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HIV and mothers’ milk艾滋病病毒与母乳As luck would have it真不巧One of the proteins in milk protects infants against HIV infection母乳中的一种蛋白质可保护婴儿免受艾滋病病毒感染Oct 26th 2013 |From the print editionBAD though it has been, the AIDS epidemic would have been a great deal worse but for a strange and unexplained quirk. Infected mothers, it was feared, would transmit HIV, the AIDS-causing virus, to their children when suckling them. Mothers’ milk carries the virus, and suckling may last two years—which is plenty of time for transmission to happen. And indeed it does, but not nearly as often as was originally suspected. Less than 10% of infants suckled by untreated infected mothers (those not on antiretroviral drugs, which suppress the virus’s reproduction) pick up HIV.尽管情况很糟糕了,但是由于一种奇怪的无法解释的现象,艾滋病的流行程度没有更糟。很多人担心受感染的母亲会在哺乳时将艾滋病病毒传播给自己的孩子。母乳携带有艾滋病病毒,哺乳期可能达到两年,这给传染提供了足够长的时间。而事实上传染也发生了,但是跟最初所怀疑的有出入。只有不到10%的婴儿会从未接受治疗的母亲那里感染艾滋病(未接受治疗是指没有使用抑制病毒繁殖的抗逆转录药物)。Why that should be has remained mysterious. But Genevieve Fouda of Duke University, in North Carolina, and her colleagues think they have the answer. If they are right, many children have been spared AIDS by a fluke—but a fluke that could be used to develop a new weapon to attack it.上述问题一直是未解之谜。但是北卡罗来纳州杜克大学的吉纳维夫·富达和她的同事认为他们找到了。如果他们是正确的,这意味着许多儿童侥幸逃过艾滋病,这种侥幸能用来开发一种对抗艾滋病的新武器。Clearly, something in milk disables HIV. Previous experiments had identified proteins that do this to a certain extent, but nowhere near enough to explain all the data. Those earlier searches must therefore have missed something crucial. Dr Fouda, as she describes in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, set out to find what it was.很明显,母乳中的某种物质会阻止艾滋病病毒。先前的实验确定了蛋白质能在一定程度上阻止艾滋病病毒,但是不足以解释所有的数据。那么,先前的研究肯定错过了一些关键的东西。富达士在美国国家科学院院刊上表示她试图发现错过的东西。Milk is a complex mixture of chemicals, so her problem was how to isolate one of them without knowing in advance which was responsible. That meant running raw milk through a series of processes, each of which divided it into smaller and smaller fractions, and testing each fraction for its HIV-neutralising quality on the way. That quality, it turns out, is concentrated in a single protein called tenascin-C. Further experiments showed that this protein disables HIV by locking onto a protein on the virus’s surface, and that it is as effective at doing so as antibodies generated by the immune system for that specific purpose.牛奶是一种复杂的混合物,因此问题在于在事先不知道的情况下如何找出它们中起作用的那种物质。这意味着将生牛奶通过一系列过程,每次将生牛奶分成更小的成分,测试每个成分对艾滋病病毒的作用。使艾滋病病毒无效的特性属于一种被称作黏蛋白C的蛋白质。更进一步的实验表明这种蛋白质通过附着在病毒表面的一种蛋白质上而阻止艾滋病病毒,效果跟免疫系统产生的抗体一样。This was a surprise, because tenascin-C is not an antibody, nor had it been suspected of having any antiviral function. Its known jobs are to help the development of the fetal brain and to assist in wound healing. That it is also the right shape to attach itself to HIV’s envelope protein seems a complete coincidence—which, indeed, it must be because AIDS is such a recent disease that evolution could not have had time to throw up a novel (and also ubiquitous) anti-HIV protein of this sort.这很意外,因为黏蛋白C既不是抗体,也没有任何抗病毒功能。已知的功能是帮助胎儿大脑的发育和伤口愈合。黏蛋白C与艾滋病病毒的信使蛋白相吻合也纯属巧合,肯定是这样的,因为艾滋病是最近才出现的疾病,进化没有足够的时间产生这种新型(无处不在的)抗艾滋病蛋白。Whether tenascin-C, or something derived from it, can be deployed against HIV by doctors, rather than just by nature, remains to be seen. As far as possible, infected mothers are now given antiretroviral drugs—both for their own health and for the health of their suckling infants—so Dr Fouda’s discovery will probably not affect them directly.黏蛋白C,或者它的衍生物,排除其原始性质,能否被医生用于对抗艾滋病仍需要进一步研究。最可能的是,受感染的母亲们现在接受抗逆转录药物,为了她们自己以及孩子的健康,因此富达士的发现可能不会对她们产生直接影响。For the wider campaign against AIDS, however, it could be of great importance. The generals running that campaign are now shifting their approach from defence to attack, and are talking of ways to bring about an AIDS-free world. For them, a natural human protein that neutralises the virus will be interesting indeed.然而,对防治艾滋病运动来说,这个发现可能至关重要。运动的领导者们现在改变方法,从防守变为进攻,正在讨论消灭艾滋病。对他们来说,一种人类天生具有的对抗艾滋病病毒的蛋白质真的很有趣。 /201311/263609


  I was sitting on my Porsche yesterday,having a soda,and a wasp picked its head into the can and drink from mysoda.昨儿我坐在我的保时捷里,喝着汽水,一只黄蜂将头伸进了我的瓶子,喝起了我的汽水。For the sugar I konw thats why I drink soda.我知道我喝汽水是为了糖分,But the Garmin wondering about how differentinsects drink.但是Garmin好奇不同的昆虫都是怎样喝东西的呢?I mean insects need water just like the rest of us.我的意思是昆虫也像我们一样需要水分。You are right! Insects do need water.是这样的!昆虫确实需要水分。How they get their water depends a lot on their diets.但是它们怎样饮水很大程度上是取决与他们的饮食习惯。Herbivorous insects, those that feed on plants, get most of their water from their preyfood because plants contain a lot of water.对于那些以植物为食的食草性昆虫来说,大部分水分都是从食物中获取的,因为植物很有很多水分。But carnivorous insects often have to get their water from somewhere other than their prey,and often theyll go to plants for their water too, drinking from fruit maybe.但是对于肉食性的昆虫来说,它们就的从其它地方获取水分,通常也是来自植物,或者水果。Or they might sip fromthe morning dew or from raindrops or from edges of ponds or puddles.它们或许还会从晨露、雨水、池塘或者水坑边进水。If they’re blood suckers, they probably get their water from their food.如果是吸血类的,它们大概就是从食物中获取水分。Its worth noting that notall mouthparts are the same and this too affects the ways an insect is able to get water.值得一提的是,昆虫的口器是不一样的,这就大大影响了它们喝水的方式。There arebasically two kinds of insect mouths.昆虫的口器大概可分为两类。There are chewers and suckers.它们便是咀嚼式口器及吸收式口器。Some chewers may have a difficult time trying to draw waterfrom a pond, whereas getting their water from chewing a leaf is simple.一些咀嚼式口器在池塘边喝水可能会有困难,所以通过咀嚼叶子来获取水分会更简单。Suckers, on the other hand, have a tube-likemouth part called a proboscis that allows them toget liquid by sucking or lapping, whether from the nectar of flowers or from a soda can.而吸收式口器则有一个管状叫做“喙”的部分,它可以让昆虫通过吸或舔的方式获得水分,不论是从花的花蜜中还是从汽水瓶都可以。Or from my arm, right?从我的手臂也行,对吧?Thats true.是的! 201406/305946。


  In 1859, an unassuming Australian landowner named Thomas Austin got the hunting bug.1959年,澳大利亚一位默默无名的地主—Thomas Austin在打猎上碰到了瓶颈。Eager for something to shoot, he released twenty-four wild rabbits onto his property and had a jolly time tracking them down.在强烈的打猎欲望的催使下,他在自家的土地上放生了24头野兔。Unfortunately, some of the rabbits managed to escape and, as rabbits are known to do, began to breed like…well, rabbits.一时之间,他的一大乐趣便是找出那些兔子。可偏偏就有那么一些兔子逃了出去,做着我们所知兔子该做的事—生殖繁衍。By 1900, Austin was dead but his unwanted legacy lived on in the form of a rabbit infestation that sp throughout the entire Australian continent.1900年,Austin去世了。但是他那些让人头疼的“遗产”却已然遍布整个澳大利亚大陆,它们成群结队地袭击着一个个的庄园,让人头疼不已。Desperate landowners scrambled to captureover two million rabbits per year, but this hardly made a dent in the rabbit population.每年,农场主们能捕到超过两百万只兔子,可是,这只能算是冰山一角,区区两百万对兔子这一群体不够成任何影响。Rabbits, it seemed, had taken up permanent residence down under.就这样,兔子俨然已成澳大利亚的“常住居民”。With its long ears, twitching nose, and adorable hopping ability, the individual rabbit is fairly cute.乍看上去,长长的耳朵,抽动的鼻子和蹦蹦跳跳的可爱姿势,兔子真的是可爱得不行。Multiply that bunny by millions, however, and they begin to seem entirely sinister.当然,这只是针对一只兔子而言。如果是上百万只兔子聚在一起,那简直就是灾难。The greatAustralian rabbit infestation was ecologically devastating.澳大利亚兔子的“横行霸道”从生态学上来看简直就是毁灭性的。The buck-toothed creatures helpedextinguish nearly one-eighth of Australias native mammal species and led to the extinction ofcountless numbers of plants, leading to wide sp soil erosion.这些长着小龅牙的生物“帮助”澳大利亚八分之一的土著哺乳动物走向灭绝,顺道再让不计其数的植物从此消逝,最后的结果便是,澳大利亚严重的大面积水土流失。The Australian government tried to corral the rabbits by building so-called rabbit-proof fences across vast stretches of land.澳大利亚政府也曾圈出大片土地,围上所谓的防兔围栏,试图将兔子都赶到一个地方。Undaunted, the rabbits burrowed under.可是,这些兔子是毫无畏惧的,Finally, in the 1950s, theAustralians resorted to chemical warfare, injecting several rabbits with myxoma, an experimental virus known to target and kill rabbits.到后来的20世纪50年代,澳大利亚人终将化学药物投入了人兔大战中。人们将粘液瘤注入兔子体内,粘液瘤是一种用来杀兔子的实验用病毒。The virus sp, and the rabbit population dropped from six-hundred million to one-hundred million.随着该病毒的传播,兔子数量从6亿只急速减至1亿只。But thats still a lot of rabbits, and those with a natural resistance to the virus began breeding with a fury.但是,1亿仍是一个很大的数目。而且有些兔子天生就对这种病毒有抗体,接着这些兔子开始迅猛繁殖。And so, the rabbit wars carry on still.因而,直至今天,在澳大利亚这片土地上人兔大战仍在进行着。 /201407/310073But the glyptodont wasnt a reptile. So what was it? There is a relative of the glyptodont that’s still alive today. Its the armadillo and its a mammal, the only mammal with this kind of armor in the whole of North America. It may give us some idea of how an ice age glyptodont might have looked when alive. 但是雕齿兽却并不是爬行动物。那它又属于什么动物呢?如今还存活着一种与雕齿兽存在“血缘关系”的动物。这就是犰狳,犰狳是一种哺乳动物,并且是整个北美唯一拥有这种的“盔甲”哺乳动物。这能让我们想象得出那些冰河时代的雕齿兽活着的时候大概是什么样子。Armadillos have poor eyesight and rely mostly on their sense of smell. Much of their time is spent nose to the ground in search of food. 犰狳不具备良好的视力,主要依赖其敏锐的嗅觉。他们大部分的时间都在用鼻子探索土地以嗅出食物。Like the glyptodont, they are covered in a layer of bony scutes. But the armadillos body armor is surprisingly thin and flexible and doesnt slow its owner down. So what about the glyptodont? 和雕齿兽一样,犰狳的身上也覆盖着一层骨鳞。但是犰狳身上的盔甲却惊人的薄,并且柔韧性很强,犰狳并不会因其减慢速度。那么雕齿兽的盔甲又是什么样呢?The glyptodonts scute casing was up to 5 centimetres thick and fused into a solid shell. The shell alone is extremely heavy. And the entire animal probably weighed as much as a small car. It had extremely sturdy legs and five toes on each foot to sp its massive weight. The heavy tail probably acted as a counterbalance. So the glyptodont wasnt built for speed, but inside all this body armor, youd imagine it was well protected. But one fossil skull tells a different story. It suggests the glyptodonts defences werent impenetrable.雕齿兽的盔甲骨有5厘米厚,并且是一整块固体的壳。光光整个背壳便十分沉重。雕齿兽整个身体的重量可能相当于一辆小汽车。它的腿部十分健壮,每只脚上的5个脚趾都增加了它的体重。它沉重的尾巴可能作为一个平衡杆。因此雕齿兽并不擅长速度,但是在如此的“盔甲”下面,你可以想象它的身体被保护地如何良好。但是化石的头骨却告诉了我们一个不同的故事——雕齿兽的防御力并不是那么强大。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载.201307/249440

  Italian payment practices意大利的付习惯Unhealthy delays有害的延误Late payments are an Italian speciality—particularly in health care延迟付是意大利的特色——尤其在医药保健领域IN MEDICINE speed is of the essence.在医药领域,速度就是核心。If the ambulance arrives a minute late, the patient may be dead.如果救护车晚到一分钟,病人就可能死亡了。Italian paramedics are no doubt as swift as those in other countries.意大利的护理人员无疑同其他国家一样行动迅速。But Italys health-care authorities are shamefully slow when it comes to paying suppliers—making it difficult for them to survive.但谈到向供应商付时,意大利的医疗机构就慢的令人羞耻了—简直让供应商们难以生存。Were still waiting to be paid for goods sold in , says Stefano Rimondi, the managing director of Bellco, a maker of equipment for dialysis with revenues of more than 100m and a workforce of 360 people.我们还在等年出售的货物的付款,Bellco公司的常务董事Stefano Rimondi说道。Bellco是一家渗透设备制造商,拥有360名员工,每年收入超过1亿欧元。We have one employee working full-time chasing up late payers, he adds.他补充道,我们有一个员工全职专司向延迟付款人追讨款项。Bellco is not the only company to suffer.Bellco不是唯一一家深受其害的公司。The 250 other members of Assobiomedica, a trade group for firms that supply medical equipment, are owed 5.6 billion;提供医疗设备的贸易组织,意大利生物医药联合会下属的250家公司有未付款56亿欧元;those of Farmindustria, which represents 200 pharmaceutical firms, are waiting for 4 billion.意大利制药工业协会下属的200家制药公司则有未付款40亿欧元。The farther south you look, the longer the delays in payment.你往南看的越远,付的延迟时间就越长。The Friuli and Trentino-Alto Adige regions in north-eastern Italy and Valle dAosta in the north-west settle bills after about three months.在意大利东北部的Friuli 和Trentino-Alto Adige区域,以及在西北部的Valle dAosta都在三个月后付账单。The regions of Calabria and Molise pay on average after two years.Calabria 和 Molise区的人平均两年后才付账。The record is held by one Neapolitan health authority:那不勒斯省中某市的卫生部门保持着相关记录:some of its suppliers have been waiting for more than four-and-a-half years.他的一些供应商已经等了至少四年半了。Small Italian firms that rely on the home market are hit particularly hard.一些依赖家庭市场的意大利企业尤其损失严重。Often they cannot get bank financing at reasonable interest rates.他们通常不能以合理的利率从贷款。And long delays in payment create all kinds of tax and accounting headaches.而长时间延误付款将导致税收和会计方面的一系列问题。Suing late-payers doesnt help much.起诉延迟付款者也没有太大作用。Courts are at least as slow as health-care authorities.法院的速度至少和医疗机构一样慢。In five regions a law even blocks the use of courts to compel authorities to cough up.甚至有一项法律在五个地区中禁止法院强制官员吐出资金。Once we were able to recover about 5m of interest a year, but now weve had to give up, says the executive of a large American drugmaker, which had started to take legal action in 2007.一家大型美国制药公司在2007年采取法律行动以后说道:曾经我们可以收到一年大约500万欧元的利息,但现在我们放弃了。Pharmaceutical firms cannot simply stay clear of the worst offenders:制药公司不能简单的远离最极端的冒犯者们:they are legally required to supply drugs even to notoriously slow authorities.法律甚至要求这些为慢的臭名昭著的官员提供药品。Desperate measures are also unlikely to help.令人绝望的法规同样很难起到作用。Starting a boycott of late-paying authorities could trigger an antitrust investigation.启动对延迟付款官员的联合抵制将触发反垄断调查。And paying sweeteners to move invoices to the top of the list can land you behind bars.而通过贿赂使账单排到列表最顶端的举动将使你锒铛入狱。Some suppliers are pinning their hopes on new European Union legislation which requires health-care authorities to settle bills within 60 days;一些供应商寄希望于要求医疗机构在60天内付款的欧盟监管新条例;it takes effect in March next year.此条例将于明年三月份生效。Yet Mr Rimondi would be shocked if things improved:但如果情况真的有所改进的话,Rimondi先生会感到震惊,Some clause will be dreamed up so that the directive can be dodged in Italy.将有一些条款被设计出来,让意大利逃过监管。 /201307/247869DON:Its time for a new feature on our show, called I Got the Data.唐:现在是我们节目的一个新板块,它被称为《我就是有科学依据》。This is where I say something that a smart-alec at a party would no doubt disagree with, and then I triumph by having data to back it up.一个自作聪明之人无疑会对我在派对讲的事情持反对观点,然后我通过数据持获胜。Yael will play the smart-alec. Ready?而雅艾尔将扮演那个自作聪明之人。准备好了吗?YAEL:Ready.雅艾尔:可以开始了。DON:Nice party, huh? I love these chips.唐:聚会可真不错,是吧?我爱死这些薯片了。YAEL:Mmm-hmm.雅艾尔:嗯。DON:You know, on the way over here I saw this guy talking on a cell phone while driving.唐:你知道吗,在来这里的途中我看到这家伙边开车边打手机。Thats got to be dangerous.那可太危险了。YAEL:No it isnt.雅艾尔:不见得吧。Only idiots cant drive and talk at the same time.只有白痴才不会在同一时间既开车又讲电话。DON:But your hands are off the wheel.唐:但你的手离开了方向盘。YAEL:I got one of those no-hands cell phones you can mount in a car.雅艾尔:我可知道车里用的是那种不用手就能打电话的手机。Dont believe what anybody says.不要相信别人。Theyre completely safe.它们非常安全。DON:Unfortunately for you, smart-alec, I Got the Data.唐:你太不幸了,自作聪明的傻瓜,我的数据恰恰能辩倒你。YAEL:You what?雅艾尔:什么玩意?DON:A study done by a psychologist and an engineer at the University of Rhode Island had volunteers wear eye-tracking devices while they drove.唐:罗德岛大学一位心理学家和一位工程师对此进行了研究,他们要求志愿者驾车时佩戴眼球追踪设备。The researchers found that a drivers eyes move around a lot--we scan the road, check our speedometers, and stay alert for surprises.研究人员发现,一名司机的眼球经常很多次的移动—比如我们扫视道路,检查速度表,并对于有可能的突发情况保持警惕等等。When talking on a cell phone at the same time, though, eye motions fell to almost zero-the subjects simply stared at the bumper ahead of them.而当用手机讲话时,眼部运动几乎降至零—受试者只是盯着在他们前面的保险杠。YAEL:Yeah?雅艾尔:是吗?DON:The issue seems to be not talking on the phone per se but concentrating on a second task, such as making a decision with the person on the other end of the line.唐:这个问题似乎并不是关于讲电话本身,而是专注于第二个任务,比如和电话线另一头的人做决定等。When we do that, we take our mental energy away from driving.当我们这样做的时候,我们的精神能量就会远离驾驶。And thats dangerous!而这非常危险!YAEL:I knew that.雅艾尔:我知道了。DON:Mmm-hmm. 唐:嗯。 201310/262656




  The world heritage site,its enormous seagrass beds carpet the shallows, creating one of the richest marine environments on earth.一个世界遗产地大量的海草丛覆盖了潜水湾创造出地球上最富饶的海洋环境之一。Several hundred families of bottlenose dolphins live here, and one of the largest is called the Beachies.数以百计的宽吻海豚家族生活在这里其中最大族群之一,被称为毕彻斯。Puck began her family 15 years ago.帕克15年前有了自己的家庭。Heavily pregnant, shes about to give birth to her eighth calf.怀后,它将产下自己的第8个幼崽。With Puck today are two of her daughters,two granddaughters and her only son India.今天和帕克在一起的,是它的两个女儿,两个孙女还有它唯一的儿子印地亚。A five years old.它才只有5岁。Hes still a bit of a mummys boy and never far from her side.它仍然是离不开妈妈的孩子。一直跟在妈妈左右。Janet Mann has been following the lives of the Bays dolphins for 23 years.珍妮特曼恩已经关注海湾的海豚生活23年了。;We have the entire Puck family.整个家族都在这里。Puck is the one with all the speckles.帕克是那只有斑点的。In fact, shes due any day now.实际上,它这几天就会生了。Shes enormous.;它身型庞大。Puck was the first dolphin that Janet got to know when she started her study.帕克是珍妮特在开始研究时结识的第一只海豚。Hey ,Puck. Shes really quite extraordinary. She was just a yound animal back then.嗨,帕克,它很特别,过去只是只幼豚。We know every calf shes had, every trial and tribulation shes endured. Oh, youre wide.我们认识它的每个幼崽,它所承受的每个考验和磨难。哦,你已经这么大了。So much of what we understand about dolphin mothers and their calves comes from Janets study.我们对海豚母亲和它幼崽们的了解多是来自珍妮特的研究。Now 33 years old, Puck is an old hand that being a mum.现在33岁的帕克有着做母亲的丰富经验。At the end of her year-long pregnancy,this would be her eighth and probably her last calf.一年的怀期即将结束,这将是它的第8个幼崽。201403/282574

  German business德国企业DAX maxDAX指数新高A stockmarket milestone reflects optimism for German companies股市里程碑折射出德国企业的乐观心态ECONOMIC growth of 2% this year, as is expected in Germany, is hot stuff only in the context of Europes cool climes. But the DAX index of the countrys biggest listed companies is truly sizzling, closing above 10,000 points for the first time on Monday June 9th, up by 22% on a year ago and nearly treble the low it hit in March . The MDAX, an index of somewhat smaller companies, has performed even better. Share-traders enthusiasm is shared by bosses: the Ifo business-climate index, a widely watched survey of companies, shows an optimism not seen since 2011.德国今年的经济增长达到了预期的2%,这成绩只能在经济低迷的欧洲称得上醒目。不过该国最大的上市公司的DAX指数真可谓炙手可热,在6月9日收盘首次突破10,000点,比去年同比增长22%,几乎是年3月触底点数的三倍。小型公司的指数MDAX表现更为突出。公司经理们也被股东们的热情感染:本月,广受关注的企业调查IFO商业景气指数,显示了2011年以来难得的乐观情绪。What justifies the cheer? Dirk Müller, a trader and commentator, although cautious about the heights share prices are reaching, thinks the prospects for Germanys carmakers are bright. Two of them, BMW and Volkswagen, have been among the top-five performers over the past five years, and the DAXs best performer has been Continental, a car-parts maker.为什么如此乐观?交易员兼员德克?穆勒虽然对目前的高股价持谨慎态度,还是认为汽车制造商的前景一片光明。其中的宝马和大众汽车两家在过去的五年都一直是前五名,而在DAX指数中表现最好的是一家名为“大陆”的汽车零部件生产商。In recent years the run-up in German automotive and engineering firms shares has been driven by booming emerging-market sales. Now, Chinas market is cooling, and the prospects for sales in Russia have been dampened by its confrontation with the West over Ukraine. However, markets closer to home are coming to the rescue: car sales in Europe have increased for eight months in a row. Volkswagen, which sold 4.4% more cars in the first five months of 2014 than in the same period last year, says western Europe is now only second to the Asia-Pacific region in sales growth, a big change from recent years.最近几年,拜新兴市场蓬勃发展的销售所赐,德国汽车和工程公司的股票大幅增长。现在,中国市场正在降温,而俄罗斯和西方在乌克兰问题上的对抗使得该国的销售前景黯淡无光。不过,窝边草成了救命草:连续八个月,欧洲汽车销售量节节攀升。大众汽车在头五个月的销售量比去年同期增长了4.4%。它表示,西欧市场的销售增长目前仅次于亚太地区,这同前几年相比可是大大不同了。Other German businesses may likewise see renewed vigour in domestic, European and rich-world markets, compensating for the weakening outlook elsewhere. Barclays, a bank, thinks that a long-overdue recovery in capital spending by companies in developed economies should help the countrys many makers of industrial equipment and services. As examples, Barclays mentions Siemens, an engineering conglomerate, Infineon, a microchip-maker, and SAP, which makes business software.其他的德国企业可能也同样发觉了重新焕发活力的德国、欧洲和富裕国家市场,从而对于弱化的其他市场有所补偿。巴克莱认为,正如人们期待已久的,发达国家的资本出开始回升给德国的工业设备制造商和务提供商的发展提供了助力。巴克莱提到的例子包括工程集团西门子,微芯片制造商英飞凌,还有商业软件制造商SAP。All three have struck cheerier notes in recent results announcements. Growth in company profits tends to lag GDP growth by a couple of quarters, so Siemens expects the strong first-quarter economic figure to translate into higher sales later this year. SAP sees the packaged-software market in its Europe, Middle East and Africa region growing by more than 5% this year. Infineon expects revenue growth of between 4% and 8% in the current quarter, and thinks rising demand from carmakers and other industrial customers will drive its growth this year.以上三家公司都在最近的业绩公告中有好消息。公司的利润增长通常会落后于GDP增长几个季度,因此西门子预计,第一季度的经济数据势头强劲,将会在今年晚些时候转化为销售额的增长。SAP预计今年其套装软件在欧洲、中东及非洲地区的销量增幅将超过5%。英飞凌预计本季度的收入增长将介于4%和8%之间,并且随着汽车制造商和其他工业客户的需求增长,它的增长也会被相应推动。Although bosses are sounding increasingly happy about the prospects for their businesses, economists are wary. They think the hype on the stockmarket may be excessive. In particular, they worry that the decision on June 5th by the European Central Bank to push interest rates down into uncharted territory risks inflating a bubble—it was surely no coincidence that the DAXs record high came so soon after the ECBs decision.尽管企业经营者们对于商业前景愈来愈欢欣鼓舞,经济学家们却忧心忡忡。他们认为目前股市的炒作可能过度了。他们特别担心欧洲央行在6月5日决定将利率压低到前所未有的程度,这将催生泡沫—之后,DAX指数很快创下历史新高,这绝非巧合。But the industrial bosses see a positive side to the ECBs move: cutting interest rates should tend to weaken the euro, making their exports outside the currency zone more competitive and boosting their value when translated back into euros. Adidas, a sportswear-maker, says that the strengthening euro knocked a 235m dent in its sales last year.不过产业经营者们却看到了欧洲央行举动的积极一面:降息将削弱欧元,增加他们在欧元区外的出口竞争力,并在折算回欧元的时候提高他们的价值。阿迪达斯运动的制造商表示,去年欧元升值导致销售量下降了2.35亿欧元。Furthermore, with interest rates so low, German banks are falling over themselves to tempt customers with loans to buy new kitchens and take dream holidays, while loosening their loan criteria. Although retailers are not yet as cheerful as manufacturers, their spirits will be raised if the German Chambers of Commerce and Industry is correct in foreseeing a strong revival in domestic consumption. Dirk Schlotb?ller, an economist at the chambers of commerce, says geopolitical tensions and overgenerous government spending commitments should still give German businesses reasons for caution; but for now the chambers member firms are telling him that things are looking up.此外,德国借低利率之机,千方百计的吸引客户贷款购买新厨房、或者实现自己的梦想假期,同时还降低了贷款标准。虽然零售商没有像制造商那么欢天喜地,但如果德国工商会对于国内消费将强劲复苏的预言成真,那么这些零售商们也可以大舒一口气了。一位商会的经济学家德克·史洛乐表示,地缘政治紧张以及过分慷慨的政府出承诺,都是德国企业应当谨慎的原因。不过当前商会的成员公司都纷纷告诉他一切都在好转。 /201406/307818

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