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2017年12月16日 05:43:09

Not long ago, an American friend was driving rather too vigorously in the west of Ireland when he was pulled over by a Gard (police officer). #39;What would happen if you were to run into Mr. Fog?#39; the Gard inquired gruffly in his thick Irish brogue. Stung by this patronizing query, my friend replied with heavy sarcasm, #39;Well, I guess I#39;d put Mr. Foot on Mr. Brake.#39; Whereupon the officer stared at him rather strangely and growled, #39;I said mist or fog.#39;不久前,一位美国朋友在爱尔兰西部开车时有些过猛,结果被警察拦到了路边。“万一你撞上了‘雾先生’(Mr. Fog)该怎么办?”那名警察粗暴地问道,说话带有浓重的爱尔兰土腔。朋友对这种高高在上的质问感到不悦,语带强烈讽刺地回答道:“嗯,我想我会把‘脚先生’搭在‘刹车先生’上面吧。”结果,那名警察以非常异样的眼神盯着我的朋友,大吼道:“我说的是‘mist or fog’。”My friend, as it happens, is an anthropologist. For one enthralling moment he thought he had stumbled upon a tribe in the west of Ireland which personified aspects of the weather, speaking of Mrs. Hailstorm, Master Sunshine and so on. But it was just another case of international miscommunication.我的朋友碰巧是一位人类学家。在警察质问他时,有那么迷人的一瞬间,他还以为自己在爱尔兰西部偶然遇到了一个喜欢将各种天气状况拟人化的部族,比如把冰雹叫做“冰雹夫人”,把阳光称为“阳光大师”等等。然而,事实明这只是国际交流中又一个误解案例而已。Most people know that when a British schoolteacher asks his pupils to take out their rubbers, he is inviting them to produce their erasers, not about to give them a lesson in contraception. British people who live in flats do not set up home in burst tires. The word #39;bum#39; in British English means buttocks as well as vagrant.大多数人都知道,在英国,当老师要学生们拿出他们的“rubber”时,他只是让他们拿出橡皮,并不是要给他们上一堂有关避的课(译注:“rubber”在美国亦指避套)。住在“flat”中的英国人并不是把家安在了瘪掉的车胎中(译注:英国把公寓称为“flat”,而该词在美国可指漏气的轮胎)。“Bum”这个词在英国英语中既有“臀部”之意,也可指“流浪汉”。People in Britain do not usually say #39;I appreciate it,#39; have a hard time, zero in, reach out to other people, stay focused, ask to be given a break, refer to the bottom line or get blown away. The word #39;scary,#39; as opposed to #39;frightening#39; or #39;alarming,#39; sounds childish to British ears, rather like talking about your buttocks as your bottie. Brits tend not to use the word #39;awesome,#39; a term which, if it were banned in the States, would cause airplanes to fall from the sky and cars to lurch off freeways.英国人表达感谢通常不会说“I appreciate it”,也没有have a hard time(很辛苦)、zero in(把注意力集中于)、reach out to other people(联系他人)和stay focused(专心致志)这样的说法。他们在想休息时不会要求“given a break”,也不会使用“bottom line”(底线)或“get blown away”(惊叹不已)这些词。在英国人听来,与“frightening”或“alarming”相比,“scary”一词听起来极其幼稚,就像把“屁股”说成“小屁屁”一样。此外,他们一般也不会用“awesome”这个词,而若是在美国禁用这个词,飞机恐怕都要从天空坠落,汽车也要从高速公路冲出去了。Using the word #39;aggressive#39; positively also sounds strange across the pond. In Britain, it sounds almost as bizarre as complimenting someone on being as ugly as sin. The habit of using the word #39;like#39; every four seconds, widesp among American youth, has now caught on in Britain as well. Perhaps it has to do with an attempt not to sound dogmatic. #39;It#39;s 9 o#39;clock#39; sounds unpleasantly authoritarian, whereas #39;It#39;s, like, 9 o#39;clock#39; sounds suitably tentative and nondoctrinaire. It is rumored in Europe that you can now find tombstones in the U.S. ing #39;To Our Beloved Son, Brother and, Like, Husband.#39;在大西洋彼岸,使用“aggressive”一词来表达正面意义听上去非常奇怪,英国人觉得这几乎就像赞美别人奇丑无比一样怪异。在美国年轻人当中盛行的、说话时每四秒钟就加上 “like”一词的习惯如今在英国也流行开来了。这或许与试着让自己的话听上去不那么傲慢专断有关。例如,“It#39;s 9 o#39;clock”听上去比较独断,让人不悦,而“It#39;s, like, 9 o#39;clock”听起来则是适宜的商榷口吻,不显得像是说教。欧洲有传闻称,如今在美国甚至能发现有墓碑上写着“To Our Beloved Son, Brother and, Like, Husband”这样的碑文。The phrase #39;to feel comfortable with#39; is quintessentially American. The British would not usually say #39;we feel comfortable with using this taxi firm,#39; any more than they would feel comfortable with being scourged until the blood ran down their thighs.“To feel comfortable with”(觉得……很舒适)这个词组是典型的美式说法。英国人通常不会说“;we feel comfortable with using this taxi firm”(我们觉得坐这家出租车公司的车很舒),就如同他们绝不会觉得遭到鞭打直到鲜血从大腿上流下来会很舒。Americans tend to say #39;Excuse me#39; when they accidentally get in your way, while the British say #39;Sorry.#39; Americans say #39;Excuse me#39; even when they are 10 paces away from you, since they are accustomed to a lot more space than we are in Europe. One knows one is back in the U.K. when everyone is constantly saying sorry for no reason whatsoever.美国人在借道时一般会说“Excuse me”,而英国人则说“Sorry”。即便距离别人还有10步的距离,美国人也会说“Excuse me”,因为他们习惯的间隔空间要比欧洲人大很多。当你听到别人总是无缘无故地不断说“Sorry”时,你就知道你到了英国。What you say in Britain when you mishear what someone says depends on your social class. The working class say #39;Aye?#39;; the lower middle class, #39;Pardon?#39;; the middle class, #39;Sorry?#39;; and the upper class, #39;What?#39;在英国,如果一个人没听清别人说了什么,这时他所说的话要取决于他的社会阶层。比如说,劳动阶层会说“Aye?”,中下阶层会说“Pardon?”,中产阶层则说“Sorry?”,上层人士则问“What?”Americans tend to lapse into the present tense when speaking of the past much more commonly than Brits do. #39;I#39;m in the kitchen and there#39;s this terrific bang and I dive under the table#39; is distinctively American. Perhaps the British rate the past more highly than their trans-Atlantic cousins. People in Britain might call children kids, but not in newspaper headlines or on television news. Americans tend to prefer the ugly monosyllable #39;kids#39; to the rather beautiful word #39;children,#39; seemingly content to regard their offspring as small, smelly goats.在讲述过去的事情时,美国人比英国人更常使用现在时态。“I#39;m in the kitchen and there#39;s this terrific bang and I dive under the table”是美国人特有的风格。这或许是因为,英国人比他们在大西洋彼岸的堂亲更重视过去。英国人可能也会叫小孩子“kid”,但他们在报刊标题或电视新闻中不会使用这个词。美国人对不甚优美的单音节词“kids”的喜爱多过对优美的“children”的喜爱,似乎很乐意把他们的后代视为散发着膻味的小山羊(译者注:“kid”也有小山羊的意思)。American road signs tend to be more colloquial than British ones. #39;Wrong Way─Go Back#39; or #39;Ped Xing#39; are too idiomatic for the British. The road sign #39;Way Out#39; in the U.K. is not a relic of the hippie era but means #39;Exit.#39; There used to be signs on garbage cans in Britain which #39;Refuse to Be Put in This Basket,#39; which are puzzling only until you realize that #39;refuse#39; can mean #39;trash.#39;美国的路标也往往比英国的路标更口语化。“Wrong Way─Go Back”(走错路--请返回)或“Ped Xing”(斑马线)在英国人看来都过于俗语化了。在英国,“Way Out”并非嬉皮士时代的遗留物(该词有“反传统、非主流”之意),它的意思是“出口”。英国的垃圾箱上过去常常写着“Refuse to Be Put in This Basket”这样的话,着实让人摸不着头脑,直到你意识到“refuse”也有“垃圾”的意思时才恍然大悟。Brits and Americans, in short, are more alien to each other than they usually imagine. Every now and then, an American will reveal that he or she does not understand the word #39;fortnight,#39; has never used a teapot or does not know how to boil an egg. At such times one can feel the NATO alliance straining and buckling.简而言之,英国人与美国人之间的差异比他们通常想象的要大。时不时会有美国人说他们不知道“fortnight”(两星期)的意思,从来没用过teapot(茶壶),也不知道如何boil an egg(煮鸡蛋)。在这时候,你就会感觉到北约(NATO)的这两个盟友似乎是被生拉硬拽在了一起的。 /201308/251714重庆市肿瘤医院治不孕重庆爱德华医院不孕不育专家在线It’s 2 AM. You’ve been trying to fall asleep for the past two hours.凌晨2点。在过去的两小时里,你一直想睡着。You drift in and out of light sleep, not really able to reach that deep, restorative sleep you need to prep you up for the day that is to come.你徘徊在似睡若无的边缘,不能达到沉睡的状态。而你需要一个安稳觉来恢复体力,好迎接第二天的到来。After tossing and turning for a while, you check the time, only to find out that it’s aly time to get up. The whole night went by and you didn’t get an ounce of sleep.在辗转反侧一会儿之后,你看了看时间,发现已经到起床的时间了。整个夜晚过去了,你却没睡上一会儿觉。Definitely not a good way to start your day. Sound familiar? If it does, then make sure to check out the best 7 tips that will help you boost the quality of your sleep, overnight.以这种方式开始一天,绝不是一个好兆头。听起来熟悉吗?如果是这样,那么一定要看看以下7个最好的小贴士,它们将帮助你提高睡眠质量。1. Have a Sleep Journal1. 做好睡眠记录Any good old notebook will do the trick. Inside you’ll log the time you went to sleep, the time you woke up and the total sleep time.任何一本好的旧笔记本都可以。在这本子里,你可以记录什么时候上床睡觉,什么时候起床,还有总共睡了多久。Keep that notebook close to your bed since this is the last thing you want to do before you fall asleep and the first thing you want to do when you wake up. With a sleep journal you’ll be able to do two things:把笔记本放在床头附近,因为做笔记是你睡觉前要做的最后一件事,也是你醒来后要做的第一件事。有一本睡眠记录册,你能做两件事:You’ll get a clear cut view of what’s your average bedtime, wake up time and your sleep length.你将清楚地了解到平常你几点入睡,几点醒来以及睡眠时间。With the help of the intel in your sleep journal it’ll be much easier to develop a healthy sleeping schedule.有了睡眠记录册里的信息,完善一份健康的睡觉时刻表会更容易。2. Go to Sleep Early2. 早点睡This is one of those obvious tips that no-one seems to follow.这是最浅显易懂的一条建议,但似乎没人遵循。Our bodies are geared to hit the hay as soon as the sun sets. A good rule of thumb is to go to sleep before midnight, where 10pm is seen as a sweet spot for most.当太阳落山时,我们的身体就准备着要上床睡觉了。一条黄金法则是在午夜前入睡。对大多数人来说,最佳上床睡觉时间在10点钟。And I bet you#39;ve heard this before … one hour of sleep before midnight is worth more than two hours after midnight.我打赌之前你也听说过这种说法:午夜前的一小时睡眠抵得过午夜后的两小时。3. Eliminate Distractions3. 减少干扰源There are 3 types of distractions you need to get rid of to get a good night’s sleep. They are:为了有好的睡眠质量,你需要摆脱的三种干扰是:Distractions for the Mind - internet, TV, Xbox, smartphone, etc. Shut that stuff down at least 1 hour before bedtime so that your mind can zone out.对思想的扰乱,比如网络、电视、游戏机、手机等等。至少在睡前一小时,把它们全部关闭,这样大脑才有片刻清闲。Distractions for the Eyes - kill all sources of bright light. This includes modems, routers, smartphones and yes, even the moon. Switch off the tech stuff and roll out the blinds to block the moon rays. Wear a sleep mask if you have to.对眼睛的扰乱,屏蔽所有亮光来源,包括调制解调器、路由器、手机,甚至是窗外的月光。关掉这些电器开关,放下百叶窗阻断月光的照射。如果有需要戴上眼罩。Distractions for the Ears - kill the noise with some soft foam ear plugs.对耳朵的扰乱。戴上软式泡沫耳塞,屏蔽噪声。4. Be Physically Active4. 让身体活跃起来Any kind of physical deed that will get your heart rate up will do a great deal of good when it comes to upping the quality of your sleep.如果要提高你的睡眠质量,任何一种增加心脏跳动频率的身体运动都会起到很大作用。Do what you love the most - it could be parkour, soccer, weight lifting or even a light afternoon stroll in the park.做你最喜欢的运动——可以是跑酷、足球、举重,甚至是傍晚在公园里漫步。But make sure you’re not doing hard-core physical stuff right before bedtime.但是要保在睡觉前你做的不是剧烈运动。5. Have Clean Bed Linen5. 清洁被单和枕套If your bed feels, smells and looks like an Alien nest, then it’s time for you to bust out some clean bed linen.如果你的床看起来闻起来感觉像是外星人睡的床一样,那你就要换一床被单和枕套了。This is one of the best things you can do to boost the quality of your sleep.为了提高你的睡眠质量,这是你能做到的其中一件。Change bed linen once a week and if you can, change the pillowcase daily.如果可以,每周换一次被单,每天换一次枕套。6. Avoid Coffee and Other Stimulants6. 不喝咖啡和其它含兴奋剂的饮料Try not to drink coffee, red bull, green tea and stuff like that at least six hours before bedtime.至少在睡觉前6小时,尽量不喝咖啡、红牛、绿茶等含兴奋剂的饮品。Even if you can fall asleep with no trouble after drinking two cups of coffee right before you head out to bed, don’t do it.即使你喝两杯咖啡后还能轻易入睡,也不要这样做。Caffeine and other stimulants, right before bedtime, will mess with your melatonin production and your deep sleep.在睡前饮用的咖啡因和其他兴奋剂会扰乱褪黑激素的生成及影响你的深度睡眠。7. Deep Breathing7. 深呼吸While in bed trying to fall asleep, focus on taking deep, long breaths.当你躺在床上想要入睡,请集中精力在呼吸上,做深而长的呼吸。Inhale slowly, exhale slowly. Deep breathing will keep your mind in the now and away from future worries and past regrets. I know this may sound like some new-age fluff, but deep breathing really works.慢慢吸气,慢慢呼气。深呼吸会让你着眼当前,使思想远离未来的忧虑与过去的遗憾。我知道这一点都不新奇,但深呼吸真的有用。In the end, if you want to sleep like a log every night, you’ll have to take good care of your health.最后,如果你想要睡得很熟,你就需要好好顾着你的身体健康。The 7 tips I talk about here are just the beginning. A sound diet and a smart workout plan will go a long way to make your sleep bulletproof.我在这里谈到的7个小贴士只是一个开始。要想睡个安稳觉,均衡的饮食与科学的健身也起到很大帮助。 /201302/226761重庆妇产医院产科医院哪家好


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