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来源:华问答    发布时间:2017年12月11日 21:32:25    编辑:admin         

At an eye-watering cost of #163;3.6billion and sp across almost 1,000 acres of an old farmland, these pictures show Disneyland Shanghai ahead of its grand opening next year.成本36亿英镑,面积达1000英亩的农田,这些照片显示了正在建设中的迪斯尼上海乐园的景象,该乐园将于明年开张。The highly anticipated theme park will include the world#39;s largest Disney castle called the #39;Enchanted Storybook#39;.这个深受期待的主题乐园将包括世界上最大的迪斯尼城堡——被称为“被施了魔法的故事书”。It will also feature a production of #39;The Lion King#39; in Chinese and a pirate-themed zone based on the #39;Pirates of the Caribbean#39; movies.还将有中文版的《狮子王》以及以《加勒比海盗》电影为基础的海盗主题区。An artificial mountain will loom over thepark, becoming the highest hill in Shanghai#39;s Pudong district, and a 420-room Disneyland Hotel is planned in an #39;elegant Art Nouveau style#39;, with another based on the Toy Story films.园区内将建起一个假山,将成为上海浦东区的最高山,而且会以“优雅的新艺术形式“建起一座420个房间的迪斯尼酒店,而另外一个酒店将以《玩具总动员》电影为模版。On a commercial level, an adjacent #39;Disney town#39; will have 495,000 square feet of shops, restaurants and a 1,200-seat theatre.在商业层面,附近的“迪斯尼城”将拥有商店,餐馆和一个1200座的电影院,面积达495000平方英尺。As well as the Disney attractions, the park will also have a #39;distinctly Chinese#39; character, namely through a park called the #39;Garden of the Twelve Friends#39;.除了迪斯尼本身的景点外,该主题公园里还将有独特的中国特征——即其中有一个公园叫做“12个朋友的乐园”。Shanghai Disney will also have 12 mosaics that will exhibit the Chinese Zodiac#39;s 12 signs, but with the use of Disney characters. 里面还会有12座镶嵌画,展示中国的12生肖,但是用的是迪斯尼的卡通人物风格。It is hoped the park will open to the public in the spring of 2016 and welcome more than seven million visitors ayear, eventually rising to 16 million.这个公园将于2016年春天与大众见面,每年将迎来700万游客,最终达到1600万。It is built on a farmland in the once rural area of Chuansha, near the city#39;s Pudong International Airport.这个乐园位于浦东川沙,在浦东国际机场附近。 /201502/359118。

Lesson one: New challenges require new ways of thinking1.面对新挑战,要有新思路Part car, part jet fighter, part spaceship, Bloodhound SSC aims to be the first land vehicle to break the 1,000mph barrier. One of the key challenges has been to design the wheels. How do you create the fastest wheels in history, make them stable and reliable at supersonic speeds, and with limited resources?部分汽车、部分喷气式飞机、部分宇宙飞船,猎犬号超级汽车的目标是做世界上第一辆时速突破1000英里的汽车。而这面临的一项关键挑战是车轮的设计。如果换做是你,你会如何在有限的资源下发明出超音速汽车上用的轮子呢?After much deliberation, and devising ideas that pushed the boundaries of material technology, Mark Chapman, chief engineer of the Bloodhound project said the team decided to take a step back and change the way they were trying to solve problems. “There’s very little we’ve actually developed that’s new,” he says, “what’s unique is how we apply technologies.”猎犬号项目的总工程师马克·查普曼思来想去,觉得材料还是不够好。最后他和他的团队决定退回一步、换个角度看有没有别的办法。“我们实际创新的东西并不多”,马克说:“我们的独特之处在于应用技术的方式别具一格。”They adopted an approach called the design of experiments – a mathematical technique of problem solving through doing lots of little experiments and then looking at the statistics all glued together. “All of a sudden, where we’d been knocking our head against the wall for maybe two, three, four months, we came up with a wheel design that would hold together and was strong enough,” he says.他们采用实验设计的方法做了很多的小实验,综合所得的数据再得出精确设计。“花了三四个月绞尽脑汁做尽各种实验之后,很突然地我们做出了一个大胆的设计:把各种可用的(飞机、飞船所用的)技术都融合在一辆车上,从而使它足够强大。”马克说。Lesson two: Let evidence shape your opinion2.观点要用据来明Like his peers, geophysicist Steven Jacobsen from Northwestern University believed that water on Earth originated from comets. But by studying rocks, which allow scientists to peer back in time, he discovered water hidden inside ringwoodite, which lies in the Earth’s mantle, and which suggests that the oceans gradually made its way out of the planet’s interior many centuries ago.美国西北大学地球物理学家史蒂文·雅各布森曾认为,地球上的水源于彗星。但通过对岩石的研究,他发现地幔的林伍德石里面也藏有水,这一发现表明或许在N个世纪之前,海洋是从地球内部自己慢慢溢出来的。“I had a pretty hard time convincing others,” he admits. Yet two key pieces of evidence uncovered this year seem to support his point of view. Time will tell whether the new theories are true, and there may be further twists to the tale. “But thinking about the fact that you may be the first person to see something for the first time doesn’t happen very often,” he says. “When it does it’s thrilling.”“那时候我难说别的学者相信这个。”史蒂文说。但是今年新发现的两个关键据似乎持了他的理论。所以,一个新理论的正确与否可能需要时间来慢慢印,在被世人接受前可能会经历很多曲折。“但是如果你发现你是第一个发现这个规律的人,且时间又明你是对的之后,你会倍受鼓舞的。”史蒂文说。Lesson three: It really is 99% perspiration3.天才的99%确实是汗水Sheila Nirenberg at Cornell University is trying to develop a new prosthetic device for treating blindness. Key to this was cracking the code that transmits information from the eye to the brain. “Once I realised this, I couldn’t eat, I couldn’t sleep – all I wanted to do was work,” says Nirenberg.康奈尔大学希拉·尼伦伯格正在研究治疗失明的新型假体,其中破解眼睛与大脑的信息交流密码是最关键的。“我意识到这一点之后,就吃不下饭、睡不着觉,只想全身心投入工作。”尼伦伯格说。“Sometimes I’m exhausted and I get burnt out,” she adds. “But then I get an email from somebody in crisis or somebody who’s getting macular degeneration, and they can’t see their own children’s faces, and it is like, ‘How can I possibly complain?’ It gives me the energy to just go back and keep doing it.”“每次觉得筋疲力尽、江郎才尽的时候,我都会收到一些到正处于危险状态马上要失明的、或是患有黄斑部退化症的病人的邮件,这些人将没办法看清自己孩子的长相、无法看这五颜六色的世界。每当这个时候,我就跟自己说‘我怎么能够抱怨呢’,然后就又动力十足的继续工作。”Lesson four: The answer isn’t always what you expect4.结果并不总是和预想的一样Sylvia Earle has spent decades trying to see the ocean with new eyes. Her “dream machine” is a submarine that could take scientists all the way to the bottom of the deepest ocean floor. What sort of material could best withstand the types of pressure you would encounter thousands of miles below the ocean surface? “It could be steel, it could be titanium, it could be some sort of ceramic, or some kind of aluminium system,” says Earle. “But glass is the ultimate material.” By her estimates, a glass sphere about four-to-six inches (10-15cm) thick should be able safely explore the ocean depths she dreams of exploring.西尔维亚·厄尔花了几十年的时间试图让人们用新的方式亲近海底,她的“梦想号”潜艇可以让科学家潜入到最深的海底。那种材料才能够承受住深海的巨大压力呢?厄尔说:“我想过用钢、钛、陶瓷等,但最终发现其实玻璃才是终极王者。”根据她的预计,一块10-15厘米厚的玻璃板就能让她进入梦寐以求的那片深海世界。Glass is the oldest material known to man and one of the least understood, says Tony Lawson, Earle’s engineering director at Deep Ocean and Exploration Research Marine. “It has a higgledy-piggledy molecular structure a bit like a liquid, rather than the ordered lattices often found in other solids. As a result, when glass is evenly squeezed from all sides – as it would be under the ocean – the molecules cram closer together and form a tighter structure.厄尔的项目技术总监称,虽然玻璃是人类已知的最古老材料,但是我们对它的了解却甚少。“玻璃的分子结构有点像是液体,排列方式没有一般固体的有规律。因此,当玻璃被海洋里的压力从四面八方压迫时,它的分子会被压在一起,形成更紧密的结构。”Lesson five: A little luck goes a long way5.偶尔的一点好运也可以维持很久It was hailed as one of the biggest success stories in the history of space exploration – 20 years of planning ended earlier this year with the Philae lander rendezvousing with Comet 67P over 300 million miles (480 million kilometres) away from Earth.菲莱探测器被誉为太空探索史上最大跨越之一,历经20年的策划期终于在年初发射并成功在离地球四亿八千万公里的67P彗星上着陆。The biggest challenge, says Stephan Ulamec, manager of the Philae lander programme, was how to design a probe to land on a body whose makeup they had little knowledge about. “We had no idea of the size, we had no idea of the day-night cycle, which influences the thermal design, we had no idea of the gravity, so how fast would the lander impact, we had no idea how the surface looked,” he says.据菲莱项目的负责人斯蒂芬介绍,在这20年里遇到的最大挑战是对彗星构造了解较少,不知道该如何设计这个探测器。“我们不知道彗星的昼夜循环情况会影响保热设计,不知道彗星的重力也无法预测探测器着陆后对转速的影响,甚至不清楚彗星表面的样子。”They needed to create design parameters that could cope with an extremely wide range of possible comet structures – but banked on the comet being a relatively even potato shape with enough flat surfaces for the probe to land on. Even then, not everything went to plan, and two decades of meticulous planning could have failed within minutes at touchdown. Philae#39;s anchoring harpoons didn#39;t fire as planned, and it bounced off the comet before settling onto its icy surface and successfully beaming data back to its relieved creators.科学家们需要建立尽可能符合多种彗星结构的设计参数,但是还是得寄希望于彗星的表面要够平坦。可即便是花了20年设计、缜密计划过的菲莱还是在着陆的几分钟里有点小失败:“鱼叉”系统未如计划打开,无法准确钉入彗星表面。不过幸运的是,菲莱还是成功地把数据发回了地球。Lesson six: Genius is indefinable6.“天才”定义不明“It’s a funny word: the word ‘genius’,” says Nirenberg. “I just sort of ignore it and just go on with life. You just do what you do independent of whatever label’s attached to you. I don’t know really how else to explain it.”“天才这个词很有趣”,尼伦伯格说,“我常常忽略这个标签继续走自己的路。只需要抛掉别人在你身上贴的各种标签做自己想做到的事就好了。因为所谓天才真是判断标准不一、无法解释的事情。” /201501/356302。

During the winter months in New York, the streets are crowded with people bundled in muted colors; sheathed in furs and heavy knits. But the shop windows that line the city’s most fashionable neighborhoods tell a different story, as retailers are aly preparing for spring.冬季里的纽约,街上拥挤的人群带着柔和的色,人们都穿着皮草大衣和厚实的针织毛衣。但在纽约市最时尚的几个社区当中,那些沿街排列的店铺橱窗却在讲述一个截然不同的故事,因为这些装零售店已在准备春季的新款饰了。Fashion moves so quickly, it outpaces even this bustling city. As we trudge through the doldrums of winter, we can at least take refuge while shopping in boutiques and department stores where spring clothes aly line the racks.时尚潮流发展得如此迅速,步伐甚至超越了这座匆忙的城市。当我们在这样清冷的冬日里跋涉,至少能在女装精品店和百货商场里购物避寒,那里的货架上,已经挂满了春装。So, what are the trends for next season to look out for in stores? There are three that seemed to top the list during the runway shows last September: Retro-inspired looks from the 1970’s; relaxed pieces with an active-wear influence; and finally a trend that means you will be able to wear your latest purchase right out of the store an into the cold: furs and skins are in for spring.那么,在商店里都能看到哪些下一季的潮流呢?在已经过去的九月时装秀期间,有三大潮流似乎高居首位:七十年代的复古风;带有运动装风格的休闲饰;而最后一种潮流意味着,你将可以穿着新买的衣直接走入商店外寒冷的天气中,这就是春季款的皮草饰。Here is a look at what you may see in stores this winter, based on how these three trends appeared on the runway:根据时装秀上的这三大潮流,我们来看看今年冬天你能在饰店里看到些什么吧:Back to the ‘70s:一.回到七十年代:Cool Collars:短风衣回潮:The Barrymore collar is back. Both Burberry and Chanel updated the long, pointed collar once associated with disco-fever. At Burberry, as patent leather accents they gave denim jackets a pop of color. The exaggerated collars modernized blouses and polo shirts on the Chanel runway, showing that the long, tapering lapels are perfect for looking like a sophisticated lady or a disco-queen.可以寻觅一下双排扣和单排扣的前襟系带式短风衣,类似上世纪70年代约翰·沙夫特(John Shaft)这个电影角色的着装风格。普拉达(Prada)与古驰(Gucci)都推出了驼色皮质风衣,其夸张的扣子与冬季外套搭配起来,效果很好;即使气温升高,作外衣单穿也很理想。En-Trenched:拼接当道:Look for double and single breasted belted trench coats, a-la-Shaft. Prada and Gucci both showed camel colored leather versions with exaggerated buttons that will be nice for layering with winter coats, and ideal as outerwear as the temperatures rise.这种复古款式在秀场上有各种表现。在汤米·希尔费格(Tommy Hilfiger)与路易·威登(Louis Vuitton)的时装秀上,拼接是一种有趣的错位风格,模特们穿着条纹状的皮质拼接迷你A字裙与晚礼;而经过设计师里卡多·提西(Ricardo Ticsi)为纪梵希(Givenchy)所做的诠释,这种风格又显得尤其性感。你肯定能找到适合你风格的那一款。Patchwork Please:酷衣领:This vintage look had range on the runway. It had a refreshingly playful twist at both Tommy Hilfiger and Louis Vuitton’s show, where models wore striped leather patched A-line mini skirts and dresses, but it had major sex appeal when interpreted by Ricardo Ticsi for Givenchy. You’ll be sure to find a version that suits your style.巴利尔衣领(Barrymore collar)又回来了。巴宝莉(Burberry)与香奈儿(Chanel)都为这款曾与迪斯科热有关的尖角长衣领赋予了新的式样。在巴宝莉的时装秀上,这款衣领的漆皮样式让那些牛仔夹克衫多了一抹色;而在香奈儿的时装秀上,这款夸张的衣领让女士衬衫和polo衫很有现代感,显示出这类长款锥形翻领能让人看起来像个成熟女性,或迪斯科皇后。Sporty for Spring:二.春季运动款:Mesh:运动鞋: Even evening wear is getting an athletic twist this season, so be on the look out for floor length dresses from Alexander Wang, who used sporty mesh panels to provide a peekaboo of skin.跑鞋热早在几年前就开始了,而且,这股潮流在2015年还会更加强劲。所以,别把你去年春天穿的那款装饰繁复的“Dior Fusion”跑鞋收起来。尽管王大仁没有设计出一种搭配真正跑鞋的装款式,但他受到耐克乔丹鞋(Nike Air Jordan)启发而设计的那些手袋,肯定会在热爱时尚的都市人群中大受欢迎。Sophisticated Sweats:运动裤也优雅:Buy a pair of comfortable and low-slung slouchy trousers resembling jogging pants for this spring. A suede or leather pair like those shown on the Fendi runway can be worn now with boots, and paired with sandals when the weather warms. If a slimmer interpretation is more your style, look for more ballerina-esque pairs like those by Bottega Veneta.今年春天,买一条类似慢跑运动裤的舒适低腰休闲裤吧。类似芬迪(Fendi)时装发布会上展示的那种绒面或皮质长裤,现在就可以配上靴子穿;等天气变得暖和一些时,这款休闲裤还可以配上凉鞋穿。如果你更喜欢较为苗条的款型,那不妨多看看那些芭蕾裤,类似宝缇嘉(Bottega Veneta)品牌推出的那些款式。Sneakers:网眼:The sneaker craze began in earnest a couple of seasons ago, and is going strong for 2015, so don’t pack away your embellished “Dior Fusion” sneakers from last spring. Even though he didn’t pair a single look with actual sneakers, Alexander Wang’s Nike Air Jordan inspired handbags will surely be a hit with downtown fashion lovers.这一季,即便是晚礼也带上了一些运动的感觉。所以,请留意王大仁(Alexander Wang)设计的拖地长裙,用华丽的网眼面料展现出一种若隐若现的效果。Unexpected Fabrics:三.意想不到的面料:Feathers:羽毛: Feathers made a surprise appearance on several runways, but bewilderingly enough, they worked. Cocktail dresses covered in plumes may have staying power, but if you’re looking for a more subtle way to wear this look opt for accents instead of all over fluff.羽毛面料在多场时装发布会上的表现都十分惊人,而令人困惑的是,其效果也都很好。覆盖着羽状物的宴会饰可能依然是主流,但你如果想用更低调的方式穿着这种面料,就选择带有羽毛装饰而不是全羽毛面料做的衣吧。Fur:皮草:Fur embellishments are a statement for spring that will carry you from now until summer begins. Look for ladylike fur lapels like those shown on the Miu Miu runway, or go for a funkier look with a cropped fur and denim combination.皮草装饰是一份春天的宣言,你可以从现在一直穿到初夏。看看女装的皮草翻领吧,比如Miu Miu时装秀上展示的那些;或者选择一种更时髦的样子——将一块精致裁剪的皮草与牛仔布结合的款式。Suede:小山羊皮:We know that leather has become a year-round wardrobe staple, but suede is everywhere for spring. The soft texture is warm enough to wear right now, but suede outerwear in particular is perfect for bridging the period between heavy coats and lighter layers.我们知道皮革已经成为衣柜里一年四季的主打饰,可小山羊皮做的衣,将在这个春天里随处可见。小山羊皮这种柔软的面料不但现在穿着足够暖和,而且尤其适合作为厚重外套与轻便外衣之间的过渡饰。 /201411/342609。

Ancient Egypt stood as one of the world#39;s most advanced civilizations for nearly 3,000 years and created a culture so rich that it has spawned its own field of study. But while Egyptian art, architecture and burial methods have become enduring objects of fascination, there is still a lot you probably don#39;t know about these famed builders of the pyramids. From the earliest recorded peace treaty to ancient board games, find out 11 surprising facts about the Gift of the Nile.说到古埃及,人们能想到的著名人物除图特王外,恐怕就剩埃及艳后克娄巴特拉七世了。尽管克娄巴特拉出生于亚历山大,但她其实是马其顿的后人,而马其顿人则是亚历山大大帝最信任的上将托勒密一世的后裔。从公元前323年到公元前30年,托勒密王朝一直管辖着埃及,其大部分领袖都出身于希腊文化背景。而克娄巴特拉之所以如此有名,是因为她是托勒密王朝第一批会说埃及语的王室成员。1. Cleopatra was not Egyptian. 埃及艳后并非埃及人Along with King Tut, perhaps no figure is more famously associated with ancient Egypt than Cleopatra VII. But while she was born in Alexandria, Cleopatra was actually part of a long line of Greek Macedonians originally descended from Ptolemy I, one of Alexander the Great#39;s most trusted lieutenants. The Ptolemaic Dynasty ruled Egypt from 323 to 30 B.C., and most of its leaders remained largely Greek in their culture and sensibilities. In fact, Cleopatra was famous for being one of the first members of the Ptolemaic dynasty to actually speak the Egyptian language.说到古埃及,人们能想到的著名人物除图特王外,恐怕就剩埃及艳后克娄巴特拉七世了。尽管克娄巴特拉出生于亚历山大,但她其实是马其顿的后人,而马其顿人则是亚历山大大帝最信任的上将托勒密一世的后裔。从公元前323年到公元前30年,托勒密王朝一直管辖着埃及,其大部分领袖都出身于希腊文化背景。而克娄巴特拉之所以如此有名,是因为她是托勒密王朝第一批会说埃及语的王室成员。2. The ancient Egyptians forged one of the earliest peace treaties on record.古埃及人制定了史上最早的和平协定For over two centuries the Egyptians fought against the Hittite Empire for control of lands in modern day Syria. The conflict gave rise to bloody engagements like 1274 B.C.#39;s Battle of Kadesh, but by time of the pharaoh Ramses II neither side had emerged as a clear victor. With both the Egyptians and Hittites facing threats from other peoples, in 1259 B.C. Ramses II and the Hittite King Hattusili III negotiated a famous peace treaty. This agreement ended the conflict and decreed that the two kingdoms would aid each other in the event of an invasion by a third party. The Egyptian-Hittite treaty is now recognized as one of the earliest surviving peace accords, and a copy can even be seen above the entrance to the ed Nations Security Council Chamber in New York.为了争夺如今叙利亚所在的那片土地,古埃及和赫梯帝国展开了长达两个世纪的战争。其中不乏腥风血雨的战斗,如公元前1274年的卡迭石战役(Battleof Kadesh)。但一直到拉美西斯二世,双方都没争出个高下,况且当时两方都还得面对各自的内忧外患。于是在公元前1259年,拉美西斯二世与赫梯国王哈图西里三世制定了一个举世闻名的和平协定。协定终止了两国的冲突,并规定:若两方中任何一方遭到第三国入侵,则另一方将向其提供援助。该协定是现存最早的和平协定。如今,在纽约联合国安理会会议厅入口处,你还能看到这份协定的副本。3. Ancient Egyptians loved board games.古埃及人钟情桌面游戏After a long day#39;s work along the Nile River, Egyptians often relaxed by playing board games. Several different games were played, including ;Mehen; and ;Dogs and Jackals,; but perhaps the most popular was a game of chance known as “Senet.” This pastime dates back as far as 3500 B.C. and was played on a long board painted with 30 squares. Each player had a set of pieces that were moved along the board according to rolls of dice or the throwing sticks. Historians still debate Senet#39;s exact rules, but there is little doubt of the game#39;s popularity. Paintings depict Queen Nefertari playing Senet, and pharaohs like Tutankhamen even had game boards buried with them in their tombs.在尼罗河畔劳作一天后,埃及人通常用玩桌游的方式身心,而且游戏类别还多种多样,有“盘蛇图”、“和豺”等。其中最受欢迎的要数以运气取胜的“赛尼特”,这种游戏可追溯至公元前3500年,需要一个画着30个格子的长桌,每个玩家都有一套棋子,然后根据执骰子或抛木棍来走棋。关于“赛尼特”的游戏规则,各史学家众说纷纭,不过没有任何人质疑它受欢迎的程度,据就是涅弗尔塔里王后玩“赛尼特”的场景出现在了画作中,甚至连法老图坦卡蒙的墓室里都有玩“赛尼特”的长桌。4. Egyptian women had a wide range of rights and freedoms.古埃及女性享有广泛的权利与自由While they may have been publicly and socially viewed as inferior to men, Egyptian women enjoyed a great deal of legal and financial independence. They could buy and sell property, serve on juries, make wills and even enter into legal contracts. Egyptian women did not typically work outside the home, but those who did usually received equal pay for doing the same jobs as men. Unlike the women of ancient Greece, who were effectively owned by their husbands, Egyptian women also had the right to divorce and remarry. Egyptian couples were even known to negotiate an ancient prenuptial agreement. These contracts listed all the property and wealth the woman had brought into the marriage and guaranteed that she would be compensated for it in the event of a divorce.在人们眼中,埃及女性的地位不如男性,然而她们享有广泛的法定权利和财产自由,可以买卖财产、参加陪审、著立遗嘱及签订合约。埃及不是一个女主外的国家,但在外打拼的女性绝对能得到公平的待遇,与将女性作为男人所有物的古希腊截然不同。古埃及女性还享有婚姻自由,夫妻俩甚至可以制定婚前协议,罗列出女性将在婚后带来的财产,以保女方在离婚之时得到应有的赔偿。5. Egyptian workers were known to organize labor strikes.埃及工人大罢工Even though they regarded the pharaoh as a kind of living god, Egyptian workers were not afraid to protest for better working conditions. The most famous example came in the 12th century B.C. during the reign of the New Kingdom pharaoh Ramses III. When laborers engaged in building the royal necropolis at Deir el-Medina did not receive their usual payment of grain, they organized one of the first recorded strikes in history. The protest took the form of a sit-in: The workers simply entered nearby mortuary temples and refused to leave until their grievances were heard. The gamble worked, and the laborers were eventually given their overdue rations.尽管工人将法老视作活着的神,但这并不妨碍他们争取更好工作环境的勇气。最好的例便是公元前12世纪的大罢工。当时在位的是法老拉美西斯三世,在德尔麦迪那(Deir el-Medina)修建皇家陵墓的工人们并没有像往常一样得到等量谷物,于是工人们便史无前例地组织了罢工。他们在附近的祭庙中静坐,除非不公平待遇得到受理,否则拒绝离开。然而他们这个赌打赢了,当局在了解到他们的意图后,把克扣的份额发给了工人。6. Egyptian pharaohs were often overweight.埃及法老大多是胖子Egyptian art commonly depicts pharaohs as being trim and statuesque, but this was most likely not the case. The Egyptian diet of beer, wine, b and honey was high in sugar, and studies show that it may have done a number on royal waistlines. Examinations of mummies have indicated that many Egyptian rulers were unhealthy and overweight, and even suffered from diabetes. A notable example is the legendary Queen Hatshepsut, who lived in the 15th century B.C. While her sarcophagus depicts her as slender and athletic, historians believe she was actually obese and balding.在古埃及艺术中,法老常常瘦削挺拔、身材匀称,但事实并非如此。埃及人饮食中的啤酒、葡萄酒、面包、蜂蜜常常含有过多糖分,这可给埃及人的腰贡献了不少脂肪。检测木乃伊的结果显示:很多法老的身体都不够健康,体重超标,甚至患有糖尿病。典型的例子就是哈特谢普苏特王后——她生活在公元前15世纪,石棺上的王后苗条而优雅,然而很多史学家认为:这位王后不仅肥胖,而且还可能是个秃子。7. The pyramids were not built by slaves.金字塔并非奴隶所建The life of a pyramid builder certainly wasn#39;t easy—skeletons of workers commonly show signs of arthritis and other ailments—but evidence suggests that the massive tombs were built not by slaves but by paid laborers. These ancient construction workers were a mix of skilled artisans and temporary hands, and some appear to have taken great pride in their craft. Graffiti found near the monuments suggests they often assigned humorous names to their crews like the “Drunkards of Menkaure” or the “Friends of Khufu.” The idea that slaves built the pyramids at the crack of a whip was first conjured by the Greek historian Herodotus in the fifth century B.C., but most historians now dismiss it as myth. While the ancient Egyptians were certainly not averse to keeping slaves, they appear to have mostly used them as field hands and domestic servants.修建金字塔的人过得并不好,工人的骨架上有关节炎及各种疾病的痕迹。但有据显示,那些巨大的陵墓并非奴隶所建,而是当权者花钱请工人建的,这些要么是有一技之长的工匠,要么是一些临时工。而且,似乎一些工人还对自己的手艺感到相当自豪。纪念碑旁有一些涂鸦,上面常有他们为工友起的令人啼笑皆非的绰号:“孟卡拉(译者注:Menkaure,又译门卡拉,古埃及第四王朝的法老,大约在公元前26世纪里在位18年左右。)的酒鬼”、“胡夫的好基友”。而“奴隶在鞭声中修建金字塔”这一观点最早是由希腊史学家希罗多德在公元前5世纪提出的,但很多史学家并不认同,觉得简直是一派胡言。尽管古埃及人不反对蓄养奴隶,但这些奴隶多在田间劳作,或在家中打杂。8. King Tut may have been killed by a hippopotamus.杀害图特王的凶手可能是河马Surprisingly little is known about the life of the boy pharaoh Tutankhamen, but some historians believe they know how he died. Scans of the young king#39;s body show that he was embalmed without his heart or his chest wall. This drastic departure from traditional Egyptian burial practice suggests that he may have suffered a horrific injury prior to his death. According to a handful of Egyptologists, one of the most likely causes for this wound would have been a bite from a hippopotamus. Evidence indicates that the Egyptians hunted the beasts for sport, and statues found in King Tut#39;s tomb even depict him in the act of throwing a harpoon. If the boy pharaoh was indeed fond of stalking dangerous game, then his death might have been the result of a hunt gone wrong.令人惊奇的是,人们对图坦卡蒙这位少年法老知之甚少,但一些史学家相信自己已掌握了他真正的死因。少年身上的伤口显示:在进行尸体防腐处理时,尸体里并没有心脏和胸壁。这种另类的处理方式表明,法老在逝世前受了很严重的外伤。一部分埃及古物学者认为,这一致命伤口可能是河马咬的。史料显示,埃及人的确把追猎河马当作运动,而少年法老的墓室里也有他高举鱼叉的塑像。如果这位法老那么执着于危险游戏,那只能说这次是真的玩大了。9. Some Egyptian doctors had specialized fields of study.部分埃及医生开始细化医学研究An ancient physician was usually a jack-of-all-trades, but evidence shows that Egyptian doctors sometimes focused on healing only one part of the human body. This early form of medical specialization was first noted in 450 B.C. by the traveler and historian Herodotus. Discussing Egyptian medicine, he wrote, “Each physician is a healer of one disease and no more…some of the eye, some of the teeth, some of what pertains to the belly.” These specialists even had specific names. Dentists were known as “doctors of the tooth,” while the term for proctologists literally translates to “shepherd of the anus.”一般说来,埃及的内科医师都是多面手,但也有史料显示,部分医师有时只专注于治疗人体某个部位。公元前450年,旅行家及史学家西罗多德率先发现了这种早期的医学专门化研究。谈及埃及医学,他写道:“每位医师负责研究一种疾病,仅限一种……一些研究眼睛,一些研究牙齿,一些研究肚子里的器官。”而且,这些医师还有各自的名字,如牙医被称为“牙齿专用医师”,而直肠病医师的名称直译过来则是“看护员”。10. Egyptians kept many animals as pets.埃及人把很多动物养作宠物The Egyptians saw animals as incarnations of the gods and were one of the first civilizations to keep household pets. Egyptians were particularly fond of cats, which were associated with the goddess Bastet, but they also had a reverence for hawks, ibises, dogs, lions and baboons. Many of these animals held a special place in the Egyptian home, and they were often mummified and buried with their owners after they died. Other creatures were specially trained to work as helper animals. Egyptian police officers, for example, were known to use dogs and even trained monkeys to assist them when out on patrol.埃及人将动物视为神灵的化身,创造了最早饲养家庭宠物的文明之一。埃及人还特别钟情于猫,因为猫总和太阳神的女儿芭丝特联系在一块。他们还尊敬其他动物,包括鹰、朱鹭、、狮子以及狒狒。大部分动物在家中的地位都不一般,死后常常会被做成木乃伊,成为主人的陪葬品。另外,一些动物还会接受训练,成为人类的助手。比如,警察出巡时会带上训练有素的或猴。11. Egyptians of both sexes wore makeup.男女都要化妆Vanity is as old as civilization, and the ancient Egyptians were no exception. Both men and women were known to wear copious amounts of makeup, which they believed gave them the protection of the gods Horus and Ra. These cosmetics were made by grinding ores like malachite and galena into a substance called kohl. It was then liberally applied around the eyes with utensils made out of wood, bone and ivory. Women would also stain their cheeks with red paint and use henna to color their hands and fingernails, and both sexes wore perfumes made from oil, myrrh and cinnamon. The Egyptians believed their makeup had magical healing powers, and they weren#39;t entirely wrong: Research has shown that the lead-based cosmetics worn along the Nile actually helped stave off eye infections.虚荣几乎伴随文明而生,埃及也不例外。在那里,不论男女都顶着大浓妆,他们认为这样会得到太阳神的庇荫。化妆品的原料是磨碎的矿石,如孔雀石、方铅矿,这些矿石会被制成一种称为眼影粉的东西,然后用木、骨或象牙制成的工具,抹在眼周即可。女性还会涂腮红,用指甲花染手和指甲。至于用原油、没药和桂皮制成的香水,则是男男女女都必不可少的东西。他们相信脸上的妆有一种神奇的治疗功能,而研究明他们有一定道理:化妆品含铅,这种自上而下的化妆风潮的确有效地抑制了眼部感染。 /201504/369278。