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昆明去红血丝价格昆明韩城医院山根鼻小柱鼻基底鼻中隔哪家便宜价格昆明市盘龙区人民医院切眼袋多少钱 ;Almost all other animals are clearly observed to partake in sleep, whether they are aquatic, aerial, or terrestrial,; wrote Aristotle in his work On Sleep and Sleeplessness. But do other animals dream? On that the Greek philosopher also had an opinion. In The History of Animals, he wrote: ;It would appear that not only do men dream, but horses also, and dogs, and oxen; aye, and sheep, and goats, and all viviparous quadrupeds; and dogs show their dreaming by barking in their sleep.; His research methods may lack sophistication, but Aristotle may not have been too far off the mark.亚里士多德在文章《论睡和醒》中写道:“人们清楚地观察到,几乎所有的动物都会睡觉,不论是水生、陆生还是在空中飞翔的动物。”但是动物会做梦吗?在这个问题上,这个希腊哲学家也有自己的看法。在专著《动物志》中,他写道:“看来不只人会做梦,马、、牛也都会做梦;同样,绵羊、山羊以及所有的胎生四足动物也都会做梦;并且,在睡眠中吠叫就是做梦的表现。”亚里士多德的研究方法也许不够完善成熟,但和事实或许也已经相去不远了。We certainly can#39;t ask animals if they dream, but we can at least observe the evidence that they might. There are two ways in which scientists have gone about this seemingly impossible task. One is to look at their physical behaviour during the various phases of the sleep cycle. The second is to see whether their sleeping brains work similarly to our own sleeping brains.我们当然不能直接问动物它们是否做梦,但我们至少可以观察到它们可能做梦的据。对于这个看似不可能的任务,科学家们已经尝试了两种方法。一种是观察动物在睡眠周期各个阶段中的身体行为,另一种是观测动物和人类在睡眠时的大脑状态是否相似。The story of how we worked out how to peer into the minds of sleeping animals begins in the 1960s. Back then, scattered reports began to appear in medical journals describing people acting out movements in their dreams. This was curious, because during so-called REM sleep (rapid eye movement), our muscles are usually paralysed.人们从上世纪60年代开始研究如何窥探动物睡眠时的大脑活动。那时,医学杂志上开始零星出现描述人在睡梦中“表演”动作的报告。这在当时是很新奇的,因为在所谓的REM(rapid eye movement快速眼球运动)* 睡眠中,我们的肌肉通常是处于麻痹状态的。Researchers realised that inducing a similar state in animals could allow them to probe how they dream. In 1965, French scientists Michel Jouvet and J F Delorme found that removing a part of the brainstem, called the pons, from a cat#39;s brain prevented it becoming paralysed when in REM. The researchers called the condition ;REM without atonia; or REM-A. Instead of lying still, the cats walked around and behaved aggressively.研究者们意识到,如果能引导动物产生和人类相似的状态,那么他们就可以探查动物是如何做梦的了。在1965年,法国科学家米歇尔·朱费(Michel Jouvet)和J·F·德罗尔姆(J F Delorme)发现,如果把猫脑中脑干的脑桥部分移除,就可以防止其在REM睡眠中出现麻痹状态。研究者把这种情况称作“REM肌张力缺失现象消失(REM without atonia)”或REM-A。在这种情况下,猫不会静静地躺着,反而会四处走动并表现出攻击性。This hinted they were dreaming of activities from their waking hours. And studies since have revealed similar behaviour. According to veterinary neurologist Adrian Morrison, who has written a review of this research, cats in REM-A will move their heads as if following stimuli. Some cats also show behaviour identical to predatory attacks, as if they were chasing mice in their dreams. Similar dream activity has been seen in dogs.这表明,猫正在做醒时活动的梦。自那以后的研究也都揭示了相似的行为表现。根据兽神经学家阿德里安·莫里森(Adrian Morrison)对这项研究的评述,处于REM-A状态中的猫会像有刺激物一样摇晃脑袋。一些猫还会表现出等同于捕食性攻击的行为,就像它们在梦境中追逐老鼠一样。而也表现出了相似的梦中活动。Some humans have been found to ‘act out’ their dreams too – if they suffer from a condition called REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder. ;Punching, kicking, leaping, and running from the bed during attempted dream enactment are frequent manifestations and usually correlate with the reported imagery,; according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD). Injuries are common among these people and those sleeping with them, the ICSD adds.一些人类也被发现有“表演”梦境的行为——如果它们患上了“REM睡眠行为障碍”。根据国际睡眠障碍分类(ICSD)描述,“这种情况的常见表现是表演出梦境中的行为,如拳打脚踢、跳跃奔跑,并且通常能与报告中描绘的画面对应。”ICSD还补充道,这些人常会自伤或伤及同床者。Physical movement is not the only way of peering into dreams, though. Researchers can now humanely peer into the electrical and chemical activities of brain cells in animals while they sleep. In 2007, MIT scientists Kenway Louise and Matthew Wilson recorded the activity of neurons in a part of the rat brain called the hippocampus, a structure known to be involved in the formation and encoding of memories. They first recorded the activity of those brain cells while the rats ran in their mazes. Then they looked at the activity of the very same neurons while they slept. Louise and Wilson discovered identical patterns of firing during running and during REM. In other words, it was as if the rats were running the maze in their minds while they were snoozing. The results were so clear that the researchers could infer the rats#39; precise location within their mental dream mazes and map them to actual spots within the actual maze.然而,身体行为并不是窥探梦境的唯一方法。现在,研究者们可以在不伤害动物的情况下探查其睡眠时脑细胞内的电流和化学活动。2007年,麻省理工大学的科学家肯威·路易斯(Kenway Louise)和马修·威尔森(Matthew Wilson)记录下了老鼠脑内“海马体”部位的神经细胞活动,而“海马体”是与记忆的形成转换有关的结构。当老鼠在迷宫里奔跑时,他们第一次记录下了它们脑细胞内的活动。之后在老鼠睡眠时,他们又观察相同神经细胞的活动。路易斯和威尔森发现,在奔跑和睡眠时,老鼠脑细胞内的活动模式是相同的。也就是说,当老鼠在酣睡时,它们脑内活动就像还在迷宫里奔跑一样。结果是如此明确,以至于研究者们可以推测出老鼠在脑内梦中迷宫里的准确位置,并且能在现实迷宫中把它们的实际位置标出来。University of Chicago biologists Amish Dave and Daniel Margoliash looked into the brains of zebra finches and discovered something similar. These birds are not born with the melodies of their songs hardwired into the brains; instead, they have to learn to sing their songs. When they#39;re awake, the neurons in part of the finches#39; forebrain called the robutus archistriatalis fire following their singing of particular notes. Researchers can determine which note was sung based on the firing patterns of those neurons. By piecing together the electrical patterns in those neurons over time, Dave and Margoliash can reconstruct the entire song from start to finish.芝加哥大学的生物学家阿米什·戴夫(Amish Dave)和丹尼尔·马格赖许(Daniel Margoliash)观察了斑胸草雀的大脑,并有了类似的发现。这些鸟并不是天生脑子里就有歌曲的旋律,相反,它们要通过学习才能唱歌。当斑胸草雀醒着的时候,在它们唱到某些特定音符时,其前脑中古纹状体粗核部位的神经细胞就会开始活动。研究者们基于这些神经细胞的活动模式就可以判定斑胸草雀唱到了哪个音符。通过把这些神经细胞中的电流模式拼合,戴夫和马格赖许就能把整首歌从头到尾地重现了。Later, when the birds were asleep, Dave and Margoliash looked again at the electrical activity in that part of their brains. The firing of those neurons wasn#39;t entirely random. Instead, the neurons fired in order, as if the bird was audibly singing the song, note for note. It might be said that the zebra finches were practising their songs while they slumbered.随后,在这些鸟睡眠时,戴夫和马格赖许再一次观察其脑内相同部位的电流活动。这些神经细胞的活动并不是完全随机的。相反,这些神经细胞在有秩序地活动,就像这些鸟把歌曲一个音符一个音符地唱出声来一样。这可能说明,斑胸草雀在睡眠中也在练习唱歌。Does the behaviour of cats in science experiments actually qualify as dreaming? Do rats have any subjective awareness that they#39;re running their mazes in their minds while they nap? Do the songbirds realise that they#39;re singing in their sleep? These questions are as hard to answer as the question of consciousness. It#39;s tricky. We humans do not usually realise we#39;re dreaming while we#39;re dreaming, but it becomes clear as soon as we wake up. Do zebra finches remember their dreams as dreams when they#39;re shaken out of their sleep? Can they distinguish the real world from the one in their dreams? We can say with a reasonable amount of certainty that the physiological and behavioural features of dreaming in humans have now been observed in cats, rats, birds, and other animals. Yet what it’s actually like to experience a dream if you’re not human remains a mystery.科学实验中猫的行为表现是否可看作是真正在做梦呢?对于睡眠时脑内在迷宫中奔跑的状态,老鼠自身有客观意识吗?这些唱歌的鸟又是否意识到自己在睡眠中唱歌呢?这些问题和与意识相关的问题一样难以回答。这很棘手。我们人类在做梦时通常都不能意识到自己是在做梦,但是在醒来后就能马上清楚地意识到这件事。那么,斑胸草雀从梦中醒来后是否记得自己的梦呢?它们能把现实世界和梦境区分开吗?我们可以非常确定地说,如今在猫、鼠、鸟等动物中都能观察到与人类相同的做梦时的身体行为特征。然而,非人类在做梦时是怎样的感觉,这依然是个谜。 /201404/292970Sharing photographs on Facebook is a quick way to lose friends, according to a new study.Researchers found those who repeatedly post pictures risk alienating themselves from many people who view them.最新调查显示,在脸书上分享照片会让你很快失去朋友。研究者发现那些总是发布照片的人会让浏览到的人们疏离他。They may damage relationships with friends, relatives and colleagues who do not #39;relate well to those who constantly share photos of themselves.他们有可能会破坏与那些不喜欢分享照片的朋友、亲人和同事之间的关系。Partners who shared more photographs of events led to a decrease in intimacy. Similarly, a close friend who shared more photographs of friends could also expect to it to have a negative impact on the quality of that relationship.伙伴间分享的照片越多,关系就越会疏远。同样,好友之间,如果越多晒出朋友的照片,也会有可能对友情产生消极影响。A survey of more than 500 Facebook users found the quantity and subject matter of the images have an impact on the level of support and intimacy within relationships.一项对超过500名脸书用户的调查显示,晒出的照片的质量和主题对人际关系的亲疏会产生影响。Dr David Houghton, of the University of Birmingham, said: ‘Our research found those who frequently post photographs on Facebook risk damaging real life relationships.#39;伯明翰大学的大卫·霍顿士表示:“我们的研究发现那些频繁在脸书上晒照片的人也许会使现实生活中的人际关系恶化。”The researchers also suggest big brand advertising campaigns, which encourage people to post photographs of themselves with the product on Facebook, risk damaging the relationships between their ‘fans’.研究者还建议那些鼓励人们在脸书上发布自己与产品合照的大型广告活动,可能会破坏他们与“粉丝”之间的关系。 /201312/268208德宏州人民中医院脱毛多少钱

玉溪市中医医院整形科昆明妇幼保健医院激光祛痘多少钱 (Reuters) - A Swedish woman has become the world#39;s first to give birth after having a womb transplant, opening up the possibility for thousands of infertile women to have babies, the doctor in charge of the research project said on Saturday.研究项目负责医生在周六说道,一名瑞典女性成子宫移植后生产第一人,这为成千上万不的女性带来了希望。The unnamed Swede in her mid-30s delivered a healthy baby boy by caesarean section in early September, around two years after receiving a uterus donated by an unrelated, 61-year- old.九月初,这位不知名的女性在她三十多岁的时候通过剖腹产生下了一名健康的男婴。这距离她接受那名来自61岁无关系女性子宫捐献已经有两年了。She was one of seven women who successfully underwent a womb transplant from a live donor – in most cases the recipient#39;s mother - and subsequently had in vitro fertilization (I V F) treatment.她是成功接受来自活人捐赠的子宫移植手术的七名女性之一。大部分捐赠者都是被捐赠人的母亲,然后她们通过检测进行了人工授精。;There are some more pregnant,; Mats Brann strom, Professor of Obstetrics and Gyna ecology at University of Gothenburg told Reuters. ;They are more than 28 weeks pregnant.;“还有许多人怀了,”哥德堡一所大学的妇产科学教授 Mats Brann strom这样告诉路透社,“她们已经有超过28周的身了。”Brann strom said other hospitals around Europe, the ed States, Australia and China had been waiting for results of the Swedish research before beginning their own programs.Brann strom说欧洲、美国、澳洲和中国的其他医院从瑞典开始这个项目的时候就在等待结果了。;When we have the results of other studies, we will know how effective the procedure is and what the risks are,; he added.他还说:“等其他研究有了结果,我们就会知道这个过程的效果以及所有的风险了。”Medical advances in treating infertility and helping women to get pregnant have sparked widesp ethical debate, with some critics saying scientists shouldn#39;t ;play God;.在治疗不以及帮助女性受方面的医疗手段也激起了广泛的道德讨论,一些批评者说这些科学家在“玩弄上帝”。Others question the morality of spending huge sums to enable women to get pregnant when they have the option to adopt.其他人则质疑在那些女性可以选择领养的情况下还花这么一大笔钱来使她们受是否道德。Brann strom said the treatment, the first available for women who were born without a viable womb or who have had their uterus removed because of cancer, was ;a matter of justice;.Brann strom说这个治疗是那些生来便没有可用子宫的女性优先,或者是因为癌症而摘除了子宫的女性优先。他说治疗是“正义的事情”。;If we decide as a society that infertility is a type of disease - which we have - we should try to treat it,; he said.他说,“如果我们做出不也是一种疾病这样的决定,而且我们的确也认定它是一种疾病,那么我们就应该去治疗它。”Around 200,000 women in Europe suffer from uterine infertility. Brann strom said a trans plant was ;the only solution to the problem; although it was too early to say whether the procedure, which costs around 100,000 eu ros (5,000), would become common.欧洲大约有200,000名女性受到不的困扰,Brann strom说移植手术是“唯一的解决办法”,但是这个将会耗费大约100,000欧元(125,000)的手术是否会流行起来仍是未知的。The University of Gothen burg has permission to do 10 womb transplants with up to two full- term pregnancies for each woman.哥德堡的大学得到允许能够做10起移植手术,每名女性最多能够有两次的足月妊娠。The university has aly treated nine women, two of whom had to have their transplanted wombs removed. All the women treated will have their uteruses removed again after their pregnancies.这所大学已经为九名女性做了治疗,其中有两名移除了移植的子宫。所有的女性在怀后都会移除所移植的子宫。;This is the first type of transplant that is temporary,; Brann strom said.Brann strom说:“这是第一种暂时性的移植手术。”The program#39;s first pregnancy was confirmed in the spring and the baby weighed around 1,775 grams when delivered by caesarean section after the mother developed preeclampsia in the 32nd week of pregnancy.这个项目的第一起确认的怀是在春天。在母亲第32周得了子痫前期时,宝宝就通过剖腹产生了下来,重到1775克。;The baby screamed right away and has not required any other care than normal clinical observation at the neonatal unit,; Brann strom said in a statement.Brann strom在一次发言中说道,“宝宝一生下来就大哭了起来,受到了和初生婴儿护理部其他正常手术生下来的孩子一样的照顾,”;The mother and child are both doing well and have returned home. The new parents are of course very happy and thankful.;“母亲和孩子的状况都很好,现在他们已经回家了。那对父母当然非常高兴也非常感激。” /201410/337135昆明市盘龙区人民医院整形中心

云南昆明东川区祛疤手术多少钱 Though Phillip Lim has a reputation for keeping things low-key, this New York Fashion Week is a splashy one for the designer, who opens a new 3.1 Phillip Lim flagship store on September 10 at 48 Great Jones Street in NoHo. The 3,500-square-foot space, designed in collaboration with the London agency Campaign, features vintage furniture and artwork curated by Lim himself. Its look was inspired by Lim’s design studio, which he calls “the only space that I am offered where ideas become realized and my daydreams are romanced into realities.” The opening will also celebrate the release of a book showcasing photographs of the store in progress by the artist Bill Jacobson. Here, in honor of New York Fashion Week, the SoHo resident lists a few of his go-to things and places around town.虽然林能平(Phillip Lim)以行事低调闻名,但在本次纽约时装周期间,这位设计师却格外引人注目。9月10日,新的3.1 Phillip Lim旗舰店在NoHo区的大琼斯街48号开业。这个空间占地3500平方英尺,由他与伦敦的Campaign公司合作设计,以复古家具的陈列和林能平本人策展的艺术品为特色。林能平曾说自己的设计工作室是“唯一能够实现自己的想法、把白日梦变成现实的地方”,这座旗舰店的外观也受他的设计工作室风格影响。该店开业之际,艺术家比尔·雅各布森(Bill Jacobson)记录本店装修过程的摄影集也同时发行。在这里,为了向纽约时装周致意,居住在SoHo区的林能平列举了自己最喜欢的几样东西和城里的几个去处。Restaurant: “Contrary to popular belief, there is no glamour in the glory. I usually eat every meal at the studio in the buildup to the show. We have a Mexican night with takeout from La Esquina, Indian night with Tamarind, Korean night with Do Hwa and Vietnamese night with CoBa. We travel the world while staying in the same place.”餐馆:“与大家所以为的不同,光耀眼的地方其实没什么吸引力。在为时装秀做准备期间,我几乎每顿饭都在工作室里吃。我们有墨西哥菜之夜,要的是La Esquina餐馆的外卖,印度菜之夜要的是Tamarind餐馆的外卖,韩国菜之夜要的是Do Hwa餐馆的外卖,越南菜之夜要的是CoBa餐馆的外卖。我们足不出户,却像在周游世界。”Ramp;R: “Escaping to my home in Southampton.”休闲:“躲在我位于南安普顿家里。”Pick-me-up:“I usually have a coffee at home and one at work, but I also like the Vietnamese coffee from Pho Bang.”提神饮料:“我通常在家喝一杯咖啡,到办公室再喝一杯,但是我也喜欢Pho Bang餐馆的越南咖啡。”Gadget:“I never leave home without my Harmon Kardon headphones — they are classically handsome but have the latest sound technology. The perfect combination.”小配件:“我出门永远戴着哈曼卡顿(Harmon Kardon)耳机——它们的造型经典美观,同时又采用了最先进的音响技术,可谓完美的组合。”Reading material: “I’m ing my company’s financial reports at the moment. I have a newfound love of cooking, so I’ve been curious about cookbooks by Rene Redzepi and Yotam Ottolenghi — although my skills are limited to grilling!”阅读材料:“目前我正在读公司的财务报告。我最近爱上了烹饪,所以我对勒内·雷泽皮(Rene Redzepi)和尤塔姆·奥托伦吉(Yotam Ottolenghi)的食谱很感兴趣,虽然我只会做烧烤!”Song on repeat:“I’ve been listening to ‘Queen and Wonder’ by Federico Albanese.”重复听的歌:“最近我在听费德里科·阿尔巴内斯(Federico Albanese)的《女王与奇迹》(Queen and Wonder)。”Tipple:“During show prep we usually get juices from Juice Press. But I can’t do juice cleanses — not eating really affects me, so I will do everything, just in moderation.”常喝的饮料:“在为时装秀做准备期间,我们经常购买Juice Press的果汁。但是我不能只喝果汁,不吃饭真的会影响我,所以我什么都吃,但是都适度。”Post–Fashion Week vacation:“I am looking into going to the Philippines or Patagonia. I never plan too far in advance because the buildup and anticipation drives me crazy.”时装周之后的休假:“我在考虑去菲律宾或巴塔哥尼亚。我从不提前太早做计划,因为出发前的准备过程和预期能让我抓狂。” /201409/328356昆明工人医院整形科香格里拉妇幼保健院激光去掉雀斑多少钱



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