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重庆市爱德华医院治疗前列腺炎多少钱重庆那个医院治疗子宫肌瘤最好重庆做人流的价格 Glance through a popular magazine’s listof healthy breakfast foods and you’ll likely find oatmeal in the group. Among other benefits, oatmeal is touted as having the ability to keep you full, effectively squelching the desire for that midmorning snack. In fact, a group of researchers recently found that a serving of instant oatmeal decreased the desire to eat more than the same amount of Honey Nut Cheerios, an oat-based cereal. I decided to talk with lead author Candida Rebello of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center to find out what makes oatmeal so special.据《科学美国人》(Scientific American)25日报道,随便看看流行杂志列出的健康早餐食物,你总会发现燕麦的身影。燕麦有很多益处,其中之一就是它能够让你有饱腹感,能有效地阻止你在早上10-11点吃零食的欲望。其实,一些研究人员最近发现比起同量的蜂蜜坚果麦片(含燕麦的谷物),一份速食燕麦更能降低人的食欲。我决定采访一下潘宁顿生物研究中心的主任卡迪达·瑞伯乐(Candida Rebello),看看到底是什么让燕麦如此特别。The story begins with dietary fiber, the part of plant foods that the body can’t digest, which has been shown to promote a feeling of fullness. Both the oats in oatmeal and y-to-eat oat-based cereals contain β-glucan, a type of soluble fiber.一切要从食物纤维说起。食物纤维是植物性食物不能被人体消化的那部分,正是这一部分提高了人的饱腹感。燕麦片中的燕麦和含燕麦的即食谷类食物都含有可溶纤维beta葡聚糖。However, it’s not just the fiber content that matters, according to Rebello and her fellow researchers. Fullness and the desire to eat may also be influenced by a property of fluids called viscosity, which, in this case, is generated by oat β-glucan. Rebello described viscosity as the slimy feel of oatmeal that you can both see in the bowl and feel in your mouth. Scientists think viscosity affects appetite by influencing the way foods interact with the mouth, as well as the stomach and intestines. For example, increased viscosity in the intestinal tract can stimulate the release of appetite-regulating hormones. The oral and gastric effects work together, according to Rebello, meaning a food with both a high initial viscosity in the mouth and a high subsequent viscosity in the gastrointestinal tract will likely produce a greater feeling of fullness.但是,瑞伯乐和其同事的研究发现,纤维不是让人产生饱腹感的唯一原因。一种粘稠状液体也可以影响饱腹感和食欲。这种粘液就是由beta葡聚糖产生的。瑞伯乐解释道,这种粘液就像燕麦片的那种滑腻的感觉,不管是装在碗里还是吃进口里你都能感到这种滑腻感。科学家们认为粘液是通过影响食物与嘴和胃与肠接触的方式来影响食欲的。比如,肠道内粘液增多会刺激调解食欲的荷尔蒙分泌。瑞伯乐说,口感和胃部感受共同作用使人产生了饱腹感。也就是说,能够让人首先在嘴里感受到高粘稠度,其次再在肠胃中保持高粘稠度的食物很可能引起人的饱腹感。The study Rebello and colleagues recently authored looked at instant oatmeal, old-fashioned oatmeal and Honey Nut Cheerios and measured each food’s viscosity and effect on satiety. (I should note that though Rebello works for the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, the study was a collaborative effort with researchers from PepsiCo Ramp;D Nutrition and was funded by PepsiCo Ramp;D Nutrition’s Quaker Oats Center of Excellence.)瑞伯乐及其同事们最近联名发表的一项研究观察了速食燕麦,传统燕麦和蜂蜜坚果燕麦饮品,测量了每一种食物的粘稠度和带来的满足感。(我要事先声明:虽然瑞伯乐在潘宁顿生物研究中心工作,但是这份研究报告是他和百事公司营养研发部的研究人员一起撰写而成,这项报告也是由百事公司营养研发部旗下的桂格优质燕麦中心出资赞助的。)The researchers found that instant oatmeal improved several measures of satiety, or the feeling of fullness, over a four-hour period more than Honey Nut Cheerios did. Old-fashioned oatmeal improved one measure of satiety when compared to Honey Nut Cheerios. As might be expected, the study found that instant oatmeal had greater initial and subsequent viscosity compared to Honey Nut Cheerios. Old-fashioned oatmeal had greater subsequent viscosity but not higher initial viscosity, which could explain why it was less effective at promoting fullness.研究者发现,在四个小时内,速食燕麦能大大提高满足感,也就是饱腹感,相比起来蜂蜜坚果燕麦饮品的效果比速食燕麦低很多。传统燕麦比燕麦饮品效果好一些。跟预期一样,研究发现速食燕麦比燕麦饮品的原始粘稠度和进入肠胃后的粘稠度都要高。传统燕麦片原始粘稠度低,而进入肠胃后的粘稠度高。这就是它为什么在增加饱腹感的效果上要比速食燕麦稍逊一筹的原因。Viscosity of oatmeal or cereal appears to be a key player in promoting fullness, so my next question was naturally about what determines differences in viscosity.燕麦片或者谷物的粘稠度似乎在促进饱腹感方面是至关重要的原因,所以我的下一个问题自然就是粘稠度的高低是由什么决定的。“Viscosity is generated by the particular fiber in oatmeal, which is called β-glucan,” said Rebello, who is a research dietitian. “The fiber is affected by the manner in which it is processed.”作为一名做研究的饮食学家,瑞伯乐解释说:“粘稠度是由燕麦片中一种叫做beta葡聚糖的特殊纤维产生的。这种纤维会受到处理方式的影响.Ready-to-eat oat-based cereals, instant oatmeal and old-fashioned oatmeal are processed differently, which can lead their β-glucan to have a different structure and result in a different viscosity.即食燕麦谷物类食品,即食燕麦和传统燕麦的处理方法不同,那么他们中所含的beta葡聚糖的结构也就不同,导致他们的粘稠度也不一样。So if you find yourself feeling satisfied until lunch after a bowl of instant oatmeal, now you’ll know why.所以如果你发现自己吃了一碗速食燕麦片后到午饭时间都还不饿,现在你应该知道其中的原因了吧。 /201407/312546As much as and sometimes more. At least that#39;s the belief of high-end grocers like Whole Foods Market and a spurt of small juice companies trying to move the cold-pressed-juice craze from small-batch to mass-produced. 高达10美元甚至更多。至少这是Whole Foods Market等高档食品超市和一批发展迅猛的小型果汁生产商的信条,他们正试图将狂热的冷榨果汁潮流从小批量变成大规模生产。 A 16-ounce bottle of BluePrint Red, containing beets, carrots and ginger, among other ingredients, goes for at some retailers. And Whole Foods customers are paying for a bottle of celery-based Twelve Essentials vegetable juice, one of the top-sellers from Suja, an 18-month-old juice brand based in San Diego. Suja co-founder Annie Lawless says customers understand the high cost of what goes into the bottle, including organic produce that is cold pressed and then preserved using a process that leaves most of the nutrients intact. #39;When you buy a bottle, you#39;re getting all the goodness without any of the effort,#39; says Ms. Lawless, a 26-year-old former law student and yoga instructor. The company says it generated million in revenue in its first year. BluePrint一瓶16盎司(约合454克)的Red果汁在某些零售店售价10美元(约合人民币60元),其中含有甜菜、胡萝卜和姜汁等原料。在Whole Foods超市,以芹菜为主要原料的Twelve Essentials蔬菜汁售价9美元(约合人民币54元)一瓶。这是 地亚哥果汁品牌Suja销量最好的一款产品。该品牌创立仅18个月。Suja联合创始人安妮#12539;劳雷斯(Annie Lawless)说,消费者明白成本高在哪里,包括使用的有机农产品,它们经过冷榨并使用可保留大部分营养的方法进行储藏。劳雷斯说:“买这样一瓶饮料,毫不费力就能获得所有的精华。”劳雷斯现年26岁,之前是法学专业学生,并担任过瑜伽教练。公司表示第一年营收为2,000万美元(约合人民币1.2亿元)。 Just as carrying a Starbucks coffee cup has become a celebrity fashion accessory and a slung-over-the-shoulder yoga mat can signify a certain devotion to spiritual fitness, porting a clear bottle of green vegetable juice has evolved into a status symbol. Initially, the juicing market was supported mostly by people doing liquid-only cleanses, marketed as a way to rid the body of toxins and bloat. Now, more consumers are drinking juice as a meal replacement, a quick infusion of vegetables or to convey the impression of superior health and discipline. 就像端一杯星巴克(Starbucks)咖啡已经成为明星时尚配件、肩上挎个瑜伽垫标志着某种对精神健身的忠诚一样,带一瓶清澈的绿色蔬菜汁也已经演化成一种身份象征。最初,果汁市场主要受到液体 化排毒者的持,它被宣传为一种清理身体毒素和水肿的方式。现在,越来越多的消费者将喝果汁作为餐食的替代品、快速摄取各类蔬菜的方式或者为了给人以优越健康和自律的印象。 Suja#39;s product line is a slate of fruit-and-vegetable juices meant to dose the body with a palatable concentration of nutrients from organic produce. For people doing a liquid-only cleanse, Suja sells packages on its website. A three-day supply costs 5, including shipping on ice outside of California. It has flavors such as Glow, which contains apples, cucumbers, mint, kale and other ingredients, and Green Supreme, with apples, kale and lemon. Suja的产品线是一系列各色果蔬汁,为的是给身体提供可口的来自有机农产品的浓缩营养。对于进行液体 化排毒的人,Suja在其网站销售套装。三天装价格为225美元(约合人民币1,350元),包括冷冻送货至加州以外地区。口味有Glow和Green Supreme等,前者含苹果、黄瓜、薄荷、甘蓝等成分,后者含苹果、甘蓝和柠檬。 Health experts say the vegetable drinks have many beneficial nutrients, although some ingredients, like apples and carrots, can add a lot of sugar. Consumers should be careful to get enough fiber in their diets, since the process of cold-pressed juicing extracts the juice from the fiber-rich leaves and stems. Good sources of fiber can include whole grains and nuts, which aid digestive health. 健康专家说,蔬菜饮品有很多有益的营养成分,尽管苹果和胡萝卜中的某些成分会增加大量糖分的摄入。消费者应注意摄入足够的纤维,而冷榨果汁的工艺是将汁液从富含纤维的叶子和茎中提取出来的。良好的纤维来源包括全麦和坚果,有助于增强消化健康。 A simpler route to a well-rounded diet might be to eat the vegetables themselves, rather than as juice, suggests Marion Nestle, a professor of nutrition, food studies and public health at New York University. #39;It#39;s a lot of money, why not have a salad?#39; 纽约大学(New York University)营养学、食品研究及公共卫生教授玛丽昂#12539;内斯特(Marion Nestle)说,更简单的一种达到全面饮食的方法是直接吃蔬菜。她说:“花那么多钱,为什么不直接吃沙拉?” Juice companies say the high cost of the organic produce, and the expense of processing, prevent them from selling their product for less. Consumers making their own juice at home with similar ingredients would pay about the same or more, not counting the cost of equipment, they say. #39;We wish we could bring the cost down,#39; says Zoe Sakoutis, co-founder of BluePrint. 果汁生产商表示,有机农产品的高成本和加工的开不允许他们降低售价。他们表示,消费者在家用相似原材料自己制作果汁也要花差不多的钱,还不算设备的成本。BluePrint联合创始人佐耶#12539;萨考提斯(Zoe Sakoutis)说:“我们倒希望能降低成本。” Sarah Andersen, 31, drinks about five bottles of Suja juice a week and says it leaves her feeling healthy and confident. A health-and-wellness trainer for teenage girls in Madison, N.J., Ms. Andersen says she used to make her own juice. But the time, effort and mess became onerous. Now she buys Suja, even if it means cutting back elsewhere. #39;I know it#39;s expensive but I would rather have a juice than get my nails done.#39; 31岁的莎拉#12539;安德森(Sarah Andersen)每周要喝五瓶Suja果汁,她说Suja果汁让自己觉得健康和自信。安德森来自新泽西州麦迪逊(Madison),是一名针对年轻女孩的健身教练。她说她以前是自己榨果汁,但太耗时间和精力了,而且收拾起来很麻烦。现在她买Suja果汁喝,即使这意味着要在别的地方省钱。她说:“我知道很贵,但和做指甲相比,我还是宁愿喝果汁。” Industry experts say overall sales of cold-pressed juice aren#39;t tracked separately. But the segment is a bright spot in an otherwise stagnant juice market, they say. National retailers like Whole Foods are devoting increased shelf space to the products, more companies are launching, and acquisitions and expansion in the industry have been robust, says Jonas Feliciano, a beverages analyst for Euromonitor International, a market-research company. #39;Americans are drinking less juice,#39; he says. #39;So what manufacturers are going for is attracting the health-conscious consumer who will pay higher costs for smaller volumes.#39; 业内专家说,冷榨果汁的整体销售情况并未进行单独追踪,但这个领域是原本萧条的果汁市场中的亮点。市场研究公司Euromonitor International 饮料市场分析师乔纳斯#12539;费利西亚诺(Jonas Feliciano)说,Whole Foods等全国性零售商开始增加冷榨果汁产品的货架空间,越来越多的公司开始推出冷榨果汁,并购和扩张也很活跃。他说:“美国人喝果汁越来越少,所以生产商争取的是吸引愿意花高价购买小容量的有健康意识的消费者。” Errol Schweizer, executive global grocery coordinator for Whole Foods, says the company was skeptical at first that consumers would be willing to pay such high prices for juice. But, he says, #39;I have been surprised by the cleansing products and what people are willing to spend.#39; Whole Foods全球食品执行协调员埃罗尔#12539;施魏策尔(Errol Schweizer)说,公司起初怀疑消费者是否会愿意花这么高的价格买果汁。但是,他说:“我很惊讶于那些排毒产品,以及人们愿意为它花的钱。” Still, Whole Foods is hedging its bets. Mr. Schweizer says he called on Suja to work with Whole Foods#39; product team to create a secondary line of less expensive juices and smoothies. The line, called Suja Elements, was launched in Whole Foods stores around the country this fall and retails for . The bottles are smaller -- 12 ounces versus the usual 16 ounces -- and the recipes tend to use lower-cost ingredients like apples and carrots. 尽管如此,Whole Foods还是在做两手准备。施魏策尔说,他邀请Suja与Whole Foods的产品团队合作创立了价格不那么昂贵的果汁和冰沙副线品牌Suja Elements。该品牌于今年秋季在全美上市,零售价5美元(约合人民币30元)。瓶身体积更小──12盎司(约合340克)而非普通的16盎司──配方一般使用苹果和胡萝卜等低成本的原料。 BluePrint was founded six years ago to sell a six-bottle-a-day-cleanse product that costs a day. It includes a lemon, cayenne and agave concoction meant to #39;hydrate, refresh, curb that 4 p.m. snack craving and stay focused,#39; the company website says. BluePrint now also sells individual bottles of juice at high-end grocers around the country. Another cleanse product: BluePrintBride, for women wanting to lose weight and detoxify before their wedding, starts at 0. BluePrint, which was acquired last year by Hain Celestial Group Inc., in Melville, N.Y., says it had million in sales last year. BluePrint于六年前创立,当时卖的是一种每天六瓶的 化排毒产品,每天花费75美元(约合人民币450元)。公司网站上说,产品包括一种柠檬、辣椒和龙舌兰的混合物,旨在“补水、消除疲劳和抑制下午4点钟想吃零食的欲望,让人保持精力集中”。BluePrint现在还在全美各高档零售店卖单瓶果汁。另外一款 化产品是BluePrintBride,适合在婚礼前想减肥和排毒的女性,价格350美元(约合人民币2,100元)起。BluePrint去年被纽约州梅尔维尔市(Melville)公司Hain Celestial Group Inc.收购。公司称去年销售额为2,000万美元。 Another cold-pressed juice company, Evolution Fresh, was purchased by Seattle-based Starbucks Coffee Co. two years ago for million. The company recently invested million to open a factory in Southern California to produce 140,000 gallons of juice a week, says Chris Bruzzo, general manager of Evolution Fresh. Mr. Bruzzo says the juices are now carried in 5,000 Starbucks locations and 3,000 grocery outlets. The best sellers are two varieties of green juice, he says. 另外一家冷榨果汁公司Evolution Fresh两年前被总部位于西雅图的星巴克咖啡(Starbucks Coffee Co.)以3,000万美元的价格收购。Evolution Fresh总经理克里斯#12539;布鲁佐(Chris Bruzzo)说,公司最近投入7,000万美元(约合人民币4.2亿元)在南加州开设了一家工厂,每周生产14万加仑的果汁。布鲁佐说,目前这些果汁产品在5,000家星巴克店和3,000家连锁超市销售。他说,销量最好的是两种绿色果汁。 Getting pricey cold-pressed juice on the shelves of national supermarkets and specialty stores has been a challenge. Stores like Whole Foods typically require a shelf-life of about 30 days for packaged juices. But traditional methods of preserving foods use heat, which destroys some nutrients. Cold-pressed juice companies didn#39;t want that. 把高价冷榨果汁放上全国性超市和专卖店的货架并不容易。Whole Foods等超市一般都要求盒装果汁的货架保存期为30天左右,但传统保存食品用的高温法,这样会损坏部分营养成分。冷榨果汁公司并不希望这样。 To extend shelf life, some companies, including Suja, BluePrint and Evolution Fresh, have turned to a process often called high-pressure processing (HPP), which inactivates most microorganisms while retaining natural freshness. HPP, also used to preserve guacamole and y-to-eat meats, subjects the food to intense pressure of thousands of pounds a square inch. 为了延长货架保存期,包括Suja、BluePrint和Evolution Fresh在内的公司开始采用一种被称为高压加工(HPP)的方法,这种方法可以在自然保鲜的同时抑制大部分微生物的活动。高压加工法还被用于保存牛油果沙拉酱和熟肉制品,这种方法会使食品承受每平方英寸几千镑的压力。 High-pressure processing, however, is the subject of a lawsuit filed against Hain Celestial in U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York last month. The suit says that HPP destroys some probiotics and enzymes and that BluePrint labels falsely advertise its products as #39;raw.#39; A BluePrint spokeswoman declined to comment on the suit. 不过上个月,高压加工法成为了一起在纽约南部联邦地区法院(District Court for the Southern District of New York)针对Hain Celestial公司的诉讼的主要议题。诉讼说高压加工法损坏了产品中的某些益生菌和?,而BluePrint商标将其产品虚假宣传为“未加工”食品。BluePrint发言人拒绝就该诉讼发表。 Ms. Lawless, the Suja co-founder, has long made juice at home because she has celiac disease. She and a partner, Eric Ethans, in 2011 began selling juice to her yoga students who would ask about her juicing. Suja联合创始人劳雷斯向来都在家里自制果汁,因为她患有乳麋泻。2011年,有些瑜伽学员对她榨果汁表示好奇,于是她和合伙人埃里克#12539;伊桑斯(Eric Ethans)开始把果汁卖给他们。 The small operation attracted two investors, including Jeff Church, 52, a bottled-water entrepreneur. He approached Whole Foods, which began offering Suja products in its stores in fall of 2012. Suja -- a word the company founders made up that signifies to them #39;long and beautiful life,#39; a spokeswoman says -- now produces on average 10,000 bottles a week of each of its 19 flavors at its Southern California plant. It acquired an organic-produce distributor to ease supply issues. And it plans to open a plant in the Philadelphia area next year to have quicker access to more markets. #39;It#39;s about getting the kale picked and on the shelf at Whole Foods as fast as we possibly can,#39; says Mr. Church, Suja#39;s chief executive. 这个小作坊吸引了两位投资者,包括现年52岁的瓶装水企业家杰夫#12539;丘吉(Jeff Church)。他和Whole Foods进行了接洽,Whole Foods从2012年秋季开始在各大门店销售Suja的产品。公司发言人说,Suja这个名字是创始人起的,对他们来说表示“长寿美丽的人生”。Suja在南加州的工厂目前的产量是平均每种口味每周生产1万瓶,共有19种口味。公司收购了一家有机农产品经销商,以缓解供应问题。公司计划明年在费城地区开设一家工厂,从而更快打入更多市场。Suja首席执行长丘吉说:“我们要尽可能快地采摘到甘蓝,然后把果汁放到Whole Foods的货架上。” /201312/267962重庆市第六人民医院妇科在线咨询

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