2018年03月23日 07:44:05|来源:国际在线|编辑:挂号博文
Sugar certainly has gotten a bad rap lately. It#39;s blamed for everything from obesity and diabetes to heart disease, kidney disease and stroke. But is it really all that bad? Is there nothing redeeming about those tiny, sweet granules? Or is a lot of what we hear misinformation? We know one thing for sure. Sugar consumption in America has skyrocketed. In 1990, Americans ate an average of 4 teaspoons (16 grams) of added sugar per day. By 2014, that number had shot up to 20 teaspoons (80 grams) daily. In addition, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) says Americans obtain 16 percent of their total calories from added sugars, namely soda, energy and sports drinks, grain-based desserts, sugar-sweetened fruit drinks, dairy-based desserts and candy. The World Health Organization#39;s (WHO) recommendation? We should only be getting less than 10 percent of our daily calories from added sugar. In 2014, the WHO even proposed slashing that recommended rate to less than 5 percent. Clearly, we need to pay attention to sugar and our consumption rate. But first, we need to learn the truth about our favorite sweetener.近来,糖类无疑是备受责难。从肥胖症、糖尿病到心脏病、肾脏疾病和中风,一切都归咎于糖。但是糖真的这么不好?这些小小的、甜甜的的颗粒真的没有可取之处吗?又或者我们听到的很多都是错误消息?不过我们可以确信一件事情:在美国,糖类消费量一路飙升。1990年,美国人每天平均摄入4茶匙(16克)添加糖。而到2014年,这个数据已经陡升至20茶匙(80克)。美国食品和药物(FDA)称,美国人从添加糖食品中获得16%的总热量,这些食品包括苏打水、运动型功能饮料、谷物甜点、含糖果汁、乳制甜点和糖果。世界卫生组织(WHO)的建议是什么?我们每天从这些含糖食物中获得的总热量不应超过10%。2014年,世界卫生组织(WHO)甚至提议将这个比例大幅降低至5%以下。显然,是时候留心一下糖以及我们在日常生活对其的摄取状况了。但首先,让我们来了解一下有关我们最喜欢的甜味剂的真相。10.People Can Easily Limit Sugar Intake10.人们可以很容易地控制糖类摄入量OK, we need to eat less sugar. No problem. We#39;ll just stop eating dessert, eschew the doughnuts brought in by our colleague and pass on the Halloween candy. But -- argh! -- why is it so hard? Are we weak-willed babies or what? Sugar is actually an addictive substance. Animal studies show sugar consumption causes bingeing, withdrawal and craving. Regularly eating sugar also makes it easier to become addicted to another drug. When humans were studied, consuming fructose (a form of sugar) caused the brain#39;s reward center to light up. However, much like a drug, over time the subjects needed to consume more and more fructose for the reward center to light up as brightly好吧,我们需要少吃糖。没问题。我们不再吃甜品,远离同事们买来的甜甜圈和万圣节糖果。但是,啊!为什么这么难?我们是意志薄弱的婴儿还是什么?事实上,糖就是令人上瘾的东西。动物研究表明,摄入糖分会导致暴饮暴食、戒断不良反应和内心产生极度渴望。经常吃糖也更容易对另一种药物上瘾。对人体的研究表明,果糖的分解(一种糖)能活跃大脑反馈中心。然而就像药物一样,随着时间的推移,人需要消耗越来越多的果糖使大脑中心保持活跃的状态。Additional research shows sugar and sweetness can actually be more addictive, rewarding and attractive than drugs such as cocaine. Seems a bit preposterous, but a possible explanation, say scientists, is humankind#39;s past evolutionary need to eat foods high in calories and sugar.更多研究表明糖和甜味剂实际上比药物,如可卡因,更有吸引力,令人上瘾,使人更加满足。这似乎有点荒谬,但科学家对此解释说,原始人类的进化需要进食高热量和高糖的食物。这种说法仍有待实。还有一个问题:含有添加糖的产品比你想象的要多——比如番茄酱、即食燕麦片和意大利面酱。9.Added Sugar Is Bad for You9.添加糖对人有害In 2014, the American Heart Association (AHA) recommends Americans slash their sugar consumption from the average 20 teaspoons (80 grams) a day to six (24 grams) for women and nine (36 grams) for men. And the group notes, added sugars are particularly worrisome. Added sugars are sugars or syrups that are tossed into our food and drink during processing or preparation. They can be natural (e.g., honey) or chemically manufactured (e.g., high fructose corn syrup). They#39;re troubling because they don#39;t provide any nutrients -- just excessive calories. And they#39;re in more products than you might think – in ketchup, instant oatmeal and spaghetti sauce, for starters.2014年,美国心脏协会(AHA)建议美国女性将每天的糖类消耗从平均20茶匙(80克)减少至6茶匙(24克),男性减少至9茶匙(36克)。并且该协会称添加糖尤其令人担忧。添加糖就是在加工过程中或生产过程前添加到食物和饮料中的糖或糖浆。它们可以是天然制品(比如蜂蜜),或是化学制品(比如果葡糖浆)。它们令人不安,因为没有任何营养——只有高热量。并且它们的覆盖范围比你想象的要广——比如添加在番茄酱、即食燕麦片和意大利面酱里。Yet you don#39;t have to nix all added sugar from your diet. Sugar may not have any nutritional value, but it can enhance the flavor of foods that do provide important nutrients, such as whole-grain cereal or yogurt. So if sprinkling some sugar over a cup of healthy, plain yogurt is the only way you#39;ll eat the yogurt, it#39;s worth it to add the sweetness. Luckily, in most instances all you need is a small amount of sugar to achieve a satisfactory taste. That#39;s why it#39;s better to buy the no-added-sugar version of the product and add a little sugar than to buy the ;regular; or fully sweetened version.然而,你不必完全对这种添加糖说NO。糖或许没有任何营养价值,但是它可以改善一些食物的口感,正是这些食物(如全麦麦片或酸奶)提供给你重要的营养物质。所以,如果唯一让你喝杯有益健康但口感平平的酸奶的方法就是加点儿糖的话,那就这么做吧。值得庆幸地是,在大多数情况下只需要添加少量糖就可获得令人满意的味道。这就解释了为什么买无糖产品并自己加少量糖比买普通的或甜味的产品更好。8.Artificial Sweeteners Are Healthier Than Sugar8.人造甜味剂比糖更健康Many health-conscious people favor artificial sweeteners for their food, figuring they#39;re a better bet because they don#39;t contain any calories. It#39;s true you#39;re avoiding calories when you stick with artificial sweeteners, but the jury#39;s out on whether they#39;re healthier for you. The FDA deems artificial sweeteners safe, but experts say their long-term effects still aren#39;t known. Further, there are numerous studies that raise red flags. For example, one study performed by researchers at the Yale University School of Medicine found that if you eat artificially sweetened foods that are low in calories, it may cause you to down high-calories foods later in the day, especially if you ate the artificially sweetened stuff when you were tired or hungry. Artificial sweeteners don#39;t signal ;energy; to the brain the way regular sugar does.许多有健康意识的人喜欢往食物中加些人造甜味剂,认为这种甜味剂是个更好的选择,因为它们不含任何热量。的确,坚持使用人造甜味剂你可以避免摄入热量。不过,这些甜味剂是否有益健康,这一点尚无定论。尽管美国食品和药物认为人造甜味剂是安全的,但是专家称人造甜味剂的长期影响仍旧不清楚。此外,大量研究表明人造甜味剂值得注意。例如,耶鲁大学医学院的研究人员发现,尤其当你累了或饿了的时候,如果吃低热量,添加了人造甜味剂的食品,那么晚些时候你就会多吃些高热量的食物。因为大脑并不会把人造甜味剂跟普通的糖一样视为能量的来源。Additionally, many people who rely on artificial sweeteners knowingly eat a little more throughout the day because they feel like they can afford to do so. After all, they#39;ve saved calories by opting for Splenda or Equal in their coffee or plain yogurt, so it#39;s fine to have that extra hamburger or serving of potatoes. In the end, it may be best to simply eat less real sugar than swap it out for artificial sweeteners.此外,很多依赖人造甜味剂的人每天会故意多吃一点,因为他们觉得自己可以这么做。毕竟,他们选择在咖啡或原味酸奶中加点儿人造甜味剂如Splenda 或 Equal,从而避免摄入一些热量。因此额外吃一些汉堡和薯条是可以的。总之,比起选择人造甜味剂,最好还是少吃糖。7.Organic (Raw) Sugar Is Healthier Than Table Sugar7.天然(原)糖比蔗糖更健康Raw sugar looks so appealing, with its light caramel hue and nuggety shape. This organic sweetener, less refined than table sugar, is found in many health-focused products -- so surely it must be healthier for you. Actually, it#39;s not.原糖看起来似乎是比精炼加工的白糖更有益健康,但这只是因为原糖中含有少许矿物成分而已。(白糖完全没有)。二者的热量相同。Both raw sugar and table sugar are derived from sugarcane, although table sugar can also come from beets. Raw sugar is created when sugarcane juice is boiled once. This leaves some molasses in the product and gives the sugar its signature golden color. Table sugar results from sugarcane juice that is boiled several times, a process that removes all of the molasses from the juice, hence its white color.这一块一块带着浅浅焦糖色的原糖看起来如此诱人。这种有机的甜味剂,虽然不如白糖般经过精细加工,但它存在于很多主打健康的食品中——所以很显然,这种食品更健康。然而事实并非如此。原糖和白糖都来源于甘蔗,虽然白糖也可来自甜菜。原糖是甘蔗汁煮第一次时的产物。这使得原糖中留存了一些糖蜜,颜色也变成了标志性的金黄色。甘蔗汁经过多次煮沸提炼,就产生了蔗糖。这个过程让糖蜜从甘蔗汁中流失了,因此蔗糖就是白色的。一些原糖持者声称留在原糖的糖蜜具有我们身体所需的营养价值。但是大多数专家认为只有微量营养素得以留存——微量到对我们的身体没有任何影响。况且,原糖和精制糖含有等量的热量。所以尽管制作过程不同,但它们真的都差不多。6.Sugar-free Diets Are the Healthiest6.无糖饮食最健康OK, so we eat too much sugar. And artificial sweeteners or other forms of the sweet stuff, like raw sugar, aren#39;t any better than plain old table sugar. So maybe the answer is simply to cut all sugar out of our diets. Perhaps. But that is a complicated plan. Technically, if you were able to eliminate all sugar from your diet -- meaning eating solely foods where no sugar was added during its creation or afterward -- that might be the healthiest option. But if your suggested ;sugar-free; diet means eating foods labeled ;sugar-free,; then that won#39;t fly.好吧,我们吃太多糖了。而且人造甜味剂或者其他种类的糖,比如原糖,都不比普通的蔗糖。也许最简单地就是戒食所有含糖食物。但这也说不定。因为要做到无糖饮食也很复杂。从技术层面来说,如果你能够做到消除你饮食中所有的糖——这意味着只吃在生产过程中或之后不添加任何糖的食物——这样可以称为最健康的选择。但是如果你的“无糖”饮食只是吃一些标签着“无糖”字样的食品,那么就不会有任何效果。Foods that boast of being ;sugar-free; typically really aren#39;t. That#39;s because while the sugar has been yanked, it#39;s been replaced with an artificial sweetener. That sweetener could be the pleasant-sounding honey or agave nectar; chemical-sounding sugar alcohols such as sorbitol, mannitol and xylitol; or noncaloric sweeteners like saccharin (brand-name ;Sweet#39;N Low;) and sucralose (;Splenda;). Unfortunately, many of these alternative sweeteners are still high in carbohydrates and/or calories. And sugar alcohols are famous for causing stomachaches and diarrhea if they#39;re ingested in large quantities. Experts say the wisest strategy is to eat unprocessed foods, adding as little sugar as possible.那些自称是“无糖”的产品通常言过其实。这是因为当糖被提取掉,取而代之的就是人造甜味剂。甜味剂可能是迷人的蜂蜜或龙舌兰花蜜;产生化学反应的糖醇,比如山梨糖醇、甘露醇和木糖醇;或者无热量的甜味剂,比如糖精(品名:低脂糖)和三氯蔗糖(蔗糖素)。不幸地是,许多可使用的甜味剂都含大量的碳水化合物或热量。众所周知,过量摄入糖醇会导致胃痛和腹泻。专家称最明智的做法就是吃未加工的食物,尽可能不加糖。翻译:夏久梅 审校:晴晴晴天 来源:前十网 /201601/421503Film-maker Alex Gibney knows how to pick a controversial subject for his documentaries.电影制片人亚历克斯·吉布尼(Alex Gibney)知道怎样为自己的纪录片挑选一个有争议的主题。His examination of Apple’s co-founder arrives at a time of renewed debate about Steve Jobs’ life. In March, Brent Schlender and Rick Tetzeli argued in their book, Becoming Steve Jobs , that their subject was too harshly portrayed by his many previous biographers.他所拍摄的关于史蒂夫吠布斯(Steve Jobs)的纪录片《史蒂夫吠布斯:机器人生》(Steve Jobs: Man in the Machine)上映时,围绕这位苹果(Apple)联合创始人生平的辩论再度展开。今年3月,布伦特施伦德(Brent Schlender)和里克礠噲利(Rick Tetzeli)在《成为史蒂夫吠布斯》(Becoming Steve Jobs)一书中表示,以往的许多传记作者对乔布斯过于苛刻。Later this year, Danny Boyle and Aaron Sorkin’s drama starring Michael Fassbender as the iPhone impresario will go backstage at key product launches.由丹尼娠伊尔(Danny Boyle)导演,阿伦∠尔金(Aaron Sorkin)编剧,迈克尔法斯本德(Michael Fassbender)主演的《乔布斯传》(Steve Jobs)将登上大屏幕,展现苹果关键产品发布的幕后故事。Gibney’s addition to the canon points out, like so many others before him, that Jobs was a man of contradictions: the renegade who wanted to be legit, the humanist who denied paternity of his first daughter, the Wall Street idol embroiled in stock options and recruiting scandals. “He had the focus of a monk,” Gibney says as narrator, his camera lingering over Japanese zen gardens, “but none of the empathy.”如之前其他许多作品一样,吉布尼的作品也指出乔布斯是个矛盾的人,他是个叛逆者,却想得到承认;他是个人道主义者,却拒认自己的大女儿;他是华尔街的偶像,却身陷股票期权和招聘丑闻。吉布尼在旁白中说道:“他有着僧侣一样的专注。”镜头扫过日式禅宗花园,“却没有同理心。”The familiar stories told in this documentary are brought to life with extensive interviews with former Apple employees and Jobs’ associates, as well as archive footage that includes his first screen test.这部纪录片讲述的故事并不新鲜,但片中大量的前苹果员工和乔布斯同事的访谈,以及包括乔布斯首次试镜等影像资料,给这些故事注入了生命力。Just as compelling are clips from the March 2008 deposition, where Jobs squirms constantly in his seat as he is quizzed over allegations of backdated stock options.其中有个片段颇为引人入胜,这是2008年3月拍摄的一段视屏词。当时乔布斯因回溯股票期权的指控接受问询,画面中他在座位上一直坐立难安。Absent from the screen, however, are any current Apple employees. Several members of Apple’s current management team blessed Becoming Steve Jobs as their preferred account of their former chief. Eddy Cue, who heads Apple’s services business, was rather less enthusiastic about Man in the Machine, calling it “an inaccurate and mean-spirited view of my friend”.但是这部纪录片里没有一个苹果在职员工。苹果目前管理团队中的几名成员更青睐《成为史蒂夫吠布斯》作为前掌门人的传记。苹果务部门主管艾迪錠伊(Eddy Cue)对《史蒂夫吠布斯:机器人生》态度冷淡,称这部片子“对我的朋友抱有一种不准确且刻薄的观点。”It is not hard to see where Apple loyalists would object.不难看出苹果拥趸们会反对这部纪录片的地方。Early on, the film-maker professes his love for his iPhone and Pixar movie Wall-E, but says he struggled to understand the global outpouring of grief in 2011 at the death of a man he calls “ruthless, deceitful and cruel”. He supports this argument by recalling suicides at Apple’s suppliers in China, investigations of its overseas profits and ripped-off colleagues such as Steve Wozniak and Daniel Kottke.该片开头,阿里克斯吉布尼表达了自己对iPhone、皮克斯(Pixar)电影《机器人瓦力》(Wall-E)的喜爱,但表示难以理解2011年当乔布斯——一个被他称之“无情、虚伪、严酷”的男人——去世时,全球各界表达的悲痛之情。为了持自己的观点,吉布尼提到了苹果在华供应商员工自杀事件,苹果海外利润受到调查,以及乔布斯昔日同事史蒂夫茠祬尼亚克(Steve Wozniak)和丹尼尔科特克(Daniel Kottke)的吃亏上当。Yet by failing to include Jobs’ heirs and bring the story up to date, Gibney misses an opportunity to examine the company that survives him — at a crucial moment for the iPhone maker’s leadership.然而由于未能采访到乔布斯的继任者以补充整个故事的最新情节,吉布尼错失了考查这家公司在乔布斯过世后的情况的机会,而当前对于苹果的领导层是一个关键时刻。“Jobs’ genius was how he sold the iPod. It wasn’t a machine for you, it was you,” Gibney says. As Apple pushes beyond phones into watches, televisions, even cars, it is still figuring out how to sell these new categories without its master marketer.吉布尼说:“乔布斯的天才之处在于他销售iPod的手段。它不是你的一件设备,它就是你。”除手机以外,苹果现在又推出了手表、电视机,甚至汽车,没有了乔布斯这位营销大师,苹果仍在摸索如何销售这些新品类的产品。Gibney criticises Jobs for “behaving as though Apple was a start-up”, despite it becoming one of the world’s most valuable companies, yet the film-maker underestimates the energising force of playing the underdog.吉布尼批评乔布斯“表现得就像苹果还是一家初创公司”,尽管它已经成为全球市值最高的公司之一,但这位电影制片人低估了扮演弱者的励志效果。“This is a field in which one does one’s work and, in 10 years, it’s obsolete,” a young, bearded Jobs tells us towards the end of the film.影片结尾时,蓄着胡子的青年乔布斯说道:“在这个领域,人们所做的事10年后就过时了。”Apple is about to enter its fifth year without its co-founder. All these controversies about Jobs’ life may soon give way to renewed debate about the future of the company he left behind.苹果即将进入离开乔布斯的第五个年头,关于这位联合创始人一生的所有争议,可能很快就让位于围绕他留下的这家公司的未来发展的辩论。Steve Jobs: The man in the machine, directed by Alex Gibney, released by Magnolia Pictures, now in selected cinemas, on iTunes and on demand《史蒂夫吠布斯:机器人生》,阿里克斯吉布尼执导,木兰影业(Magnolia Pictures)发行,可在部分影院、iTunes以及点播电视上观看 /201510/402732

1.Russians1.俄罗斯人Scientists still cannot agree on their origins and answer the question when Russians became Russian.The ancestry of Russians were sought among Normans, Scythians, and Sarmatians, and even the South Siberian Usuns.俄罗斯人从何而来?究竟又是何时成为如今的俄罗斯人?科学家们意见不一,也无从回答。诺曼人、斯基泰人、萨尔马特人和南西伯利亚乌孙人里都有俄罗斯人的祖先。2.Maya2.玛雅人Some scientists believe that they are connected to legendary atlantes, others suppose their ancestors were Egyptians.The Maya created an efficient agricultural system, had deep astronomy knowledge.Their calendar was used by other peoples of Central America.Maya applied hieroglyphic writing system.Now it seems that the Maya came from nowhere and disappeared nowhere.有部分科学家认为玛雅人和传奇的男像柱有关,另一些科学家认为玛雅人的祖先是欧洲人。玛雅人发明了高效的农业体系,有深厚的天文学知识。中美其他民族都用玛雅人的日历。玛雅人运用象形文字书写体系。如今,似乎无人知晓玛雅人从何而来,又如何销声匿迹的。3.Prussians3.普鲁士人Their origin itself is a mystery too.It was firstly mentioned in the IX century in the records of an anonymous merchant and later in Polish and German chronicles.Linguists find its analogies in various Indo-European languages.In the XVII began the history of Prussianism.普鲁士人源自何方也是个谜。最初在9世纪某无名商人的记录中有记载,后来在波兰和德国的编年史中有所提及。语言学家发现在印欧语系的多门语言中都能找到与其相类似的。普鲁士精神始于17世纪。4.Sumerians4.苏美尔人Must be one of the most mysterious peoples in the ancient world.We know nothing about their origin and nothing about the origin of their language.The Sumerians were rather advanced – they became the first in the Near East to use a wheel, to create an irrigation system and their unique writing, besides, they were impressively good at maths and astronomy.苏美尔人一定是古时最神秘的种族之一,对于其起源及语言我们一无所知。苏美尔人一度非常先进,在近东地区最先使用轮子、创造了灌溉系统和独一无二的书写体系。此外,苏美尔人数学和天文学水平尤为出众。5.Gipsies5.吉普赛人According to the linguistic and genetic researches, ancestors of the Gipsies left the territory of India in the amount that did not exceed 1000 people.Today there are approximately 10 million Gipsies in the world.In the Middle Ages Europeans believed that Gipsies were Egyptians.根据语言学和遗传学研究发现,吉普赛人的祖先离开印度领土的时候人数不超过1000人。而今,世界有一千万吉普赛人。中世纪的欧洲人认为吉普赛人是欧洲人。6.Philistines6.腓力斯人The Philistines are the most mysterious peoples mentioned in the Bible.Only them and Hittites knew the technology of steel production and they marked the start of the Iron Age.According to the Bible, the Philistines originate from Caphtor Island (Crete).腓力斯人是《圣经》中提到最为神秘的种族。只有腓力斯人和赫梯人了解钢铁生产技术,标志了铁器时代的开始。《圣经》上说腓力斯人来自迦斐托岛(克里特岛)。7.Basques7.巴斯克人The Basque language, Euskara, is believed to be the only relic pre-Indo-European language that does not belong to any language group that exists today.According to the research of National Geographic made in 2012 all Basques have a set of genes that are pretty much different from those of other peoples around them.巴斯克语被视为文化遗产,是唯一不属于任何语言群体的前印欧语系语言。根据《国家地理》2012年的研究,所有巴斯克人都有一组与其周边种族大不相同的基因。8.Sarmatians8.萨尔马特人The Sarmatians left a lot of secrets.Perhaps they had matriarchy, some scientists suppose that Russian kokoshnik was invented by the Sarmatians.These people had a tradition of an artificial skull deformation, that enabled people to have egg-shaped heads.萨尔马特人有许多秘密。也许他们是母系社会,一些科学家认为俄罗斯卡柯史尼克(卡柯史尼克头冠)就是萨尔马特人发明的。萨尔马特人有人工颅骨变形的传统,让人可以拥有鸡蛋形状的头颅。 /201601/419257

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