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Bush Pledges y to Confront Financial Crisis布什保与盟国合作对付金融危机  President George Bush says the ed States is working with other countries to restore strength and stability to international financial markets. He spoke after talks at the White House with Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi.美国总统布什说,美国正在跟其它国家合作恢复国际金融市场的力量和稳定。布什在白宫跟意大利总理贝卢斯科尼会谈之后说了这番话。The two met amid the first positive news in days from financial markets around the world.布什跟贝卢斯科尼是在全球金融市场几天来第一次传出好消息的时候举行会面的。After a weekend meeting of key finance ministers in Washington, and a series of steps taken by governments on both sides of the Atlantic, the markets began to rebound following a series of heavy losses.世界主要国家的财政部长周末在华盛顿开会,大西洋两岸的国家政府联手采取一系列措施。在这种情况下,经历了一连串惨重损失的世界金融市场开始反弹。From the White House, there appeared to be a small sigh of relief mixed with the realization that these gains are fragile and the markets remain volatile.白宫似乎稍微松了一口气,因为白宫意识到股票指数回升是很脆弱的,市场仍然充满变数。President Bush sounded a bit hopeful.不过布什总统的讲话听上去还是有几分乐观。"These are tough times for our economies," President Bush said. "Yet we can be confident that we can work our way through these challenges."布什说:“我们的经济正在经历艰难时刻。但是我们应该有信心,我们是能够设法克这些难题的。”The president said the Europeans have taken bold and specific action. He made clear there is no time to waste. 布什总统说,欧洲国家采取了大胆和具体的行动。他明确表示,现在必须要争分夺秒。"People all over the world are understandably concerned about the global financial crisis and about how it will affect their families and their businesses," he said.布什说:“全世界的人都关心这场全球性金融危机,担心危机会给他们的家庭和工作带来什么影响,这很正常。”He said the ed States and its allies are focusing on measures to help banks gain access to capital, to strengthen the financial system, and to make sure businesses and consumers have access to adequate credit.布什说,美国及其盟国正在采取措施重点帮助重新得到资金、加强金融体系,并确保工商企业和消费者及时得到贷款。Earlier, at an arrival ceremony for Italy's prime minister, he stressed the need for coordination among nations in a sustained effort to get the markets back on sound footing.布什稍早在为意大利总理贝卢斯科尼举行的欢迎仪式上强调,各国有必要携手行动,让市场恢复发展所需的牢固基础。"All of us will continue taking responsible, decisive action to restore credit and stability and return to vigorous growth," Mr. Bush said.布什说:“我们所有的国家将继续采取负责任的果断行动恢复信贷和稳定,让市场重新茁壮成长。”Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi said that the world has never seen a financial crisis like this one. 意大利总理贝卢斯科尼表示,世界从来没有经历过目前这样的金融危机。But he too struck an optimistic note, saying he is 100 percent confident current economic obstacles can be overcome.不过他同样表现出乐观。他说,他百分之百的相信目前遇到的经济阻力一定能克。During his visit to the White House, Mr. Berlusconi also said President Bush intends to meet sometime in the next few weeks with leaders of the Group of Eight - the organization of major industrialized nations. 贝卢斯科尼在访问华盛顿期间还说,布什总统打算在今后几个星期跟主要工业化国家组织8国集团会谈。But White House Press Secretary Dana Perino said while the administration is open to such a meeting at some point in the future, no decision has been made and no date has been set.不过白宫新闻秘书佩里诺表示,尽管布什政府不排除今后会举行这样的会谈,但是还没有做出决定,也没有确定具体日期。200810/52782Southwest Airlines美国西南航空公司 Smiles and free peanuts 微笑务和免费花生Jun 2nd 2011 | DALLAS | from the print edition The secret of Southwest’s success西南航空的制胜秘诀ADVERTS from the early years of Southwest Airlines evoke a lost era. “Remember what it was like before Southwest Airlines?” asks a hostess in a 1972 television spot, wobbling across the tarmac in orange micro-shorts and white go-go boots. “You didn’t have hostesses in hot pants. Remember?” The airline had started up a year earlier, with three planes shuttling between Dallas, Houston and San Antonio. It later acquired a ticker on the New York Stock Exchange—“LUV”—that fitted its perky image. On early flights, hostesses plied passengers with free cocktails.西南航空早年的广告让我们回想起一个逝去的时代。在1972年的一期电视广告中,一位身穿橘色迷你短裤和白色齐膝长筒靴的空,扭动身姿走在铺有柏油碎石的飞机跑道上,说道“还记得西南航空出现前是个什么样子吗?那时是没有穿着热裤的空的,不是吗?”这家航空公司于1971年开始运营,当时拥有三架往返于达拉斯、休斯顿和圣安东尼奥之间的飞机。西南航空随后在纽约券交易所上市,股票代号LUV,这也恰恰符合其富有朝气的形象。在该公司的早班飞机上,空们会殷勤的为乘客们提供免费鸡尾酒。Forty years later, Southwest has become America’s largest low-cost carrier. That is a striking change. Southwest was for a long time the underdog of American aviation. During the 1980s it was downright frumpy, flying middle managers to Kansas City on bargain fares. But it has now developed a mix of low fares and friendly service that appeals to America’s vast herd of cattle-class commuters. RyanAir and EasyJet, two of Europe’s leading budget airlines, learned many of their tricks from Southwest.四十年后,西南航空成为美国航空业巨头中票价最低的一家。它的蜕变是显著的。西南航空很长一段时间内都在美国航空业中处于劣势。20世纪80年代西南航空还相当落后,只是经营着一些通过廉价机票吸引中层经理们飞往堪萨斯城的业务,而现在该公司已经推出一系列价廉质优的务,以吸引美国大批需经常乘坐经济舱往返的乘客。瑞安航空和易捷航空这两家欧洲领先的廉价航空公司也借鉴了西南航空不少的技巧。201106/142519World Markets Gloomy as Global Recession Fears Persist世界各国进入衰退经济前景黯淡 After another down session on the European markets, the talk is how long and deep the recession will be. 在美国和欧洲的股票市场星期一再次下滑之后,人们现在谈论更多的是这次经济衰退将会持续多长时间以及会有多么严重。The European markets have had a lot to digest during the past few days. With Euro Zone growth grinding to a halt and further afield in places like Japan, where the economy has officially joined the ranks of countries in recession, optimism is in short supply. 这些天来,市场上有很多的东西需要消化。随著欧元区的经济陷入停滞,再加上日本等其他国家经济不是出轨就是衰退,人们很难感到乐观。And that gloomy sentiment is evident in the downward trend in European trade. 这种信心低迷在欧美市场的下滑趋势中表现得非常明显。Despite the mood, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown, back in London after last weekend's G-20 economic summit in Washington, says the way out of this global problem is a coordinated global approach. 尽管存在这种情绪,上个周末在华盛顿参加了20国集团经济峰会之后回到伦敦的英国首相布朗说,全球采取协调一致的行动是摆脱这个全球性问题的途径。"The managing director of the International Monetary Fund has joined many other people today in calling for a fiscal stimulus," Brown said. "A fiscal stimulus means helping families and helping businesses now through this difficult position and as long as you have, as we will have, a medium-term framework for fiscal sustainability, then this is the right thing to do facing the downturn. It is right, as now almost everybody accepts across the world and every country is now looking at this, that we help people through these difficult times." 他说:“国际货币基金组织总裁今天同很多其他人一道,呼吁采取财政刺激措施。财政刺激意味著帮助家庭和企业渡过目前的难关。只要你有一个保持财政持续性的中期框架,那么这就是在经济滑坡时应该做的事情。现在世界上几乎每个人都接受这种做法,而且每一个国家现在都在研究这样做的可能性。我们帮助人们渡过这个艰难的时期是正确的。”IMF head Dominique Strauss-Kahn says the body is likely to need at least 0 billion of additional funding during the next half year if it is to play a larger role in aiding a global economic recovery. 国际货币基金组织总干事斯特劳斯-卡恩说,如果国际货币基金组织在为全球经济复苏方面要发挥更大的作用,那么在今后半年的时间里,该机构可能至少需要1千亿美元的额外资金。But promises to be a financially difficult year around the world and in Britain, like elsewhere, that means further economic pain. 但是对于全球来说,年看来将是一个金融上非常困难的一年。对于英国和其他国家来说,这意味著会出现更多经济上的阵痛。Britain's largest business lobbying group, the Confederation of British Industry warned rising British unemployment levels will probably peak toward the end of next year. CBI Chief Economic advisor Ian McCafferty says it will be a tough time. 英国最大的商业游说团体英国工业联合会警告说,英国日益上升的失业率可能在明年年底达到高峰。该机构的首席经济顾问麦克卡弗蒂说,到时候,情况将非常艰难。"We are currently seeing the fastest rises for some 17 years and I think we believe that we will see two million [unemployed] by the end of this year," McCafferty said, "and by the time we see the end of or early 2010, it will have peaked out at not far short of three million. So that is rising (at) eight or nine percent of the workforce. So, that is a significant increase from where we have been in recent years." 他说:“我们目前看到的是17年来失业上升最快的。我们认为,在今年年底,失业人数会达到2百万。到年底或是2010年初,失业率会达到接近3百万的高峰。这就是说,失业率会上升到占劳动力的8%或是9%。这要大大高于最近几年我们所看到的失业率。”Going hand in hand with the rising unemployment trend, the CBI predicts Britain's GDP will show its sharpest fall since 1991 as well. 英国工业联合会还预计,与不断上升的失业率联系在一起的是,英国的国内生产总值也将出现自1991年以来最急剧的下滑。200811/56497Scientists from a South African university have found evidence of a population of what they say were small-bodied modern humans on an island of Palau, east of the Philippines. Lee Berger has spent his professional life searching for evidence of mankind's past. He is a paleo-anthropologist who with some help from National Geographic has been studying and searching for the fossil remains of our ancestors for nearly 20 years. He has done most of his work in Africa, but it was during a vacation stop in Palau, and a walk through one of the many caves in this area that he literally stumbled upon what could be a history-making find. ''You see that, this is just packed full of buff, I mean you can actually see there are still some naturally exposed here. But what was cool here is we had a whole skull here.''Berger thinks these bones may be the remains of some of the earliest humans ever to populate these islands. Previous estimates date the earliest human habitation to about 29 hundred years ago, but all these bones existed above something called a flowstone. A flowstone is a common occurrence in caves where mineral-rich water flowing over the ground hardens in the stone. All of Berger’s previous digging was another flowstone that dated back about 29 hundred years. Today he's returned and is going to break through the flowstone to see if there are bones underneath. ''We are hoping that flowstone and consolidated sandstone took at least a few hundred years to form maybe longer than that. Hope is that these dates are gonna come out over the three-thousand-year mark.''He finds no shortage of bone underneath the flowstone including a tooth and a piece of cranium. But what these bones begin to tell Berger has far-reaching implications beyond the dating. The bones that Berger has found has some very unusual characteristics, a reduced chin, large teeth and what might be a small brain-size, leading Berger to reconsider his notion of what humans can look like. ''That’s nice. We have found this small island population with all of these characters and that appears to be human that is pushing the published boundaries of human variation.'' It might also have some implications for another set of bones found in the region, those of the tiny human that researchers dubbed ''the hobbit''. Its scientific name is Homo Floresiensis. And the researchers including Dean Falk from the University of Florida say it is so unique, it should be a separate species of human. The controversy of the hobbit is ongoing, but Berger’s finding let him to believe that Flores might not be a separate species.''...and also making me personally consider my understanding of what is normal even variation. Berger’s published a paper suggesting the bones are amazing because they show the incredible range of humans, in regards to size and shape. This new understanding of the potential of human variation might make us reconsider just how different the hobbits really are. The controversies will continue, but in the meantime, Berger will return. ''What has struck me on this second scientific visit is how phenomenally little research has been done on these islands. ''But Berger hopes to personally change that in the coming years, as he makes his way back to Palau, to continue his search for answers to our past.paleo-anthropologist 古人类学家 paleo- relating to very ancient timesstumble upon stumble on/across/upon [stumble on/across/upon sth] phr vto find or discover something by chance and unexpectedlypopulate(a) [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] (a) live in (an area) and form its population居住於(某地区)(而构成其人口成分): deserts populated by nomadic tribesmen 游牧部落居住的沙漠地区 (b) move to (an area) and fill it with people 落户於, 移居於(某地区); 向(某地区)移民: The islands were gradually populated by settlers from Europe. 岛上逐渐迁入很多欧洲移民.flowstone[地]流石 cranium bony part of the head enclosing the brain; skull 头盖骨; 颅骨.hobbitAn imaginary creature resembling a diminutive human being, having some rabbitlike characteristics, and being naturally peace-loving, domestic, and sociable.小矮人:一种类似于矮人的想象中的动物,有一些兔子的特征,生性酷爱和平、驯及易于交往200810/52528Fish oil supplements are a popular way to increase the intake of omega-3 fatty acids, which are thought to have a wide range of beneficial effects, particularly for cardiovascular health. But are they effective in preventing cancer? A new study suggests the answer is … maybe.Women in the study — 35,000 of them — were asked in a questionnaire whether they used fish oil supplements. Six years later, those who did were much less likely to have had breast cancer."We found that women who were using fish oil at the time that they entered the study had a 32 percent lower risk of breast cancer than women who did not use fish oil supplements," said study leader Emily White of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle.She says there's good reason to suspect that omega-3 fatty acids might protect against cancer. "There's a strong evidence that cancer is related to inflammation. So fish oil fits into that mechanism, since it is an anti-inflammatory drug."Despite the evidence, White doesn't think her study alone justifies a recommendation that women start taking fish oil capsules."No, I don't think that a single study can lead to public health recommendations to start taking supplements," she says. "Really, we need randomized trials, where people are assigned to take a supplement versus not, to answer whether a pill would be useful to take for cancer prevention."White explained that in a randomized trial, participants would be randomly assigned to either take the supplements or not.By contrast, her study is what is known as an observational study, where participants themselves decide, in this case, whether to take a fish oil supplement, and then the researchers observe them to see who develops cancer. But the women who chose to use a supplement could be different in many other ways from those who didn't.White and her colleagues did try to factor those differences into their analysis, but scientists generally prefer a randomized study, and researchers at Harvard are now organizing one to study the effects of both omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D.White's paper is published in the journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers amp; Prevention. 用鱼油营养补充剂,是增加欧米加-3脂肪酸摄取量的一种常用方式。欧米加-3被认为对健康有广泛的益处,特别是有益于心血管健康。但是,这些好处是否也包括预防癌症呢?一项新的研究显示,是“也许”。 参加研究的3万5千名女性首先被问及她们是否用鱼油。6年之后,用鱼油的女性罹患乳癌的比例比不用鱼油的女性要低得多。 主持这项研究的埃米莉·怀特说:“我们发现,这些研究开始时就在用鱼油营养补充剂的妇女罹患乳癌的风险,比不用鱼油的妇女低百分之32。”怀特在弗雷德·赫钦森癌症研究中心工作。 她说,有理由设想欧米加-3脂肪酸可能有助于预防癌症:“有非常有力的据,明癌症和炎症有关。而鱼油是一种抗炎剂,因此可见它在其中的作用。” 尽管有这个据,但怀特并不认为仅仅靠她的研究,就足以建议女性开始用鱼油胶囊。 她说:“我不认为仅仅根据一项研究,就可以提出用鱼油营养补充剂的公共卫生建议。实际上,我们需要做随机临床试验,随机指定参与研究的人用或不用营养剂,由此得到营养补充剂是否有助于预防癌症的。” 怀特说,在随机试验中,参与研究者被随机指定用或不用营养剂。 她的研究方法与此相反,那是一种观察式的研究。由参与者自行选择要不要用鱼油补充剂。然后研究人员观察她们,注意谁会患癌症。不过,选择用鱼油补充剂的妇女,也可能和不用鱼油的妇女,还有许多其它方面的不同。 怀特和她的同事们曾经尝试把各方面的不同因素纳入分析研究。不过,科学家们通常更愿意采用随机研究的方式。哈佛大学的研究人员也正在准备展开对欧米加-3 和维生素D的效果的研究。201007/110004

American universities inherited a choral tradition from England where, centuries ago, student choruses gathered to sing songs with different vocal parts known as glees. Today, dozens of U.S. colleges have glee clubs - a cappella choruses open to students who pass an audition.美国大学继承了英国一个有几百年历史的合唱传统,那就是,喜欢合唱的学生聚集在一起,组成欢乐合唱团。如今,美国有几十所高校拥有欢乐合唱团俱乐部,只要能通过面试,学生们都可以参加这种无伴奏合唱团。The Yale Glee Club is the nation’s third oldest collegiate chorus. What began as a group of friends serenading passersby, has grown into a powerhouse vocal ensemble. This year marks its 150th anniversary, and this month, decades' worth of Yale Glee Club alumni head to New Haven, Connecticut for a reunion. 耶鲁大学欢乐合唱团是美国大学中第三老资格的合唱团。从最开始一群朋友组团为路人唱小夜曲,直到现在成为声名赫赫的大合唱团。今年,耶鲁大学欢乐合唱团迎来了建团150周年。2月12号,合唱团的新老团员聚集在耶鲁大学校园,展开庆祝活动。Diverse groupSinging has always been a big part of life at Yale, no matter what you’re studying. Art major - later actor - Vincent Price and music major - later minister - William Sloane Coffin sang in the Glee Club. And so did Cole Porter, one of America’s most popular composers, who wrote a football song celebrating Yale’s mascot, "Handsome Dan the Bulldog." 在耶鲁大学,不管学生学什么专业,唱歌都是校园生活的重要部分。耶鲁大学欢乐合唱团的团员包括:著名演员文森特·普莱斯、著名牧师威廉·斯隆·科芬,以及美国最有名的流行音乐作曲家科尔·波特。波特曾经为学校的吉祥物--斗牛犬帅气丹创作过一首歌曲。Another alum is Richard Brookhiser, who’s now senior editor at the conservative magazine National Review. In college, he was aly active in politics and recalls he enjoyed the wide cross section of people he met in the Glee Club. 另外一位老合唱团成员是美国保守杂志《国家》的资深编辑理查德·布鲁克海瑟。在耶鲁读书的时候,布鲁克海瑟就是个政治活跃分子。他非常喜欢在欢乐合唱团碰到的不同背景的人。"These were people who weren’t into politics, or didn’t share my politics necessarily," says Brookhiser. "But when you were singing, that didn’t matter, because you were all focused on the music, and having a good time doing the music." 他回忆说:“那些人不热衷政治,也不一定赞同我的政治观点。但是当大家开始唱歌的时候,其它的一切都不重要了,你会全身心地唱歌,会过得很愉快。”The Glee Club performs a mixture of folk songs, spirituals and classical music.耶鲁大学欢乐合唱团演唱民歌、宗教歌曲以及严肃的古典歌曲。"And that also showed someone who was maybe snobbish like I was, that all these different kinds of music have a value," says Brookhiser. 201102/125521

A new program to reduce hospital infections with relatively simple and inexpensive quality control measures is saving lives, according to a new study.研究显示,采取一些比较简单和低成本的医疗质量控制措施,就可以减少感染的发生,挽救生命。Hospitals can be dangerous places. We go there to get well, but sometimes people get sicker or even die because of infections they contract in the hospital.医院也可能是个危险的地方。我们去医院是为了治病,但是有时会因为在医院遭受感染而病情加重,甚至死亡。Johns Hopkins University Medical School professor Peter Pronovost pioneered the use of hospital checklists to reduce infections. 约翰霍普金斯大学医学院教授彼得·普罗诺沃斯特率先使用医院工作检查清单,以减少感染率。He and his colleagues started with a list of about 90 recommendations from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "and we elected to say, well, I can't do 90 things as a practicing [doctor]. Let me cull it out and pick the five most important things on that guideline and make sure we do those."他和同事们从美国疾病控制和预防中心的大约90项建议开始做起。普罗诺沃斯特说:“有些医生会说,作为一名执业医生,我不可能做所有这90件事。 那我就把它们一一去掉,精选出5件最重要的,而且确保要把它们做好。”They focused their program on reducing infections in the central line, the tube inserted by needle into a patient’s vein to deliver medications and for other purposes. Central lines are a common source of serious infection in hospital intensive care units. 他们将降低感染率的重点放在中央线上,也就是为病人做静脉注射所使用的针管。中央线是加护病房里发生严重感染的常见源头。201102/125992

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