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楼主:百科助手 时间:2017年10月23日 08:26:56 点击:0 回复:0
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Who doesn#39;t get stressed every now and then? It may feel like you#39;re always on the brink of being totally overwhelmed. The key is knowing when it#39;s happening — and being proactive about putting an end to it.  谁不会时不时的感到焦虑呢?有时候你会感到自己就在彻底崩溃的边缘,应对这种状态的关键在于,知道你什么时候会有这种感觉——并且要预先准备好克这种状态的应对之道。  We rounded up 30 expert and research-backed ways to relax, whether you have five minutes, five hours or five weeks. So long, stress!  我们收集了三十种让你放松压力的方法,这些方法都是经过专家验和调研统计的,不管你能抽出五分钟还是五个小时,抑或5周时间,都来看看吧。永别啦,焦虑!  1. Write your worries down in a journal.  把你的烦恼都记在日记里。  2. Peel an orange. Studies show the smell of citrus can help reduce stress.  剥个橙子。研究明橙子的香气能帮助人减缓压力。  3. Eat an avocado.  吃一个鳄梨。  4. Take a walk in green space.  在绿荫中散个步。  5. Hang out with your BFF.  跟闺蜜来个聚会。  6. Spend a few minutes focusing on your breath.  花几分钟时间专注地调整呼吸。  7. Take a power nap.  好好睡个午觉。  8. Bring your dog to work.  把你的带去上班。  9. Listen to Mozart.  听莫扎特的音乐。  10. Try some aromatherapy.  尝试一下香薰疗法。  11. Let out a laugh.  开怀大笑。  12. Get a massage.  收个短信息。  13. Give someone a big hug.  给别人一个大大的拥抱。  14. Belt it out at karaoke...  在KTV引吭高歌……  15. Do a small project or craft.  做点小手工和小任务。  16. Take up knitting.  学学编织。  17. Unsubscribe from all of those promotional emails.  退订所有的推销邮件。  18. Kiss a loved one.  亲吻你的爱人。  19. Call your mom.  给妈妈打个电话。  20. Do a progressive muscle relaxation exercise.  做一套强度循序渐进的肌肉放松操。  21. Set ;stress boundaries;. If someone — or something — is starting to stress you out, step away from the situation.  设置一个“压力防火墙”,如果某人或某件事开始让你感到焦虑,从这种让你焦虑的环境中走出来。  22. Go for a run.  出去跑一跑。  23. Color a picture. This activity isn#39;t just for kids!  为一幅图画上色,这可不仅仅是孩子的游戏!  24. Pet your dog or cat.  宠爱你的或者猫。  25. Look out the window.  看看窗外的风景。  26. Try a de-stressing app.  试着用用放松压力的应用程序。  27. Use your imagination and look at your life like scenes in a movie.  动用你的想象力,想象自己像看电影中的画面一样观赏着自己的生活。  28. Count to 10, then count backward.  数到10,然后倒数到1。  29. Spend a little time in the sun. (Just wear your SPF!)  花点时间呆在阳光下。(记得擦防晒霜哟!)  30. Take a lunch break away from your desk.  离开办公桌好好吃顿午饭。 /201603/433456What is obesity? We all know it when we see it but do we know what causes it? Many people think that obesity is down to laziness and greed. Obesity is, however, more serious than someone carrying a few extra pounds. It is a medical, life limiting condition and people who suffer from it deserve help and support. Obesity is an issue for one in three Americans and the AMA took the decision in order to impact on the way doctors and other medical professionals approach those suffering from the disease. Many other health issues (Type II Diabetes and Heart Disease) are linked to or made worse by obesity so treating and preventing obesity should have a positive effect on instances of many other conditions. In Sweden it has been accepted that obesity is increasingly prevalent, particularly amongst young people and as such policy makers need to look at targeting the problem and its associated social, personal and economic costs. The American Medical Association (AMA) took the decision, on June 18, 2013, to classify obesity as a disease. This was a controversial decision that is still being debated today. The debate gives rise to strong feelings on both sides. Here are our 10 reasons why obesity is a disease.大家都很清楚什么是肥胖,但是对于产生肥胖的原因,却鲜有人了解。很多人把肥胖的原因归结于懒惰、贪婪。事实上,肥胖远不是身上多长了几磅肉那么简单。严格说来,肥胖是一种医疗疾病,肥胖者的日常生活非常因肥胖变得很不方便,他们应该得到大家的帮助与持。每三个美国人当中就会有一个患有肥胖症,美国医疗学会(AMA)决定要协助医生以及其他医疗工作人员帮助肥胖症患者脱离这种疾病的困扰。肥胖会引发许多其他健康问题,还会使病情恶化(如:2型糖尿病和心脏病),因此在身体患有其他健康问题的情况下预防和治疗肥胖百利而无一害。在瑞典,肥胖症非常普遍,尤其是在青年人中,因此,政府需要着手寻找解决问题的方法,并查明其会牵涉到的社会、个人、以及经济上的代价。2013年6月18日,美国医疗学会将肥胖症列入疾病范畴。一直以来,社会各界对该决定争论不休,引起正反两方强烈反响。以下即为肥胖属于疾病范畴的10个原因。10.Obesity Has Always Been Treated As a Disease10.肥胖始终被社会各界视为一种病As far back as the Ancient Greeks Hippocrates defined obesity as a disease noting that it could case impotence and sexual problems. Plutarch exhorted people to avoid indulging in delicacies and Galen invented the #39;fat camp#39; when he #39;reduced a huge fat fellow to moderates size…by making him run every morning until he fell into a profuse sweat#39;.早在古希腊时期,希波克拉底就已把肥胖列入疾病范畴,且发现其会造成性无能等问题。希腊的历史学家普鲁塔克告诫人们不要纵情于美味佳肴。希腊名医伽林也成立了一个“减肥营”,通过让那些过度肥胖的人每天晨跑至汗流浃背来使他们“从大胖子转变为体格正常之人”。By the 17th Century English Doctors were calling obesity a disease. They thought it was caused by a malfunction of the internal organs. Obesity has always been identified as a problem; however, historically it has been a problem that is the preserve of the rich. As Oliver Twist says in the song #39;Rich gentlemen have it boys…indigestion!#39; Today many parts of the world are, by historic standards, incredibly rich and have a food security that is unparalleled. With this improved food security come related food problems.到了17世纪,英国医生把肥胖症归为一种疾病。他们认为肥胖是由人体内部器官功能“失灵”引起。肥胖一直以来都被视为一种病,但人们一直都认为它是富人专属。就如《雾都孤儿》里的一句歌谣所云:“有钱的老爷都是吃到消化不良呀……” 跟以前相比,现今有钱人太多了,而且食品安全问题也比以前好太多。然而在这种情况下,还是会有饮食问题——肥胖饮食。9.Doctors Say It Is9.医生认为肥胖属于疾病Doctors are experts in disease and how to cure it. If they say something is a disease we should listen to them! The AMA decided it was a disease in 2013 and the FDA, American College of Gastroenterology and the American Heart Association, amongst others, all agree. Nor is the US the only country where doctors make this claim. In Malaysia Dr Tee E Siong o the Nutrition Society of Malaysia and Professor Dr Mohd Ismail Noor of the Malaysian Society for the Study of Obesity say it should be referred to as a disease #39;so that the public can be more aware of the dangers of the condition#39;. Obesity Australia is also campaigning for formal recognition of obesity as a disease to #39;remove stigma and reduce obesity rates.#39;医生是研究疾病并找寻治疗方法的人。所以医生说某一种症状应列入疾病范畴时,我们就应该相信!美国医疗学会于2003年把肥胖列入疾病范畴,对此,美国食品及药物、美国肠胃病学院、美国心脏病协会等组织都十分持这一举措。美国不是唯一一个赞同把肥胖列为疾病的国家。马来西亚营养协会的Tee E. Siong士和马来西亚肥胖研究所的Mohd Ismail Noor教授都认为,将肥胖与疾病联系起来,公众会更容易意识到肥胖的威胁性。澳大利亚肥胖协会也正在努力争取把肥胖症归为正式的疾病,以达到“减少耻辱和降低肥胖率”的目的。8.The World Health Organisation Says It Is8.世界卫生组织说肥胖是病Obesity was aly formally classified as a disease by The World Health Organisation when it was founded (back in 1948). Obesity was, however, ignored for a long time as it was seen to be a problem of the developed world. By 1988 the World Health Organisation Obesity Report showed that obesity was becoming a worldwide problem. WHO#39;s factsheet #39;Obesity and Overweight#39; gives advice to individuals, society and food manufacturers on how to combat obesity and other related #39;noncommunicable#39; diseases.肥胖在1948年的时候就被世界卫生组织列为一种疾病。然而,在相当长的时间里,肥胖一直为人所忽视,它被认为是发达国家才有的问题。直到1988年,世界卫生组织肥胖报告表明,肥胖正成为全球性问题。世界卫生组织的“肥胖与超重”实况报告在关于如何对抗肥胖症和别的相关“非传染性疾病方面给个人、社会和食品制造商列出了许多建议。”7.Obesity Can Be Inherited7.肥胖可以遗传No matter how healthy a lifestyle, how well people eat, some people are simply predisposed to be obese. People who suffer from conditions such as Prader-Willi Syndrome or a congenital condition such as hyperthyroidism are likely to be obese – sometimes from a young age.不论人们生活方式多么健康,饮食多么合理,有些人就是容易胖。患有威利综合症或者先天性疾病的人群,例如,甲状腺机能亢进症患者,更倾向于患有肥胖,有时甚至年纪轻轻就会很肥胖。Even if you do not have markers for any particular syndrome it is possible to be predisposed to obesity. If both your parents are obese you have an 80% chance of being obese yourself. There are more than 41 genes that predispose people to obesity. Why is this? There are survival benefits to obesity – if you can store up energy in the good times you are more likely to survive a period of famine. This so called #39;thrifty gene#39; was a great benefit in century#39;s past. A modern day #39;paleo#39; diet may be all very well but it is not the answer for everyone. Even in prehistoric times there were some people who were predisposed to be obese. Many of the #39;Venus#39; figurines recovered from the time show women with large breasts, stomachs and buttocks. These figurines may demonstrate the #39;desired optimum#39; i.e. large is beautiful but even if that is the case the optimum had to exist for the artists to be aware of it. Put simply some cave men were obese and that genetic predisposition has been passed on to their descendants – us!即使你没有任何特殊症状,你也还是有可能患上肥胖症。如果你的父母都肥胖,那么你有80%的几率患有肥胖症。因为人体本身就有超过41种使人们更倾向于肥胖的基因。怎么会这样?因为肥胖有生存益处——如果平时储存足够能量,就可以在饥荒期间生存下来。这个所谓的“节俭基因”在过去可是非常有益的。现在我们提及的“原始饮食”也许非常好,但不适合所有人。即使在古代,也是有人更易于肥胖的。许多存留下来的“维纳斯时期”女人雕像的特征都是丰乳肥臀。这些雕像展示的也许就是当时的“完美标准”, 例如,“大”即是美。但“最美”的东西也得有懂得欣赏的艺术家。简单来说,一些洞穴人是肥胖的,他们的这种基因特性也遗传给了他们的后代——我们!6.Obesity Has an Impact on Life Expectancy6.肥胖影响寿命If someone who is not obese suffers from a condition that reduces their life expectancy most people would be comfortable labelling that condition a disease or illness. Lung Cancer is a disease whether or not the person who has it was a smoker. Cirrhosis of the liver is a disease whether or not the sufferer is a drinker. WHO states that 3.4 million adults die from obesity each year. Shockingly 65% of the world#39;s population now live in countries where obesity is more of a health risk than being underweight. The sad fact is that obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable death worldwide by as much as 10 years in the most extreme cases. If any other condition had this type of major impact there would be no debate about whether or not it should be classified as a disease – indeed there would be an outcry if it was not.无论一个人是否肥胖,只要他因此而寿命缩短,人们自然就会将它标志为“疾病”。不管患者是不是烟民,肺癌都是一种疾病;不管患者是不是酒鬼,肝硬化都是一种疾病。世界卫生组织指出,每年都有340万成年人死于肥胖。让人震惊的是,现在世界有65%的人口都居住在把“肥胖”列为“危害健康”行列的国家,在这些国家肥胖造成的伤害比饮养不良还要大。更令人沮丧的是,在10年中最严重的情况下,肥胖是全球可预防性死亡的诱因之一。如果有什么能和肥胖一样产生如此大的影响,则没有人会反对把它列为“疾病”,否则贸然将肥胖列为疾病必然会引起公愤。审校:哈利 来源:前十网 /201601/420334In a chilling turn of events, some taxi drivers in Japan are claiming to have picked up #39;ghost passengers#39; in the aftermath of the tsunami that devastated the nation in March 2011. As many as seven of the 100 drivers interviewed by Yuka Kudo, a student of sociology at Tohoku, admitted to having encountered phantom fares.2011年3月,东日本海域发生地震,席卷而来的大海啸重创全国。灾难过后,曾传出的士司机在灾区载到“鬼乘客”的报道,听来颇为骇人。就读日本东北大学社会学系的工藤优花采访了百位的士司机,七人承认曾载到过鬼魂。Kudo conducted the interviews as a part of her graduation thesis, traveling to the coastal town of Ishinomaki every week for a year to speak to taxi drivers waiting for fares. She asked over 100 drivers the same question: ;Did you have any unusual experiences after the disaster?; Many of them ignored her, some even got angry, but seven drivers agreed to describe their strange encounters.工藤优花每周都会前往海滨城市石卷,采访当地正在候客的的士司机,为自己的毕业论文做准备。一年来,她采访了一百多位的士司机,问题只有一个:“海啸过后,你碰到过什么离奇事件吗?”不少人闭口不谈,有些人甚至对她恶语相向,但其中有七人则向她讲述了自己的灵异遭遇。One driver recounted a particularly unsettling story—in the summer of 2011, a woman dressed in a coat climbed into his taxi near Ishinomaki station. She said, ;Please go to the Mianmihama Station.; When he pointed out that there was nothing left standing in the district, she asked him in a shivering voice, ;Have I died?” The driver immediately turned around, only to find the back seat empty.有位司机的故事格外惊悚。那是2011年的夏天,一位身着大衣的女士在石卷车站附近坐上了他的车,并告诉他:“麻烦去南滨车站。”这位司机告诉她,南滨已在海啸中被夷为平地了。听到这儿,女乘客哆嗦着问他:“我是不是已经死了?”一句话,吓得司机赶紧扭头,发现后座竟空无一人。Another driver recalled how a young man who looked to be in his 20s got into his taxi. When the driver looked in the rear-view mirror for directions, the man kept pointing towards the front. The driver then asked for a destination, to which he replied, ;Hiyoriyama; (mountain). When the taxi reached the area, the man had disappeared from the taxi.另一位司机回忆道,自己曾载过一名20多岁的男子。他盯着后视镜,问乘客要往哪儿开,可这名男子只是一直往前指。于是他不得不问了句,到底去哪儿?男子答道:“日和山。”当司机开到目的地时,发现男子早已无影无踪了。It’s easy to dismiss these stories as hallucinations or imaginations, but the drivers#39; logs are proof that they really might have occurred. When these #39;ghosts#39; got into their cabs, the drivers started the meter, which is recorded. So even though these passengers disappeared during the ride, they were still counted as clients. The drivers then had to pay their fares out of their own pockets. Some of the drivers even wrote down their experiences in their logs.不少人会说,他们一定是产生幻觉了,或者故事是编的。可的士上的计程仪不会骗人啊。“鬼乘客”一上车,计程仪便开始运作,记录着行车全程。哪怕乘客半路消失,依旧算一次行车记录,也就是说,司机们不得不自掏腰包,付车费。有些司机甚至在行车册上写下了他们的遭遇。All these phantom travelers were described to be young, which compels Kudo to believe that they were indeed victims of the 2011 tsunami. ;Young people feel strongly chagrined (at their deaths) when they cannot meet people they love,; she said. ;As they want to convey their bitterness, they may have chosen taxis, which are like private rooms, as a medium to do so.;据司机们的描述,所有的鬼乘客都是些年轻人,因此工藤优花认为,他们确实是2011年的海啸遇难者。“年轻人死不瞑目,放不下对爱人的牵挂,”她说,“为了宣泄痛苦,他们选择坐的士,因为的士空间密闭,是理想的载体。”Interestingly, none of the drivers reported feeling any fear, instead holding their special passengers in reverence. Having lost loved ones in the disaster themselves, they perceived the encounters as a spiritual experience, meant to be remembered and cherished forever. ;It is not strange to see a ghost here,; a driver said. If I encounter a ghost again, I will accept it as my passenger.”有趣的是,接受采访的司机纷纷表示,自己并不害怕,反而对这些特殊的乘客心生敬畏。不少司机也在海啸中失去了他们的至爱,因此,他们将搭载鬼乘客视作通灵的经历,值得铭记与珍惜。“在这里见鬼并不稀奇,”一位司机坦言,“如果我再载到鬼,肯定会送它到目的地。”Kudo herself was moved by the interviews. ;I learned that the death of each victim carries importance,; she said. ;I want to convey that to other people.;此番采访,让工藤优花深受感动。她说:“这些司机让我明白了,每一位遇难者的死都意义重大。我要让更多人了解这点。”According to official records, over 15,000 people died during the magnitude-9 earthquake that lasted for six minutes and triggered a 133-ft high tsunami that swept six miles inland. Numerous sightings of #39;ghosts#39; and #39;spectral figures#39; have been reported in residential districts in the affected areas in the aftermath of the disaster.官方资料称,东日本地震强度高达9级,虽仅持续6分钟,却引发了133英尺(约合40米)高的海啸,深入内陆达6英里(约合9.6公里),共造成1.5万多人丧生。海啸过后,多人曾在灾区目睹了“鬼魂”或“幽灵”出没。 /201601/424510When I started my current job, I was assigned to a cubicle1 with a five-foot-high partition. Promoted in three monks2, I asked for a private office in line with my new title. My boss reluctantly told me that there were three possibilities. The first was a room that housed file cabinets and printers. Another was an office that was empty except when one of the company#39;s founders3 visited. The third was a conference room.我刚开始做我现在这份工作时,被安排在一个有着5英尺高隔板地隔间里。3个月之后。我得到了晋升。 于是我提出了一个请求,想要拥有一个和我的新职位相符的私人办公室。 老板不情愿地告诉我,我有3个选择:第一个是放文件柜和打印机的房间,第二个是一间空办公室,可是有的时候,公司的一个创办人会过来看看,最后一个便是会议室。After we had discussed each of the alternatives, he told me to make a choice. Deciding to play it safe, I replied, ;I want the one that will make the least amount of trouble and affect the fewest people.; A smile shot across his face, and he leaned backward in his chair. ;That#39;s the office you have now.; He said.在我们商讨了每一种选择方案后。 他让我做出选择。 为了使做出的选择更为保险,我回答:“我想要一个将会带来最少麻烦、影响最少人的那个房间。”一丝微笑从他的脸上掠过。 接着他往椅背上一靠,说道:“那就是您现在的办公室。 ”他说。 /201511/412424

In 184, the Yellow Turban Rebellion occurred, which was a peasant rebellion against the Eastern Han Dynasty in the reign of Emperor Ling. It was named for the color of the scarves which the rebels wore around their heads.爆发于公元184年的黄巾起义是农民反抗灵帝统治的汉王朝的武装斗争,因起义农民头裹黄色丝巾而得名。Since the rebels were associated with secret Taiping Taoist societies, the rebellion also marked an important event in the history of Taoism.起义者与太平教(一个秘密道教组织)关系密切,为此黄巾起义也是道教发展史上的重要事件。After the death of Du Wu, Emperor Ling became a puppet manipulated by eunuchs.窦武死后,灵帝成为宦官的傀儡。In order to secure the throne, he tried to please eunuchs, going so far as to refer to one of them as his father.为了保住自己的皇位,灵帝极力讨好宦官,竟称宦官为父亲。Thus, the eunuchs extorted money from the people unscrupulously.宦官们更是肆无忌惮的搜刮民财。The corrupt imperial court, the landlords’ oppression along with the successive natural disasters made it impossible for the people to live on, so many of them rose up to revolt.朝廷的腐败,地主豪强的压迫,再加上接二连三的天灾,百姓没法生活下去,被迫起来反抗。At the end of the Eastern Han, Zhang Jiao of Julu (modern Pingxiang in Hebei Province) established a secret Taoist sect — Tai Ping Dao , declaring himself to be Great Teacher. He traveled around the country propagating his faith and dispensing free treatment to the sick.东汉末年,巨鹿(今河北平乡)人张角创太平道,自称大贤良师,在各地传教,并免费给穷人看病。In ten year or so, Tai Ping Dao sp more than half the country, and enlisted several hundreds of thousands of followers.十余年间,太平道传遍了大半个中国,各地信徒发展到几十万人。In order to start up rebellion, Zhang Jiao divided the whole country into 36fang (section) with a bigger consisting of more than 100 000 persons and a smaller one 6 000 ~ 7 000.为了发动起义,张角全国分为三十六方,大方有10000余人,小方 6 000?7 000人。Meanwhile he brought forward a slogan, “The Blue Sky has perished, the Yellow Sky will soon rise; in this year of Jia Zi (i. e. , the year 184), let there be prosperity in the world !”( Blue Sky was referred to the Eastern Han and Yellow Heaven to the Yellow Turbans), which was an obvious call for peasants uprising a-gainst the Eastern Han court.张角又提出口号:“苍天已死,黄天当立,岁在甲子,天下大吉。” (“苍天”指东汉王朝,“黄天”指太平道),用来鼓动广大农民起来革命。He also sent Ma Yuanyi, to the Capital Luoyang and other places to see that everything was in order.同时派马元义到京师洛阳和各地查看起义准备情况。The uprising had been set on March the fifth, 184, but had to be launched in February ahead of schedule, for the betrayer, Tang Zhou, informed against the Yellow Turbans.张角原定于公元184年3月5日起义。可是由于叛徒唐周告密,决定提前于2月间起义。Zhang Jiao called himself ‘‘Heavenly General”,his younger broth-ers Zhang Bao, “General of the Earth” and Zhang Liang, “General of AAen”,who assisted him in the rebellion.张角自称“天公将军”,其弟张宝称“地公将军”,张梁称“人公将军”。In less than a month, the movement took hold with people responding from all over the country, and the uprising progressed rapidly.不到一个月的时间,各地民众纷纷响应,起义浪潮迅速席卷全国。The peasant uprising shocked the imperial court.黄巾起义后,汉灵帝和宦官们十分恐慌。On one hand,Emperor Ling mustered troops to defend the capital; on the other hand,he appointed generals Huangpu Song, Zhu Jun and Lu Zhi to attack the Yellow Turban forces.他们一面调集军队,保卫京师洛阳;一面以皇甫嵩、朱隽、卢植为中郎将,率军进攻黄巾军。Huangpu Song and Zhu Jun had an army of 40 000. In the attack on Ying-chuan, Zhu Jun was defeated, while Huangpu Song was besieged in Changshe (modern Changge in Henan Province).皇甫嵩和朱隽共有4000万余人,在进攻颍川黄巾时,朱隽被击败,皇甫嵩被围困在长社(今河南长葛)城中。With the help of reinforcements, they conquered the Yellow Turbans, slaughtering tens of thousands of rebels.后来他们得到援,大败黄巾军,屠杀起义农民有数万之多。The imperial court had dispatched Lu Zhi to fight against Zhang Jiao, yet the attack yielded no victory.朝廷派卢植进攻张角,结果大败。Then the unsuccessful Lu Zhi was replaced by Dong Zhuo, who also suffered a failure.朝廷撤了卢植的职,另派董卓进攻张角,亦被张角打败。Finally, Huangpu Song was moved to attack Zhang Jiao.朝廷再调皇甫嵩进攻张角。At that time, Zhang Jiao died of illness, and the rebellious army was led by Zhang Liang and Zhang Bao.此时,张角病死,起义军由张梁和张宝率领。Huangpu Song sprang a surprise attack put more than 80 000 insurgents, including Zhang Liang, out of action.皇甫嵩用偷袭的办法打败了黄巾军,张梁战死,黄巾军英勇牺牲的有80000 多人。The Y Turbans retreated to Xiaquyang(the west of modem Jinxian County in Hebei), only to suffer another defeats when encountered with Huangpu ’ s army there. Zhang Bao was killed in the battle, and several hundred thousand of his men were killed, wounded or captured.起义军退至下曲阳(河北晋县西),皇甫嵩再行进攻,张宝战死,所部死伤被俘的有十余万人。After nearly nine months of fierce battles, the main force of the Yellow Turban Army was wiped out, but the flame of peasants uprisings were far from extinguished. Many armed insurgent units kept on fighting.经过近9个月的激战,黄巾军的主力已基本被消灭,可是革命的烈火却已经燃烧起来了,各地的斗争前赴后继。By 192, there were still 300 000 or more Yellow Turbans operating in present-day Shandong.至192年,还有30多万黄巾军在今山东地区活动。Thirteen years later, the Heishan (Black Hill) Army in central-south Hebei still numbered upwards of 100000.13年后河北中南部的黑山军亦有部众10万人。Despite the failure of the Yellow Turban uprising, it shook the Eastern Han Dynasty regime to its foundations. Its days were numbered.黄巾起义虽然失败了,但却动摇了东汉政权的统治基础,其灭亡已是指曰可待。As a result of the Yellow Turbans, northern China was devastated, and the military leaders were prepared for the struggle among the warlords.由于黄巾起义,北方地区遭受到巨大的破坏,各地豪强拥兵自重,相互争斗。When Emperor Ling died in 189, Empress Dowager He took over regency, in-stalling Lingdi’s young son 13-year-old Liu Bian as emperor.公元189年,灵帝驾崩,何太后临朝,立灵帝13岁的儿子刘辩为帝。He Jin, brother of the Empress Dowager, thought that the time had come to get rid of eunuchs definitely, and in order not to repeat the failure of 168,he invited Dong Zhuo to command his troops to enter and garrison in the capital Luoyang.何太后的哥哥何进认为清除宦官的时机已到。为避免重蹈公元168年之覆辙,何进邀董卓率兵进驻洛阳。However, the information was leaked to the eunuchs, who acted first and had He Jin killed.不料走漏了消息,何进先为宦官所杀。The powerful eu-nuchs being without military support, Yuan Shao and his brother Yuan Shu broke into the palace with their forces and killed more than 2 000 eunuchs.但是太监并无兵权,袁绍和其弟袁术率兵人宫,诛杀2000多名太监。Not long after that, Dong Zhuo entered Luoyang, who deposed Emperor Shao and put Liu Xie, Xiandi on the throne.不久,董卓率兵人洛阳,废少帝刘辩,立刘协为帝,是为汉献帝。By intimidation and brutal force, Dong Zhuo gained his own position at the court ensured, while most men of rank had left the capital.董卓独揽大权,残暴专横,多数大臣已离开京城。Bureaucratic official throughout the country launched punitive expeditions against Dong one after another, and the situation of separatist warlord regime came into being eventually. The Eastern Han Dynasty endured only nominally and soon gave way to the Three Kingdoms.各地官吏纷纷举兵讨伐董卓,逐步形成了诸强割据的局面,统一的王朝已名存实亡,魏蜀 吴三国鼎立局面很快形成。 /201512/413041

Meteorological authorities say 2015 was the warmest year on record in China, partly due to a powerful El Nino.近日,气象部门表示,由于强烈的厄尔尼诺现象等原因,2015年已成为我国有记录以来最暖的年份。The average temperature last year was 10.5 degrees Celsius, nearly a full degree higher than the average historical level since 1951.2015年我国平均气温为10.5℃,比1951年以来的历史平均温度偏高了近1℃。10 of the country#39;s 31 provincial-level regions recorded their warmest year on record last year.在全国31个省级地区中,有10个地区的去年平均气温为历史同期最高。Chao Qingchen, the vice director of the National Climate Center says China needs to be concerned about the extreme weather caused by El Nino.中国国家气候中心副主任巢清尘表示,中国需要关注由厄尔尼诺引起的极端天气。;The El Nino in 1997 and 1998 actually caused severe rainstorms and floods in the majority of areas along the Yangtze River in southern China. So we still need to pay close attention to this kind of extreme weather, especially the heavy rains and floods.;;1997、1998年的厄尔尼诺现象在中国南方长江流域大部分地区造成了暴雨和洪灾。所以我们要对这种极端天气多加警惕,尤其是雨灾和洪水。;2015 was also the warmest year globally in the last 135 years.在全球范围内,2015年也是135年以来最暖的一年。 /201601/422359

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