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2017年10月23日 08:23:21来源:医生家庭医生

After its attempts to digest romance novels, one of Google#39;s artificial intelligence projects is now accidentally writing poetry, some of which would make the fictional Vogons proud.在读完几本言情小说后,谷歌公司开发的一项人工智能项目于偶然间写出了几段诗歌。其中一些可能会令沃贡人对自己种族的诗歌感到骄傲(沃贡人是小说《系漫游指南》中虚构的种族,以诗歌质量低下闻名)。Google is working with Stanford University and University of Massachusetts in the US to enhance the natural language skills of an AI technique called recurrent neural network language model (RNNLM), which is used within machine translation and image captioning among other tasks. It essentially builds sentences a single word at a time by analysing the previous words in that sentence.谷歌目前正在和斯坦福大学及马赛诸塞大学合作,改进一项名为循环神经网络语言模型的人工智能技术(RNNLM)。这项技术普遍应用于机器翻译和图像捕捉的任务中。而在人工智能搭建句子时,该技术会对句子中已有的单词进行分析,从而生成每个新的单词,在这一过程中起到至关重要的作用。Currently, RNNLM is not capable of implementing global themes or features, such as a set topic, within its sentence generation. Each sentence produced by the algorithms doesn#39;t necessarily flow smoothly into the next. The work, published as a paper through Cornell University#39;s open scientific paper archive, arXiv, details the researcher#39;s efforts to add the ability to apply a global theme to sentence generation using a system called a variational autoencoder and the results, including what could easily be mistaken for poetry.目前循环神经网络语言模型的组句部分尚不具备处理包括设定题目在内的全局主题和特征的能力,而这种算法产生的句子在前后衔接得并不顺畅。这项研究以论文的形式发表在康奈尔大学公开的论文库arXiv中。论文详细描述了研究者是如何运用名为变分自动编码器的系统帮助该算法实现识别全局主题的功能的,而得出的结果极易令人将其误认成诗歌。Some of it would arguably give Douglas Adams a run for his money, as the creator of the Vogons, the Hitchhiker#39;s Guide to the Galaxy and its Ode to a Small Lump of Green Putty I Found in My Armpit One Midsummer Morning, during a recital of which “four of the audience members died of internal haemorrhaging and the president of the Mid-Galactic Arts Nobbling Council survived only by gnawing one of his own legs off”, according to the book.道格拉斯·亚当斯创造的《系漫游指南》中一位诗人朗诵的《关于一个仲夏的清晨我在自己的腋下发现一团绿色胶泥的咏叹诗》糟糕到令“四位听了诗歌的委员会成员死于体内大出血,而中部艺术委员会的会长嚼完了自己的一条腿才保住了性命。”而如今人工智能写出的句子则烂到可以与这首诗一较高下了。The researchers fed the system starting and ending sentences and then asked it to fill in the gap. Below, the bolded text is what the researchers gave the algorithm and the text in between is what it produced. The results are generated by the machine based on what it learnt from thousands of romance novels, which made some of the topics “rather dramatic”, according to the authors of the paper.研究者准备了一段话的开头和结尾,要求系统进行填空。图中加粗的内容是研究者提供的内容,而两句话中间部分则是系统合成的内容。系统在阅读了上千本言情小说后才生成了这些句子。论文作者表示,看了这些言情小说令系统写出的一些句子“颇具戏剧性”。The generated sentences make grammatical sense, maintain a sort of theme and for the most part fit with the start and end sentence. Others weren#39;t quite as poetic, but still maintain the theme set by the start and ending sentences.这些句子合乎语法规则,遵循了同一主题,大部分内容与开头和结尾的句子相吻合。有些句子并未明显体现出诗的感觉,却仍能起到承上启下的作用。The results show interesting improvements in the ability of the machine to generate sentences that make sense together, which could led to much more human-like interactions with AI chatbots, perhaps even Google#39;s Now.上述结果反映了人工智能在生成有效句子方面富有趣味性的进步。这样的进步能促进人类和人工智能聊天机器人进行更多类人互动,互动的对象甚至可以扩展到谷歌的语音助手Now。 /201605/446488。

  • JERUSALEM — Critics of Israel’s chief rabbinate have long complained that scores of U.S. converts to Judaism have trouble getting approval to marry in Israel. Now, one such case with a celebrity connection could break open the rabbinate’s long-standing secrecy over which foreign rabbis are approved to conduct conversions.耶路撒冷——长期以来,以色列大拉比的批评者一直抱怨很多改信犹太教的美国人很难在以色列获准结婚。现在,有一个牵涉名人的此类案例,可能会破解大拉比制度下长期以来关于哪些外国拉比可以获准主持皈依仪式的秘密。The case involves an American who, shortly after her Orthodox conversion in New York, became engaged to an Israeli, only to have the local rabbinical court in his hometown reject her status as a Jew when they tried to register for marriage.在这个案例中,一位美国人在纽约皈依犹太教正统派后不久,与一名以色列人订婚,不过当他们准备登记结婚时,她的犹太身份却遭到男方家乡的一个地方拉比法庭否认。As it turns out, the rabbi who signed the woman’s conversion certificate also converted Donald Trump’s daughter Ivanka, and officiated at her 2009 wedding to Jared Kushner, the newspaper publisher now planning the presumptive Republican nominee’s potential transition to the White House.给这位女士签发皈依书的拉比也曾主持唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)的女儿伊万卡(Ivanka)的皈依仪式,并在2009年主持她与报纸出版人贾里德·库什纳(Jared Kushner)的婚礼。库什纳目前正在帮助稳获共和党提名的总统候选人进军白宫。The rabbi, Haskel Lookstein, is one of the most respected Orthodox rabbis in New York, where he has for 58 years led Manhattan’s Congregation Kehilath Jeshurun, after taking over the pulpit from his father. He recently received an honorary doctorate from Israel’s Bar-Ilan University in recognition for what it called “the influential role he has played in deepening Jewish values and heritage among American Jewry.”哈斯克尔·卢克斯坦(Haskel Lookstein)是纽约最受尊敬的正统派拉比之一,继承父亲的神职之后,领导曼哈顿的Kehilath Jeshurun犹太会堂长达58年之久。前不久,以色列的巴尔伊兰大学(Bar-Ilan University)为了表彰“他在深化美国犹太人的犹太价值观和传统方面发挥了有影响力的作用”,授予他荣誉士学位。The case raises the question of whether Ivanka Trump — who said in a Vogue magazine interview last year that she and her husband were “pretty observant,” keeping kosher and the Jewish Sabbath — would be accepted as Jewish herself in all quarters in Israel.这个事件引发了人们关于伊万卡·特朗普(Ivanka Trump)的犹太人身份能否在以色列全境获得认可的怀疑。去年,她在接受《Vogue》杂志采访时表示,她和丈夫“严格遵守”教规,持守犹太洁食和安息日规定。More broadly, it illustrates a growing divide between Israel’s increasingly strict ultra-Orthodox religious establishment and many Jews abroad over the age-old question of “who is a Jew” that has complicated Israel’s relationship with the diaspora for decades.在更广层面上,它反映出以色列日益严格的极端正统派宗教权威与国外很多犹太人对于“谁是犹太人”这个古老问题日益严重的分歧。在过去几十年里,这个问题让以色列与犹太侨民之间的关系变得复杂。The Israeli rabbinate, which controls Jewish marriage and most Jewish burial sites in the country, does not recognize non-Orthodox streams of Judaism like Reform and Conservative, with which the majority of affiliated U.S. Jews identify. In rejecting Lookstein’s conversion and those of others in similar positions, the rabbinical authorities now risk alienating Jews abroad who practice modern Orthodoxy according to Halakha, or Jewish law.以色列拉比掌管犹太婚姻以及该国的大部分犹太墓地,他们不认可非正统派犹太教分,比如改革派和保守派——美国的大部分犹太人都属于这些非正统派分。以色列拉比拒绝承认卢克斯坦以及其他具有类似地位的拉比签发的皈依书,因此有可能疏远国外的那些按照犹太律法执行现代正统派教规的犹太人。“Ten years ago, if an Orthodox rabbi in good standing performed a conversion, it would have been a given that it would be accepted here,” said Rabbi Seth Farber, the founder of Itim, an Israeli organization that has been critical of the rabbinate and is pressing the case of Lookstein’s U.S. convert.“10年前,如果是一名地位稳固的正统派拉比主持的皈依,人们肯定认为它在这里是会被接受的,”对犹太大拉比持批评态度的以色列组织Itim的创始人塞思·法伯拉比(Seth Farber)说。该组织正在为卢克斯坦的美国皈依者奔走。He added, “I’d say this is unprecedented in Jewish history, that one group of rabbis rejects another.”他补充说:“我得说,这在犹太历史上是前所未有的——一个拉比团体否定另一个拉比团体。”Itim handles up to 150 cases a year of modern-Orthodox converts from the ed States who are struggling to get married in Israel or are experiencing other issues with the religious establishment. As Farber put it, “Almost everyone has problems nowadays.”Itim每年处理多达150起类似案件——美国现代正统派犹太教皈依者在以色列争取婚姻权或经历其他与宗教权威相关的难题。按法伯的说法,“如今,几乎每个人都遇到问题。”The U.S. convert, who is appealing her case to Israel’s supreme rabbinical court, declined to be interviewed, and the rabbis discussed her situation on the condition that she not be identified in order to protect her privacy.那名改信犹太教的美国女性正把自己的案件上诉至以色列最高拉比法庭。她拒绝接受采访。为了保护她的隐私,拉比们讨论她的情况时都避免暴露她的身份。Her supporters said she converted just over a year ago, after about a year of study, and soon met the man who would become her fiancé in Petah Tikva, a bedroom community near Tel Aviv. The rabbinical court there first ruled in April that her conversion was invalid.她的持者称,她在一年前刚改信犹太教,之前学习了一年左右,然后很快在特拉维夫附近的城郊住宅区佩塔提克瓦遇见了后来成为她未婚夫的男人。今年4月,当地的拉比法庭首次判决她皈依无效。After a preliminary hearing in the supreme rabbinical court in Jerusalem, Rabbi Itamar Tubul, the director of the chief rabbinate’s department of personal status and conversion, wrote a letter to the Petah Tikva court saying that the conversion certificate signed by Lookstein was “approved by the chief rabbinate of Israel.” (Two other Kehilath Jeshurun rabbis also signed the certificate.)在耶路撒冷最高拉比法庭的初步听会之后,大拉比的个人身份和皈依部主管伊塔马尔·图布勒拉比(Itamar Tubul)给佩塔提克瓦法院写信表示,卢克斯坦签发的皈依书是“经过以色列大拉比批准的”(Kehilath Jeshurun犹太会堂的另外两名拉比也在这份书上签了字)。But the Petah Tikva court issued a second ruling against the conversion June 8, saying it had found no mention of Lookstein on its lists of approved rabbis.但在6月8日,佩塔提克瓦法院再次判决这一皈依无效,称它没有在自己的获准拉比名单上看到卢克斯坦的名字。Lookstein, 84, is now in an emeritus position at Kehilath Jeshurun, which has a membership of 1,100 families, and is considered one of the most established and mainstream Orthodox rabbis in America.84岁的卢克斯坦目前是Kehilath Jeshurun犹太会堂的荣退拉比,他被认为是美国最权威、最主流的正统派拉比之一。该会堂的会众包括1100个家庭。In a telephone interview, he said this case was a first for him, though he was not aware of anyone else who had been converted by him or his colleagues at Kehilath Jeshurun who then tried to marry in Israel.卢克斯坦在接受电话采访时称,他首次遇到这样的案例,不过他并不知道是否还有经他自己或Kehilath Jeshurun犹太会堂其他同事之手皈依犹太教的人曾尝试在以色列结婚。“The irony is that this woman is very meticulous about her religious observance,” Lookstein said. “She is as Jewish as I am, and as Jewish as the rabbis signed on the certificate, except in the eyes of the Petah Tikva rabbinate.”“讽刺的是,这位女士一丝不苟地遵守犹太教规,”卢克斯坦说,“从犹太教身份的角度讲,她和我以及其他在书上签字的拉比是一样的,只有佩塔提克瓦的拉比不这么认为。”“The bottom line,” he added, “is that the rabbinate in Israel is not respecting and honoring the work of the Orthodox rabbinate in America on conversion.”“其实是,”他补充说,“以色列拉比不尊重和承认美国正统派拉比主持的皈依。”Lookstein said he expected that the woman would ultimately win her appeal and be able to marry in Israel. “But the battle is taking so much out of this woman and causing such pain at a time when she should be happiest in her life,” he lamented, adding that the Petah Tikva rabbis were perpetrating “a terrible sin” because “the Torah is very explicit that a convert should be treated with love and never afflicted.”卢克斯坦说,他希望那位女士能最终赢得上诉,可以在以色列结婚。“但是,这场战斗耗费这位女士这么多精力,给她一生中本该最快乐的时光带来巨大痛苦,”他叹息道。他还表示,佩塔提克瓦的拉比正犯下“严重的罪孽”,因为“《托拉》(Torah)明确指出,应该用爱对待皈依者,永不折磨他们”。 /201606/451136。
  • Andy Grove, who died on Monday at 79, was not one of the technology industry’s household names. But the chemical engineer who turned Intel from a brilliant science project into the first industrial giant of the personal computing era has long been guaranteed a revered place in Silicon Valley lore. 安迪#8226;格罗夫(Andy Grove)于本周一逝世,享年79岁。格罗夫并非科技业家喻户晓的名人之一。但这位化学工程师让英特尔(Intel)从一个卓越的科学项目转变为个人计算机时代的首个行业巨头,一直在硅谷传说中享有尊崇地位。 Grove, who joined Intel in 1968, rose to become chief executive at the peak of its PC industry power, from 1987-98, and served as chairman until 2004. 格罗夫在1968年加入英特尔,在1987年至1998年英特尔在个人计算机行业的影响力达到巅峰时担任首席执行官,并担任董事长直至2004年。 He did as much as almost anyone to shape the computing world that has emerged over the past half century — and, in the process, to define the business culture that has taken such a powerful grip on modern management thinking. 他对塑造成长于过去半个世纪的计算机世界所做的贡献不亚于任何人,并且在这个过程中定义了深谙现代管理思想的企业文化。 His personal idiosyncrasies, insecurities and passions coalesced into a powerful brew. They included an iconoclastic disregard for the normal conventions of business and a win-at-all-costs determination; a relentless addiction to pre-emptive corporate reinvention and the merits of moving fast; a taste for gutsy, bet-the-farm risks; and an eye for the kind of industry domination that new digital technologies made possible. 他的个人特质、不安全感和热情汇聚成了强大的力量。他有着对企业常规惊世骇俗的蔑视,以及不惜代价获胜的决心;他极度痴迷于对企业进行先发制人的改造,并且行动迅速;他勇于孤注一掷地冒险;他渴望利用新的数字科技来获取行业主导地位。 “Many of the senior statesmen in the Valley worked for him, many of the [venture capitalists] worked for him,” says David Yoffie, an Intel director from the late 1980s and a professor at Harvard Business School. “In some sense, his career was the story of Silicon Valley.” 从上世纪80年代末就担任英特尔董事的哈佛商学院(Harvard Business School)教授戴维#8226;约菲(David Yoffie)表示:“硅谷的许多资深人士都曾为他工作过,许多(风险资本家)也为他工作过。从某种意义上说,他的职业生涯就是硅谷的故事。” Grove was the classic outsider who found himself in the computing world that came to life in the 1960s. He was born András Gróf in Hungary on September 2 1936. His father was conscripted into a Jewish labour battalion during the second world war while he and his mother moved around Hungary to avoid detention and the fate that befell many Hungarian Jews who were rounded up and sent to Auschwitz. 格罗夫是一个典型的外来者,在上世纪60年代计算机世界诞生时,便投身其中。他于1936年9月2日出生于匈牙利,原名安德拉什#8226;格罗夫(András Gróf)。他父亲在二战期间被征到犹太人劳工营,而他和母亲辗转于匈牙利各地以免遭到拘捕,像许多匈牙利犹太人那样被抓起来送往奥斯维辛集中营(Auschwitz)。 It was after the Hungarian uprising of 1956 was brutally suppressed by the Soviet Union that Grove fled the country, escaping by foot into Austria and then a new life in the US. 正是在1956年匈牙利起义被苏联残酷镇压之后,格罗夫逃离了匈牙利,徒步逃到奥地利,随后到达美国,开始了新生活。 He never went back. Instead, arriving in Silicon Valley at the start of the 1960s, he was catapulted into a future that he helped to invent. 他从未再回去过。实际上,在上世纪60年代初抵达硅谷之后,他就投身于一个自己参与创造的未来。 Grove was one of the great business communicators, despite a thick accent that remained with him and a hearing impediment from early in life. 格罗夫是伟大的商业沟通者之一,尽管他一直带着浓重的口音,而且从早年起就有听力障碍。 He also translated his thinking into some of the most influential management books of the late 20th century. One — Only the Paranoid Survive — became a mantra not just for Grove but for the whole of Silicon Valley, where the threat of being disrupted by the next new upstart engendered persistent anxiety. 他还将自己的想法写成书籍,其中一些成为20世纪末最具影响力的管理类书籍。其中的《只有偏执狂才能生存》(Only The Paranoid Survive)不仅是格罗夫的理念,而且还成为了整个硅谷的理念——在硅谷,被下一个新秀企业颠覆的威胁让人持续陷入焦虑。 As he wrote in the opening lines: “The more successful you are, the more people want a chunk of your business and then another chunk and then another until there is nothing left.” Many managers may sense this truism. Few have the guts to do something about it. 正如他在该书的开篇所写:“你越成功,就有越多的人想抢走你的一部分生意,再抢走一部分,直到你一无所有。”许多经理人可能觉得这是老生常谈。但很少有人有勇气就此做些什么。 The paranoia was not just for show. “I sat in many, many meetings with Andy while he looked at the worst outcome, and what could possibly go wrong,” says Mr Yoffie. He adds that it was this refusal to rest on past success — and the ability to see how the various pieces of the business world would fall into place — that enabled Grove to take the pre-emptive actions needed to put Intel at the top of its industry. 这种偏执不仅仅是为了秀给别人看。“我与安迪开过很多很多次会,他会考虑最糟糕的结果,以及哪里可能出错,”约菲说道。他补充说,正是由于格罗夫拒绝停留在过去的成功,并且能够看清商业世界拼图中的不同碎片将如何落到正确的位置,所以他能够采取让英特尔走上行业巅峰所需的先发制人的措施。 Perhaps the most significant was Grove’s determination to make Intel the sole source for the new PC microprocessors, rather than just one of several suppliers — a move that was to give the company unassailable economies of scale and cement its lead. 或许最为重要的是格罗夫决心让英特尔成为新的个人电脑微处理器的唯一供应商,而不是几家供应商之一,此举令该公司获得无懈可击的规模经济并得以巩固其领先地位。 IBM, at the time its biggest customer and the originator of the PC, was against the move. But Grove remained firm and the rapid emergence of a new industry, led by Compaq Computer, provided a y market. IBM’s grip on the computing world was broken and Intel — along with Microsoft — had turned itself into one of the tech industry’s dominant monopolists. 当时英特尔最大客户、个人电脑鼻祖IBM反对此举。但格罗夫意志坚定,由康柏电脑(Compaq Computer)率领的新行业的迅速崛起提供了一个现成的市场。IBM对计算领域的控制被攻破,英特尔(与微软(Microsoft)一道)把自己变成了科技行业占主导地位的垄断者之一。 Grove showed a similar determination when, assailed by competition from Japan, he decided to abandon memory chips, the company’s original business, to bet everything on microprocessors. 在遭遇来自日本的竞争之际,格罗夫显示出了类似的决心,他决定放弃内存芯片业务(这是该公司的原始业务),全盘押注于微处理器。 But if he got the big strategic decisions right, Grove was as well known for a relentless attention to detail and a mercilessly demanding management style. Hired as Intel’s first employee by founders Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce, it was his ability to get things done that made him invaluable. 但除了做出正确的重大战略决策,让格罗夫出名的还有他对细节的强烈关注以及毫不留情的苛刻管理风格。他是英特尔创始人戈登#8226;尔(Gordon Moore)和罗伯特#8226;诺伊斯(Robert Noyce)聘用的该公司第一位员工,正是他把事情做成的能力使他成为无价的人才。 He had followed a postgraduate degree at the University of California, Berkeley with a job as a research scientist at Fairchild Semiconductor, Silicon Valley’s original chipmaker. But he came into his own as an operational genius, turning the cottage industry that was chipmaking into one of the most demanding of high-tech sectors. 在加州大学伯克利分校(University of California, Berkeley)获得硕士学位后,他曾在硅谷最早的芯片制造商飞兆半导体(Fairchild Semiconductor)担任研究员。但他却作为一位经营天才脱颖而出,把作坊式的芯片制造业转变为了要求最为苛刻的高科技行业之一。 As with Steve Jobs at Apple, Grove’s rages became famous, and his treatment of subordinates could be vicious. But the tempers never undermined his drive. “He had a talent for pushing people harder than they had ever been pushed before — and for making people want to please him,” says Mr Yoffie. “He was such a hard man to please.” 就像苹果(Apple)的史蒂夫#8226;乔布斯(Steve Jobs)一样,格罗夫的火爆脾气很是出名,他对待下属的态度极其严厉。但这种脾气从未削弱他的鞭策力。“他有一种天分,能够给员工从未遇到过的严厉鞭策,并让员工愿意取悦他,”约菲表示,“他是一个很难取悦的人。” /201603/433287。
  • Ren Qingtai (1850 ~ 1932)任庆泰(1850?1932)Ren Qingtai, also known as Ren Jingfeng, was born in Faku County, Liaoning Province in 1850 and died of disease in Beijing 1932. He was the first Chinese filmmaker, so he was called the “Father of Chinese Film”.庆泰,字景丰,又字觐风,1850年出生于辽宁省法库县,1932年病逝于北京。任庆泰是中国电影第一人,因此被称为“中国电影之父”。Ren Qingtai went to Japan to learn photography when he was young and then launched the first photograph studio,“Fengtai Photo Studio” in Beijing, 1892. Although Ren Qingtai did not learnphotography in China, the motivation for him to learn the skill and to open his own photograph studio in China was drawn from the environment in north China where he grew up. Another factor was related to the development of Japan which became an e-conomical and military empire in the following two decades since the Meiji Reform began in 1874. Therefore, Ren Qingtai traveled to Japan to learn Western photography.任庆泰青年时在日本学习过照相技术,1892年在北京开设第一家照相馆——丰泰照相 馆。尽管当时任庆泰在中国不是学照相的,但由于受他成长的中国北方环境的影 响下,他决定学习照相技术,在中国开设自己的照相馆。另一个原因与当时日本的发展有关。在1874年明治维新后的20多年里,日本成为经济和军事强国,因此, 任庆泰便到日本学习西方照相技术。Around the beginning of the twentieth century, foreign films gathered in China attracted a great number of Chinese audiences. But only foreigners were entitled to show and make films then. With the rise of foreign film business from Italy, France and the USA, etc. which undoubtedly stimulated directly the first Chinese filmmaker very few Chinese people went to see the traditional Chinese “shadow play”(Ying Zi Xi). Ren#39;s motivation to make films was related to make Chinese films which cater to the enjoyment of Chinese viewers. Another reason attributed to a commercial wave that was stimulated by the new medium of film which accelerated the birth of Chinese film.20世纪初前后,汇集在中国的外国电影吸引了大批的中国观众,那时,放电影和拍摄电影也只是外国人的权利。毋庸置疑,来自意大利、法国和美国等外国电影 业的兴起直接刺激了中国第一位电影摄制者,而很少有中国观众去光顾中国传统的“影戏”。所以,任庆泰初拍中国电影是为了迎合中国观众的享受。另外一个原 因归于加速中国电影诞生的西方电影新事物刺激下的一股商业浪潮。In 1905, Ren mounted a sheet against a wall outside his studio as a backdrop ,and filmed several excerpts from traditional Beijing Operas acted by famous Beijing Opera artist Tan Xinpei. Thus the first film, The Battle of Mount Dingjun, was successfully made in China.1905年,庆泰在他照相馆外墙上裱出一片空白作为背景,拍摄了由著名京剧表演艺术家谭鑫培表演的原于传统京剧的几个片段。就这样,由中国人拍摄的第一部中国电影《定军山》成功地诞生了。Following the success of the first film of Beijing Opera, Fengtai Studio continued to make seven films of Beijing Opera, including Chang Ban Po (1905), Green Rocky Mountain (Qing Shi Shan) (1906), Leopard (Jin Qian Bao) 1906, The Sunny Mansion ( Yan Yang Lou) 1906, White Water Shoal (Bai Shui Tan) (1907) , Capture Guan Sheng (Shou Guan Sheng) (1907) , Spinning Cotton (1908) , etc. These films were characterized by acrobatic fighting, dance movements and facial expressions.随着第一部京剧电影的成功,丰泰照相馆又继续拍摄《长坂坡》(1905)、《青石山》(1906)、《金钱豹》(1906)、《艳阳楼》(1906)、《白水滩》(1907)、《收关胜》 (1907)和《纺棉花》(1908)等七部电影。这些电影都以武打格斗、戏曲舞步和面部表情为特点。During this period, the filmmaker Ren Qingtai changed his department store into a cinema named Daguanlou Theatre which became the first Chinese cinema only showing films. The theatre promoted his film business to be more flourishing and prosperous. Fengtai Studio produced a total of eight films based on Beijing Opera from 1905 to 1909. All of them were made in Beijing and were warmly received by the public. The fad indicated that not only were Chinese films a success, but also that the aesthetic and cultural psychology of Chinese filmmaker and audience were in accordance with each other.在此期间,电影导演任庆泰也把他的百货公司改建成了大观楼影戏园,后来成为仅放电影的第一个中国电影院。大观楼影戏园促使他的电影业蓬勃发展一片生机。1905至1909年间,丰泰照相馆共拍摄了八部京剧电影,所有电影均在北京拍摄并获得公众的热烈欢迎。事实表明,不但中国电影成功了,而且中国电影导演的审美和文化心理是符合中国观众的。In 1909, a fire ruined Daguanlou Theatre and also ended all film activities of Ren Qingtai.1909年,一场大火烧毁大观楼影戏园,同时也结束了任庆泰电影生涯的所有活动。 /201605/443502。
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