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Ebola埃拉病毒Chasing a rolling snowball“雪球”越滚越大,防控刻不容缓The world is still acting too slowly to stop Ebola世界范围内阻止埃拉病毒扩散的行动速度过慢FOR months the world has sat largely idle as an Ebola epidemic has marched steadily from the remote jungles of Guinea to the slums of Liberia, and beyond. On September 16th that changed. Barack Obama announced the largest humanitarian deployment by Americas armed forces to fight an infectious disease. Saying that the epidemic “is not just a threat to regional security—its a potential threat to global security if these countries break down”, the president began the process of sending some 3,000 American troops to set up treatment centres with 1,700 beds and to train local health workers.在过去的几个月里,埃拉病毒从几内亚偏远的热带雨林扩散到了利比里亚的贫民窟甚至更远的地方,然而全世界对此却无动于衷,直到9月16日开始有所改变了。奥巴马总统进行了最大的人道主义救助部署,美国军队将会向这一传染性疾病宣战。他表示“这不仅仅是对地区安全的威胁,如果这些感染病毒的国家被拖垮的话,这将正为对全球安全的潜在威胁”3000名美国士兵已经被派遣到当地建立治疗中心,该中心有1700个床位,当地的卫生工作者也将受到训练。The dispatch of troops to west Africa may seem an odd priority when American forces are preparing to confront jihadists in Iraq and Syria and are stretched thin elsewhere. Ebola is a disease that is usually absent from human populations, has been quickly stamped out in the past and in its worst recorded outbreak has thus far caused 3,000 known deaths (seearticle). Moreover it is unlikely to sp widely in rich countries with good health-care systems. Set against killers such as HIV, the virus that kills some 1.6m people a year, or tuberculosis (TB), which takes another 1.3m lives, an expensive fight against Ebola may seem a misallocation of resources.将美国军队派遣到西非可能会看上去是一个奇怪的举动,因为这时美国的军队大多在备战伊拉克和叙利亚的圣战,其他地区的部队为数不多。埃拉病毒通常不会在人类中传播扩散,过去的历史记录中,它通常很快会不见踪影,而最严重的爆发情况是造成了3000人死亡的记录。并且这一病毒在医疗条件较好的富裕国家并不会大面积传播。与此形成对比的是,像艾滋病这样的病毒每年致死的人数多达160万人,肺结核病毒的致死人数也多达130万人。如果在对待埃拉病毒上耗费巨资的话可能是对资源的误用。Yet Ebola is now growing exponentially, with the number of new cases roughly doubling every three weeks or so. In Monrovia, the capital of Liberia, it is thought to be doubling every two weeks. Previous outbreaks were usually in rural villages where it was easier to contain. At this rate of progress, small numbers quickly become big ones, and there is a real risk of the disease sping to cities such as Lagos, which is home to more than 10m people. The longer Ebola is allowed to replicate in humans, the greater the risk that it will become more contagious. Some virologists fret that it might even acquire the ability to be transmitted through the air by coughs and sneezes. Although this seems unlikely, nobody wants to find out just how quickly Ebola can adapt to humans.然而,现在埃拉病毒却在成几何级数扩散,新发现的病例每三周将会翻一番。在利比里亚的首都蒙罗维拉,新病例每两周就翻一番。之前病毒的爆发地通常是偏远村落,那里比较好控制。按照这种发展趋势,感染人数很快就会由小变大,那么如果这一病毒扩散到像拉各斯这样的大城市的话,那么将构成真正意义上的威胁,因为那里居住了超过1千万人。埃拉在人类身上复制传播的时间越长,那么它变得更具传染性的风险就越大。一些病毒学家甚至担心它会变成可以通过空气和唾液传播的病毒。尽管这似乎不太可能,但是没人愿意等着看埃拉病毒多久能适应人类受体。Americas response is the first by a government on a large scale. Until now the burden has been carried by charities such as Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), which has 2,000 staff in the affected countries. Yet even Americas large commitment may not be enough to get ahead of this epidemic in Liberia, the country most affected. By the time the troops actually get there, the situation in Liberia could be far worse.在政府层面对此作出大规模反应的,美国是第一个。目前为止担负最多责任的是像MSF这样的慈善机构。该机构已有2000名员工在病毒感染国工作。尽管美国的决心很大,但是还不足以处理埃拉病毒在利比里亚这个最大感染国的肆虐。等到军队过去的时候,情况可能要比现在糟糕的多。Gloves and masks needed急需手套和口罩Elsewhere, the response falls far short of what is needed. Sierra Leone, the second-worst-affected country, has received far less help from governments: China is sending 174 people and mobile laboratory teams, Cuba is sending a similar number and Britain will set up a hospital with 62 beds. France is sending 20 people to the region.在其它地区应对措施远远不足。塞拉利昂这个第二大感染国接受到的政府援助少得可怜:中国派出了174人以及一流动实验队,古巴也正在派遣差不多的人员,英国将建立一所有62个床位的医院。法国也正在派遣20名人员到该国。Two things are urgently needed. The first is the rapid provision of basic protective gear such as gloves, gowns, surgical masks and disinfectant. Domestic health systems in affected countries have crumbled as nurses and doctors have fallen ill or died for lack of basic gear.目前迫切需要做两件事情。首先是迅速提供基本的防护装备,如手套、隔离衣、口罩、消毒液。 感染国国内医疗系统已经崩溃,因为护士和医生由于缺乏基本的装备而病倒或者死亡。The second need is for trained staff to run the treatment centres and work in them. Poorly run ones with weak infection controls may hasten the sp of the disease. Both are needed soon, as the cost of halting Ebolas sp is also rising exponentially. In August the World Health Organisation estimated that it would take nine months and cost 0m to contain Ebola. Now it reckons the cost has risen to over billion. The longer the world prevaricates, the harder and costlier it will be to contain this outbreak.第二件事是需要受训人员来管理治疗中心并开始工作。管理不善以及不到位的感染防控可能加剧疾病的传播。这两件事都亟待解决,并阻止埃拉病毒的几何级数增长。今年八月,据世界卫生组织估计,需要用9个月花费4.9亿美元的资金才能控制在埃拉病毒。先在估计这一金额将升至10亿美元。全世界对此观望的时间越长,那么想要控制疫情将耗费更多的人力物力。 /201409/331817

It really is a love fest and considering you quit the day I started and I hold no grudge这个真是一场爱的集结 考虑到我开始的那天你就辞职了 我没什么怨恨的意思by the way I do actually feel guilty about that,I genuinely do顺便说一下 对此我真的感到非常内疚 我是真诚的cuz I didnt think about that which is your first day因为我没想过那天是你的第一天and 2 hours before you were starting,I held a press conference to said about Im leaving在节目前的两小时 我举行了一个公开会议 说我要离开nice wave to you to start,but that was Foxs idea not mine这是对你开始的善意招呼 但是那是福克斯的主意 不是我的Its funy cuz when he walked on I whispered to him有趣的是 当他走过来时我跟他说了一阵悄悄话Its like I start and you quit?就像是 我开始了你退出?whatll happen what ill do, you dont even know yet接下来会发生什么 我该怎么做 你还不知道?but it was an interesting way to start,but things happened the way they happened这是一种有趣的方式来开头 事情照着安排发生了but I really have been enjoying my time with you,yeah so have I但是我真的很享受与你在一起的时光 是的 我也是I said when I signed on the Idol,I would show you the behind the scenes我说过当我去了美偶 我将给大家展示幕后的故事cuz there are a lot of things that happen that a lot of people dont see what happening因为那儿发生了 很多不为人知的事even though its a live show,they really shoot around it即使那是一个直播秀 他们真的全方位地记录了它and one of the things when we first started working together,I noticed how touchy Simon was在我们刚开始合作时我就发现了一件事 我注意到西蒙是那么的好摸you remember how I was sitting to him at first你记得吗 我第一次跟你坐在一起时and then I kept moving further and further away,that was my doing我就不停地往旁边挪 我就是那样做的because everytime I sat next to him this happened因为每次我坐他旁边的时候就会发生这种事 /201606/449625

Car loans in America美国汽车贷款Bad carma因果循环Borrowers, not lenders, have more to fear from the latest subprime lending boom贷款人,而不是出借人,更加惧怕最近次级贷款的繁荣For whom?为了谁WHAT would you rather lose: your house or your car? In America, where a car is usually essential to get to work, many borrowers would sooner lose their house, which explains why in the years after the crisis, mortgages were more likely to go bad than car loans. It also explains why auto loans, unlike mortgages, are booming. New loans reached 371 billion in the year to June, up 7.4% from the previous year and 64% since . Subprime auto loans, made to the riskiest borrowers, have grown even faster, by 93% since .房子或者是汽车,你舍得哪一样?在美国,汽车对于上班族来说常常是必不可少的,许多贷款人可能很快失去他们的房子,这解释了为什么在危机之后的几年,住房抵押贷款比汽车贷款更加容易恶化。这也说明了为什么汽车贷款不像住房抵押一样正经历着一场繁荣。到今年六月份,新的贷款量已经达到了3710亿美元,比去年上升了7.4%,自年来提升了64%。给予高风险的贷款人的刺激汽车贷款增长得更快,自年以来上升了93%。This growth is due to rising car sales and ample credit as banks, finance companies and carmakers financing arms compete to lend to consumers, either directly or via car dealers. Those loans are then packaged into securities for yield-hungry investors. Experian, a credit-scoring agency, reckons 85% of new and 54% of used cars are now bought with loans, compared to 79% and 52% in 2007.这样的增长是由不断增加的汽车销量以及、金融公司和汽车制造商财务分竞相直接或通过分销商借款给消费者的丰富贷款造成的。这些贷款最后被包装成券交给渴求利润的投资者。信用评级公司益佰利评估:85%的新车和54%的旧车是用贷款买的,相比之下,2007年两者数据分别为79%和52%。As volumes have soared, underwriting standards have slipped, with the average subprime loan rising to 115% of the cars value this year from 112% in 2011, according to Standard amp; Poors, a ratings agency. The average life of a loan has grown too, to more than five years. Delinquencies, naturally, are rising: more than 3% of loans are at least 60 days in arrears, up from 2% in 2011.随着总量的激增,券包销标准也下降了,根据评分机构标准普尔公司的数据,平均次级贷款从2011年占汽车价值的112%上升到了今年的115%。平均借贷周期也延长到超过五年。违约行为自然地多了:超过3%的贷款至少有60天的逾期,而2011年是2%。There is much talk of a new subprime bubble, akin to the cavalier mortgage lending that helped spark the financial crisis. The Department of Justice has asked two big car-loan companies, GM Financial, a unit of General Motors, and Santander Consumer, controlled by Spains Santander Group, for details about their subprime underwriting and securitisation.有关新的次贷泡沫有许多讨论,就好像目空一切的房屋抵押贷款引发了金融危机那样。司法部要求两大汽车借贷公司—通用旗下的通用金融和西班牙桑坦德集团控制下的桑坦德消费—提供其次级券包销标准以及券化的细节。Yet the two markets are fundamentally different. Start with size. At 905 billion, total auto loans are barely a tenth of total mortgage debt. Subprime is also more established in auto lending, accounting for 20% to 30% of total loans since 2000.但是这两个市场是明显不一样的。就规模来说,9050亿美元的汽车贷款仅仅是房贷总额的十分之一。次级贷款占了汽车贷款的很大比重,从2000年来占据了贷款总量的20%到30%。The mortgage bubble fed on the delusion of both borrowers and lenders that house prices could only rise and thus a loan could always be repaid. In contrast, lenders assume cars only depreciate, and charge accordingly: annual subprime interest rates average 14%, and 25% is not uncommon. Cars are also easier to repossess and resell.房产泡沫基于出借人和贷款人的幻想——房价只能涨,这样贷款才能一直被付。相反,出借人只期望汽车贬值,并且相应地进行收费:年均次级贷款利率为14%,甚至25%也不是鲜见。汽车也更加容易再次买卖。So while losses are likely to mount, lenders do not face a mortal threat. It is borrowers who have more reason to worry. A car loan is a complex transaction that hinges not just on the price of a car, but also on its trade-in value, extras such an extended guarantee or rust proofing, and most important, the interest rate. A dealer typically selects a e from a bank or finance company via his computer and marks it up. The higher the markup, the greater the payment he receives from the lender.所以尽管有可能增加损失,出借方并未面临致命的威胁。贷款人才更加应该多操心。汽车贷款是个以复杂的交易,它不仅和汽车价格挂钩,也和其抵价值,额外的费用如延长保修时间或者防锈处理以及最重要的利率有关。交易员一般通过电脑引用或者金融公司的报价再加上一定价。价加得越高,他从出借方得到的报酬也就越高。Consumer advocates fret that this process leaves the unsophisticated—as subprime customers tend to be—at the mercy of unscrupulous dealers. They may be charged a higher rate despite qualifying for a lower one, sold unneeded or overpriced extras, or even told, a few days after they drive off with the car, that their loan was turned down and they must pay a higher rate. “None of the prices are fixed, and each unfixed price is a potentially abusive negotiating point,” says Tom Domonoske, a lawyer who represents aggrieved buyers. Consumer advocates would like markups replaced with a flat fee.消费者保护机构担心这个过程会让那些没有经验的消费者—次级贷款顾客往往是这样—受不良交易员的配。他们可能被收一个更高的利率,尽管他们有资格获得更低的利率,并且“被消费”不必要的或者过高价格的附加项,甚至在他们开了几天车之后被告知他们的贷款呗取消了并且他们必须付一个更高的利率。受害消费者的代表律师Tom Domonoske说:“这些价格没有一个是固定的,并且每一个不固定的价格都是一个潜在的被滥用的谈判砝码。”消费者权益维护者期望用稳定的费用取代加价。The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), a new watchdog agency set up after the financial crisis, is also worried that lots of borrowers get a raw deal. It has told banks and finance companies that it holds them responsible for the behaviour of the dealers they work with, and that it considers dealers discretion over markups an invitation to discrimination. It has aly got one big finance firm to pay 98m to settle a claim that it was charging minority borrowers higher interest rates and is investigating others.金融危机后设立的监管代理—消费者金融保护局也担心许多贷款人被不公平对待。它已经告知和金融公司,要求他们对合作的交易员的行为负责,并且它认为交易员就加价的任意决定权是一种歧视。它已经让一个大的金融集团付9800万美元,因为该集团向少数贷款人收取高额的利率,另外保护局还在调查其他公司。Dealers are fuming at the CFPBs muscle-flexing. Competition, they say, ensures that customers get the best rate; dealers need discretion to compete. By raising costs, stricter regulation may actually reduce the amount of credit available.交易员对于保护局的武力示威愤愤不平。他们说,竞争保了消费者获得最好的利率:交易员需要自由决断权来应对竞争。通过提高成本,更严格的规章可能实际上减少信贷的提供量。 /201409/332187

The annual Nuclear Security Summit gets underway Thursday in Washington. 周四,华盛顿举行年度核安全峰会。President Obama is hosting a series of meetings with the leaders of several Asian nations to talk about efforts to prevent North Korea from becoming a bigger nuclear threat. 奥巴马总统与数个亚洲国家领导人举行系列会谈,谈论如何防止朝鲜成为更大的核威胁。The summit is aimed at reducing the worlds nuclear weapons. Vladimir Putin abstained from the summit saying he doesnt want to be part of any talks led by the ed States. 此次首脑会议的目的是减少世界的核武器。普京在峰会中弃权,称不想参与以美国为首的任何会谈Obama said their two countries remain committed to completing an agreement to continue lowering their Cold War-era nuclear arsenals. 奥巴马表示,两国将致力于完成一项协议,继续减少冷战时期的核武库。The US and Russian missiles make up about 90 percent of the worlds nuclear weapons.美国和俄罗斯的导弹占世界核武器的百分之90。译文属。201604/435083


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