其他性能。它不仅指示我们何时吃饭睡觉,还控制心率以及生产血细胞和血糖。一般来说,基因和蛋白质决定个人生物节律,但例如光线强弱等的外在因素也可以对你身体的报时产生较大影响。9.Melatonin Is Our Body#39;s Sleep Aid9.褪黑素有助于人体睡眠Among the many hormones pumped through the body, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) controls the production of the one that makes people want to curl up in a ball on the nearest couch and catch a few zzzs. Melatonin is a naturally occurring chemical that helps regulate the circadian rhythm. The more of it that the body produces, the more likely you are to get sleepy.在人体内的各种激素里,视交叉上核控制的激素可以让人们想要赶紧找个沙发躺下呼呼大睡。褪黑素是一种天然的化学物质,可以帮助人体调节昼夜节律。身体内产生的褪黑素越多,你就越有可能会昏昏欲睡。Your melatonin production schedule varies based on light. Remember that the SCN is located just above the optic nerve, which sends information from the eyes to the brain. The less light that comes in – after the sun goes down and the sky becomes dark, for example – the more melatonin the SCN tells the brain to make. Some folks who suffer from sleep disorders will pop melatonin pills to help them get some rest. The effect of these supplements, which are available without a prescription and not regulated in the same way as pharmaceutical drugs, is still not clear. Experts warn that users should be careful to monitor the size and timing of doses so as not to throw off their natural body clocks.褪黑素利用光来校准生产时间表。记住,视交叉上核只存在视觉神经上方,通过眼睛把信息传递到大脑。举个例子,当太阳下山、天空也暗下来后——进入眼睛的光线变得越来越少,视交叉上核就会提醒大脑生产更多的褪黑素。有些患有睡眠障碍的人会使用褪黑素药物来助眠。但这些无需处方也并不像普通药品一样接受监管的激素到底会对人体产生什么影响还是未知数。专家警告说,药物使用者应仔细监测剂量的大小和用时间,以免打破人体的自然生物钟。8.The Body Clock Adapts to Location Changes8.生物钟会根据位置改变自我调节Think about the body clock as a human version of the one on your smartphone. If you turn off the phone when you board a plane in New York and turn it back on when your flight lands in Los Angeles, you will notice that the clock automatically adjusts the time to reflect that you#39;re now in a different zone. In the same way, your body clock will eventually adjust to the new light/dark cycle on the West Coast.把你的生物钟想作是智能手机里的另一个人类版本。假如你在纽约登机时关闭手机,然后在旧金山降落时再打开手机,你会注意到,手机的时间已随时区变化自动调节并且提示你已身处在不同的时区。同样地,你的生物钟最终也会适应西海岸的昼夜。Anyone who#39;s ever suffered from jet lag knows that the shift doesn#39;t happen right away. Your body has been trained to release melatonin at a certain time each night, and will initially continue to do so even when the optic nerve tells the brain that it#39;s still light outside. Eventually however, and your brain will time the melatonin release to the darkness. In other words, the clock slowly rewinds itself to reflect the rising and falling of the sun and to ensure that you don#39;t spend all of the prime California beach time snoring in your hotel room.任何曾经有过时差反应的人都知道,生物钟的转变是不会立马发生的,因为只有在晚上的某一特定时间,你的身体才会分泌褪黑素。所以在适应期内,即使视觉神经传递给大脑“现在是白天”的信息,你的身体还是会在原定时间内分泌褪黑素。在生物钟完全适应了新时区的时间后,你的大脑才会在夜间传达“分泌褪黑素”的信息。也就是说,你的生物钟会自我调整,以适应新时区的昼夜,确保你在加州海滩度假时,不至于所有的时间都在酒店房间里呼呼大睡。7.But It Doesn#39;t Adapt to Daylight Saving Time7.但生物钟无法适应夏令时Most American, Canadian and European timepieces spring forward every March, when the powers that be move the official time up an hour so as to allow people to make the most of daylight. Thought to be originally cooked up by Benjamin Franklin, daylight saving time took hold during World War I and became the law of (most) of the land in the U.S. in 1966. Then-President Lyndon Johnson signed legislation requiring official timekeepers to move their clocks forward an hour each spring and back an hour every fall.美国、加拿大和欧洲的大多数计时器每年从三月起实行夏令时,政府把官方时间提前一小时,以便人们充分享受日光。夏令时由本杰明·富兰克林提出,在一战期间正式执行。1966年,美国绝大部分地区通过立法,确定使用夏令时。当时的总统林登·约翰逊签署了此项法案,要求官方计时员在每年春季开始时调前一小时,每年秋季结束时调后一小时。The problem is that no one seems to have consulted our body clocks before agreeing to this twice-a-year adjustment. Moving the time ahead an hour does a number on circadian rhythms, particularly in the days immediately after the change when the sun still comes up around the same time. If your alarm goes off at 7 a.m. the day after it springs forward, your body still thinks it#39;s 6 a.m. Because the sun rises later in small increments, it#39;s probably still dark out, and will remain dark for a few months. That means that your body won#39;t shut off the melatonin faucet just yet. One study showed that people#39;s circadian rhythms never fully adjust to daylight saving time and sleep behavior only returns to normal when we go back to regular time.问题是,在同意一年两次的调整前,并没有人考虑过我们的生物钟能否适应夏令时。把时间提前一小时破坏了昼夜节律,尤其是在更改后几天,太阳依旧在相同的时间升起。在夏令时开始后,如果你的闹钟显示的是7:00am,你的身体依然会默认为是6:00am。因为太阳升起得比较慢,外面可能还是一片黑暗,这种情况可能还会持续几个月。那就意味着在此期间,你的身体并不会停止分泌褪黑素。一项研究发现,人们的生理节律无法完全适应夏令时,而且只有当人们回到正常时间,其睡眠习惯才会回归正常。6.Birds Do It, Bears Do It6.万物皆有生物钟It#39;s like the music group Bloodhound Gang says: ;You and me, baby, ain#39;t nothing but mammals.; Other mammals also have rhythm-based body clocks that dictate when they rise in the morning and when they lie down for some shut-eye at night. In fact, bears depend on seasonal circadian rhythms to tell them when to hibernate for the winter and when to come out from their hiding places. Birds similarly fly south for the winter based on circadian (or circannual) rhythms that adapt to changes in temperature and the decreasing amount of sunlight per day.正如血性猎犬帮摇滚乐合唱团唱的那样,“你和我,宝贝,只是哺乳动物而已”。而其他哺乳动物的作息也是依赖于这种有规律的生物钟,早上何时苏醒,晚上又何时入眠。事实上熊也依赖于季节性的昼夜节律,根据时令选择什么时候该去冬眠了,什么时候又该从藏身的地方出来。类似地,鸟类向南方迁徙也是为了适应冬季每日温度下降、光照减少的昼夜节律。It isn#39;t just mammals who keep time naturally either. Internal rhythms drive plants to open their leaves at dawn and close them at night. They also determine when flowers bloom seasonally.并不是只有哺乳动物才会有规律的作息时间,植物的内部生物钟会促使它们在黎明的时候舒展开叶子,在傍晚的时候闭合。此外,这种内部生物钟也会决定季节性开花的时间。审校:围巾、烟囱 编辑:listen 来源:前十网 /201602/426974。

;Leaders Number One;, a perfume inspired by Vladimir Putin, went on sale in Moscow on Thursday, just in time for Russians to pick them up as presents ahead of New Year#39;s Eve.一款以普京为灵感来源的香水——;领导人一号;24日在莫斯科上市,这对于在新年前夕挑选礼物的俄罗斯人来说,实在是适逢其时。The scent for men, called Leaders Number One, is now on sale in Moscow for 6,000 rubles, or about 57 pounds.这款领导人一号香水售价约6000卢布,大约57英镑。It comes in a sleek black bottle featuring a profile of the Russian president#39;s head and the words ;Inspired by Vladimir Putin; in English, despite the Russian president#39;s distaste for the use of English in marketing.其流线型的黑色香水瓶上印有俄罗斯总统普京的侧面头像,以及;灵感来自普京;的英文字样。虽然这位俄罗斯总统很厌恶在营销中应用英语。;It#39;s a warm scent, a textured scent. It#39;s soft but at the same time it#39;s very firm, ; said the perfumer who came up with the scent.推出这款香水的香水商说:;这是一种温暖的香型,一种有质感的香型。它温柔,但同时也非常坚定。;Staff at the stand said orders had aly come in from Germany and China, and they were also hoping to present a bottle to Putin himself.专柜的销售人员称,目前已经有了来自德国和中国的订单。销售人员还希望能够送一瓶给普京本人。 /201512/418573。

Imagine you are visiting a tourist spot and there you are given an opportunity to scoop up thousands of dollars for free. Sounds too good to be true? Not really.试想一下,当你正在游览一景区的时候,突然获得了一个可以免费随便抓钱的机会。这是不是听起来像是做梦?然而真的有这样的事情发生。Authorities of a scenic spot offered five million yuan (0,000) at a blast glass room for 10 tourists to grab as much as they could in one minute in Hangzhou city, East China#39;s Zhejiang province on Tuesday.周二,在中国东部浙江省杭州市的某个景区,景区官方提供了500万(约合75万美元)的现金,供10位游客在鼓风的玻璃房中随意抓取,限时一分钟,能抓多少算多少。Songcheng Group invited 10 tourists to participate in the event about 10 days ago through its official account on messaging app WeChat.在大约10天前,杭州市宋城景区通过官方微信征集了10位游客来参与此活动。A woman surnamed Lu, from Quzhou city in Zhejiang province, was the luckiest one, since she grabbed 18,300 yuan in one minute.来自浙江衢州的陆女士成为了最幸运的游客,她在一分钟内抓到了18300元。;The move is to show our thanks to our tourists,; said the event#39;s organizer.活动主办方表示,这是该景区感恩和回馈游客的一项举措。 /201601/424789。

An inexpensive vitamin can help reduce the occurrence of common skin cancers in people prone to that disease, researchers reported on Wednesday.周三,研究人员报道,一种便宜的维生素有助于降低常见皮肤癌高危人群中此类疾病的发生率。In a clinical trial, people who took two pills a day of nicotinamide, a form of vitamin B3 available as a nutritional supplement, had a 23 percent lower risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancer than those who took placebo pills.在临床试验中,每天用两片烟酰胺作为营养补充剂(一种维生素B3)的人比用安慰剂药片者发生非黑素性皮肤癌的风险低23%。“It’s safe, it’s almost obscenely inexpensive and it’s widely available,” Dr. Diona Damian, the lead investigator of the study, said in a news conference organized by the American Society of Clinical Oncology, who said the findings could be put into practice right away.该研究的负责人,澳大利亚悉尼大学(University of Sydney)的皮肤病学教授迪奥纳·达米安(Diona Damian)士在美国临床肿瘤学会(American Society of Clinical Oncology)举办的新闻发布会上说道:“它(烟酰胺)安全,价格极其低廉,且很容易买到。”该学会称这一发现可以立即付诸实践。“This one’s y to go straight into the clinic,” said Dr. Damian, a dermatology professor at the University of Sydney in Australia. However, she said the vitamin should be used only by people who get frequent skin cancers, not by everyone.达米安士说:“该研究结果可以直接进入临床。”不过,她也指出这种维生素只能用于皮肤癌高危人群,而不适用于所有人。The study will be presented at the annual meeting of the oncology society, which begins May 29 in Chicago. Abstracts for most of the nearly 5,000 studies were released late Wednesday, and a few results were discussed in a news conference organized by the society.这项研究还在5月29日开始的芝加哥肿瘤学会年会上发表。与会的近5000项研究中的大部分研究摘要在5月13日晚些时候发布,其中的一些研究结果在该学会组织的新闻发布会上得到了讨论。Investors and Wall Street analysts began poring over the abstracts late on Wednesday, looking for information that could affect the stocks of pharmaceutical companies.从5月13日晚上起,投资者和华尔街分析师们就开始钻研这些文献摘要,以期从中寻找可能影响制药公司股票的信息。In another study, an experimental drug for relapsed multiple myeloma being developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb and AbbVie reduced the risk of cancer progression by about 30 percent when added to two existing drugs.另一项研究报道,在现有的两种药物——雷利米得(Revlimid,即来那度胺)和地塞米松——的基础上,添加使用百时美施贵宝公司(Bristol-Myers Squibb)和艾伯维公司(AbbVie)开发的一种治疗复发性多发性骨髓瘤的实验性药物elotuzumab,可将癌症进展的风险降低约30%。Those who received the experimental drug, called elotuzumab, had a median of 19.4 months before their cancer worsened or they died, compared with 14.9 months for those who received only the two existing drugs, Revlimid and dexamethasone.在仅接受现有两种药物的患者中,中位无进展生存期(即癌症恶化或患者死亡前的时间中位数)为14.9个月,相比之下,在加用了elotuzumab的患者中,中位无进展生存期为19.4个月。A spokeswoman for Bristol-Myers said it was premature to say when the company would apply for approval of the drug. Another trial is in progress.百时美施贵宝公司的一位女发言人说,谈论公司将何时申请批准该药还为时过早。还有一项试验正在进行当中。The skin cancer prevention study focused on non-melanoma skin cancer, particularly basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. Together, these are the most common form of cancer in the ed States, with the most recent study estimating that in 2006 there were 3.5 million cases in 2.2 million Americans. Most of these are curable through surgery or other techniques, though the surgery can leave scars and in some cases the cancers do become more serious.皮肤癌的预防研究主要侧重于非黑素性皮肤癌,特别是基底细胞癌和鳞状细胞癌。这些都是美国最常见的癌症,据最近的研究估计,2006年,此类癌症在220万名美国患者中就达350万例。其中大部分都可以通过手术或其他技术治愈,只不过手术会留下疤痕,而且在某些情况下,癌症还会变得更加严重。The study involved 386 people in Australia who had had two or more such skin cancers in the previous five years. The average for the patients in the trial was eight cancers over the past five years; one patient had 52 cases.本文开篇介绍的研究纳入了386名在过去5年内曾发生至少2例上述皮肤癌的澳大利亚人。参与试验的患者在过去5年平均发生过8例癌症;其中一名患者甚至多达52例。Those who were randomly assigned to take the vitamin had an average of 1.77 new cancers in the year of the study compared with 2.42 cases for those in the placebo group, a risk reduction of 23 percent, after certain statistical adjustments. Those getting nicotinamide also had fewer cases of actinic keratosis, thick patches of skin that may become cancerous.经过一定的统计学校正后,被随机分入维生素组的患者在研究的一年期间平均出现了1.77例新发癌症,较之安慰剂组的2.42例风险降低了23%。用烟酰胺的患者中光化性角化病、有癌变风险的皮肤胼胝病例也较少。Dr. Damian said the effect of the vitamin seemed to disappear once people stopped taking it. She said that nicotinamide did not have the side effects, like headache and flushing, of niacin, another form of vitamin B3.达米安士表示,一旦停止用该维生素,它的效果似乎就会消失。她还说,烟酰胺不像另一种维生素B3——烟酸那样有头痛和潮红等副作用。Protecting oneself from the sun is perhaps the most effective way to prevent non-melanoma skin cancers. Drugs called retinoids, which are related to vitamin A, can also be used, but they can cause birth defects and other side effects. Some studies have suggested that aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can also be preventative.防晒是预防非黑素性皮肤癌的最有效方式。也可以使用与维生素A有关的维甲酸类药物,但它们可能导致出生缺陷和其它副作用。一些研究表明,阿司匹林和其它非甾体类抗炎药也有预防作用。Two experts not involved in the study said the results were “interesting and potentially important,” in part because nicotinamide had fewer side effects than the pharmaceutical alternatives for skin cancer prevention.两位没有参与这项研究的专家——美国亚利桑那大学(University of Arizona)皮肤癌研究所(Skin Cancer Institute)的临床主任克拉拉·库列尔-莱万多夫斯基(Clara Curiel-Lewandrowski)士和药理学家史蒂文·斯特拉顿(Steven Stratton)都表示,这些结果“很有趣,且可能有重大意义”,部分原因是烟酰胺的副作用比皮肤癌防治的替代药物要少。The experts, Dr. Clara Curiel-Lewandrowski, clinical director of the Skin Cancer Institute at the University of Arizona, and Steven Stratton, a pharmacologist there, said in a joint email that patients should nonetheless talk to their doctors before taking the vitamin.他们在一封联名电子邮件中写道,无论如何,在用该种维生素前,患者仍应该与自己的医生商量。 /201510/405501。

With just 10% of the population being left-handed, it can be easy for everyone else to forget we#39;re living in a right-handed world. But aside from making it tough to cut a straight line with a pair of scissors designed for righties, being a southpaw can also have some subtle effects on our physical and mental health.由于左撇子在人口中比例仅为10%,所以人们很容易忽略这样一个事实,即自己正生活在一个左撇子的世界。除了能够轻易地将自己同一般人区分开来之外,左撇子的习惯对个人的身体和心理健康还有着微妙的影响。The brains and bodies of lefties may operate differently than those of right-handed people (and in mixed-handed people, who may have different dominant hands for different tasks). ;Handedness seems to be determined very early on in fetal development, when a lot of other things about your future are being determined as well,; says Ronald Yeo, PhD, professor of psychology at the University of Texas-Austin. Here#39;s a look at some of the most common facts about being left-handed, and what it might really mean for your health.习惯用右手的人,其大脑和身体的运转方式可能和左撇子有所不同 (对双撇子来说,不同任务中他们会习惯用不同的手。)“人的许多特点在胎儿时期就已经形成了,偏手性似乎也不例外,”德克萨斯州大学奥斯汀分校的心理学教授、士罗纳德杨说。下面我们会探讨有关左撇子的一些常识以及左撇子对健康的影响。It#39;s not just genetics左撇子不一定都是遗传因素导致的。Scientists aren#39;t exactly sure why some people are left-handed, but they know that genes are responsible about 25% of the time, says Yeo. Left-handedness does tend to run in families, he says, ;but noticeably less than other inherited traits, like height or intelligence.;科学家们并不确定为什么有些人是左撇子,但是他们确信,左撇子的遗传因素占到25%。“左撇子的确会在家族内部遗传,但与体重和智力等其他遗传特性相比,其遗传几率却要小很多。”罗纳德杨教授说。It#39;s linked to stress in pregnancy左撇子与怀期间的压力有关。In one British study, the fetuses of super-stressed pregnant women were more likely to touch their faces more with their left hands than their right. This could be the first signs of a left-handed child, say the researchers. Other evidence supports that theory. In one 2008 Swedish study of moms and their 5-year-old children, women who were depressed or stressed during their pregnancies were more likely to have mixed- or left-handed kids. In other studies, babies with low birth weight, or born to older mothers, were more likely to be lefties as well.英国一项研究显示,压力较大的妇生出的孩子 更倾向于用左手摸脸。这可能是左撇子在婴幼儿时期的第一个征兆。而其他研究结果也实了这一结论。2008年,瑞典的一项研究显示,期较为压抑或压力较大的妇女,她们的宝宝成为左撇子或双撇子的可能性更大。其他研究还显示,出生时体重较低的婴儿或高龄产妇生产的婴儿成为左撇子的几率更大。 /201511/410785。

Certain personality traits are often attributed to oldest, middle and youngest children. But a new study found that birth order itself had no effect on character, though it may slightly affect intelligence.人们往往认为,某些性格特征是专属于排行老大、排在中间或家里最小的孩子的。然而一个新研究发现,出生顺序与性格无关,但可能对智力有些许影响。Researchers analyzed three large ongoing collections of data including more than 20,000 people: a British study that follows the lives of people who were born in one particular week in 1958, a German study of private households started in 1984 and a continuing study of Americans born between 1980 and 1984.研究人员分析了来自2万多人的三大组持续收集数据,其来源包括一份英国研究。该研究追踪了1958年某一星期出生的人的生活状况。还有在1984年开始、关于普通家庭的一份德国研究,和关于在1980至1984年间出生的美国人的一个持续研究。They searched for differences in extroversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, self-reported intellect, IQ, imagination and openness to experience. They analyzed families with sisters and brothers, large and small age gaps and different numbers of siblings. But no matter how they spliced the data, they could find no association of birth order with any personality characteristic.研究人员调查了在外向性、情绪稳定性、随和性、责任心、自我报告式理解力、智力、想象力和对不同经历的开放性方面的差异。他们分析了有不同的兄弟搭配、年龄差距和手足人数的家庭。但无论怎么拼接数据,他们都看不到出生顺序和性格特征之间的任何联系。The study, in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, did find evidence that older children have a slight advantage in IQ scores, but the difference was apparent only in a large sample, with little significance for any individual.在《美国国家科学院院刊》(Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)上刊登的该项研究,确实发现据表明年龄较大的儿童有轻微的智商优势,但差异只有在大样本才明显,对个人来说意义不大。The lead author, Julia M. Rohrer, a graduate student at the University of Leipzig, said that birth order can have an effect — if your older brother bullied you, for example.主要作者、莱比锡大学(University of Leipzig)的研究生朱莉娅·M·罗勒(Julia M. Rohrer)说,出生顺序就可能会有影响,比如你的哥哥可能会欺负你。“But these effects are highly idiosyncratic,” she said. “There is no such thing as a typical older, middle or younger sibling. It’s important to stop believing that you are the way you are because of birth order.”“但这些影响不具普遍性,”她说。“没有哪些性格特质专属于某个兄弟排行。重要的是,不要相信你之所以如此是因为出生顺序的关系。” /201511/407458。