楼主:指导头条 时间:2017年10月18日 12:04:45 点击:0 回复:0
Most of the time, volcanoes look like other mountains:大多数时候,火山看起来和其他的山体没有两样:solid,serene, capped with snow–a nice place to go camping.固体,平静,被积雪覆盖-露营的不错选择。Unless, of course, it happens to explode and pour molten lava all over your campsite!除非,当然,它突然喷发,熔浆覆盖你的营地。Wouldnt itbe nice if we could predict when a volcano was about to erupt?如果我们能够预测火山什么时候会喷发,是不是更好呢?Scientists have recently taken a big step closer toward doing just this.科学家们最近在此领域的研究取得了进展。Lets look inside a volcano.让我们一起来看看火山的内部结构吧!At the center is a reservoir of molten rock, known as magma.中心是一个熔岩的“液态区”,叫岩浆。This magma is very hot, and under a lot of pressure.岩浆温度很高,并且处于一定的压力之下。When rainwater seeps into cracks in themountain, the magma turns it into steam and forces it out again.当雨水渗入山缝后,岩浆将其蒸发为水蒸汽,又让它排放出来。The magma also vents awayhot gasses through these same cracks.岩浆也同样通过这些山缝散发一些热气。This is a volcanos normal state.这是一座火山的正常状态。When gasses and steam vent from a volcanos cracks, itsprobably not about to erupt.当气体和蒸汽可以从火山的裂缝排放时,它可能并不会喷发。Sometimes, however, the top layer of magma can cool, and form ahard crust over the rest of the molten rock.然而,有时顶层的岩浆会冷却,并在外部形成一个坚硬的壳。When this happens, rainwater is able to collect in thecracks without evaporating, and this water captures a lot of gasses that would ordinarily vent fromthe magma.这时,雨水聚集在岩缝中,不能蒸发。这些雨水阻止了岩浆热气的排放。Scientific instruments inside the volcanos cracks record a sudden drop in temperature, and much less volcanic gas.在山缝中的科学仪器记录到了温度的陡然下降,和火山气体的减少。This is a warning sign for an imminent eruption.这是即将喷发的一个预兆。冷却的岩浆壳让内部的液体压力增大。That cool magmaseal allows pressure to build upinside the liquid magma, much like your thumb over the top of a shaken soda bottle will seal inthe pressure.就像把你的拇指放在被摇过的苏打水瓶口上,使其密封,增加内部压力。When that magmaseal gives way its like taking your thumb off the top of the bottle, and you dont want to be camping on the volcano when that happens!岩浆上部的密封壳被冲开时,就像你的拇指从苏打水瓶上拿开的时候一样,在这种情况下,你就不会想要在火山上露营了。 /201409/326986Kids these days, they have no respect.现在这帮小孩,眼里完全没有尊重二字。They dont know the value of dollar.根本不明白金钱价值何在。They cant pay attention to anything for long.无法长时间专注一件事。Actually that last may be true.实际上最后一点可能是真的。You mean the others arent?你的意思是其它的不对?Well, the older generation always complains about kids.嗯,老一辈总是对孩子们充满了诸多抱怨。But the researchers who study the effects of television actually have data to suggest that young people today dont pay attention in the way their parents do.但研究人员通过研究电视的实际影响数据表示现在的年轻人已经不像他们父母那样关注。Whats the connection to TV?这和电视之间有什么联系吗?Annie Lane and her colleagues of Indiana University have done a series of studies, in which collegeage people and middleage people were shown a stream of TV and movie clips.在印第安纳大学的安妮·莱恩和她的同事从事的一系列研究中,大学和中学人群被展示一连串的电视和电影片段。In the one trial, they showed images that changed in a fast stream over 11 shots every 30 seconds.一项试验是展示给他们的图片按照每30秒超过11张的快速率变换。Sounds like MTV.听起来像MTV。Other trials had imaged that changed at a slower rates, 5 to 6 changes or 0 to 3 changes every 30 seconds.而其他测试的图片则按照较慢的速率, 每30秒5到6或0到 3张的变化。People from all 3 groups were quizzed after watching the vedio to see how much they can remember.看完视频片段后这3组测试者接受测验被问及他们能记住多少。The results?结果如何?The results differ depending on a couple of factors, such as how arousing the images themselves were.结果的不同取决于几个因素,比如图像本身是如何调动。But in general, theyve found that young people have much harder time than adults in paying attention to and remembering slower moving material.但总的来说,他们发现,年轻人在关注及记忆慢速变换的材料上比成人要困难得多。I knew it, those lazy kids.我知道,那就是些懒小孩。Its not quite laziness.并不是懒惰所致。They try, but slower material is hard for them, and adults felt worse that remembering fast moving material.他们尝试记住,但慢速材料对他们而言非常困难,而成人对记住快速变换的材料感到更头痛。Gosh! Do you think MTV teaches kids to have short attention spans?天啊!你认为MTV教会小孩子注意力短暂?Thats just speculation, but you got to wonder.这只是猜测,但你有一定想弄明白。 201310/261770In 1624, a Jesuit missionary, Father Antonio Andrade, wrote a book highly popular across Europe.1624年,耶稣会传教士安东尼奥安德拉德神父写的一本书深受整个欧洲的欢迎。In it, he describes his visit to an amazing country called Tibet.在书中,他描述自己拜访了一个被称为西藏的了不起的国家。Father Andrade and his companion trecked from their missioning goal in search for long-forgotten Christian state called Shambhala.神父安德拉德和他的同伴以传教士目的为由寻访被遗忘很久的称为香巴拉的基督教国家。Instead, they discovered Guge.然而他们发现了古格。By this time the story goes, tensions between Khri bKra shis Grags pa lde and his brother were at an all-time high, and they were about to get worse.此时,克里克巴和他的兄弟之间的关系剑拔弩张,而且即将变得更糟。The king warmly welcomes Andrade.然而国王却热忱的欢迎安德拉德。In his book, Andrade writes, as holy men, the king treated us with great reverence,在他的书中,安德雷德写道,身为圣人, 国王很尊敬的招待我们,and then explains somewhat to my surprise that he wishes to understand our faith.然后解释的令我有些吃惊,他希望了解我们的信仰。 201403/279441Oftentimes when we cry, we feel a lump in the throat.很多时候,当我们哭泣时,我们会感到哽咽。Does alump actually form, or is there some other explanation?难道是真的在喉咙中形成了块状物?或是有其它的解释?The lump-like thing we feel when overcome by emotion has to do with how the nervous systemdeals with stress.我们被情绪占据时所感受到的结块一样的东西与神经系统处理紧张的方式有关。The part of the nervous system that handles stress is called the autonomicnervous system.神经系统中处理紧张的部分叫作自主神经系统。It controls bodily functions that we do not consciously control, such as digestingfood and pumping blood through the heart.它能控制我们无意识地去控制的一些身体功能,比如消化食物和心脏泵血。However, the autonomic nervous system is alsoimportant in dealing with emotional states.但是,自主神经系统却在处理情绪状态时非常重要。When an animal encounters a stressful situation, its autonomic nervous system kicks in to allow itto either fight or run away.当动物面临紧张情境时,自主神经系统开始起作用,使动物选择战斗或是逃跑。It does this by increasing the flow of blood and oxygen to thenecessary muscles.这是通过增加输送至必要部位肌肉的血流和氧气来实现的。The same applies to humans.同样的情况也适用于人类。Even when we experience emotions such asgrief or sorrow, the autonomic nervous system responds as it would to anger or fear by increasingthe flow of oxygen through the body.即使我们怀揣着悲伤或伤感这类情绪时,自主神经系统也能作出响应,一如它在处理愤怒和恐惧那样增加全身的氧气输送量。To increase oxygen intake, the autonomic nervous system makes us breath faster, and expandsthe glottis, the opening in the throat that allows air to flow from the larynx to the lungs.为了增加氧气的吸入量,自主神经系统促使我们呼吸加快,同时使声门扩张。Theexpansion of the glottis in and of itself does not create a lumpy feeling, until we try to swallow.除非我们进行吞咽动作,不然声门的扩张本身不会让我们产生哽咽的感觉。Since swallowing involves closing the glottis, this works against the muscles that open the glottis inresponse to crying.因为吞咽涉及到声门的关闭,这与哭泣时开启声门的肌肉响应动作相反。We experience the resulting muscle tension as a lump in the throat.这时我们感觉到肌肉紧张,也就是喉中哽咽的感觉。 /201402/276301This disused car park is a near-perfect location for raising chicks, and only a short flight from a plentiful supply of food. Skimmers get their name from their unusual feeding technique--their extended lower bill detects fish just below the water surface. 这个废弃的停车场是抚养幼鸟的一个近距离的最常场所,这里距离丰富的食物来源仅地有一段很短的飞行距离。燕鸥因它们独特的捕食技巧而命名——它们延伸的下喙可以探测出距离水面不深处的鱼。The heavy use of east coast beaches by people has threatened skimmer numbers. It’s ironic that this man-made car park made out of crushed oyster shell should become a substitute.人们大量使用东海岸的沙滩威胁到了燕鸥的数量。很讽刺的是,这个停车场充满了人造的牡蛎壳碎屑,现在却成为了燕鸥的替代栖息地。Skimmers raise their chicks on a fish diet. But they serve their portions whole which can cause problems for their young. 燕鸥用鱼喂养它们的幼鸟。但是他们确是为大部分提供的,因此会对幼鸟产生不好影响。The increasingly human landscape of North America can make wildlife spectacles a rare event. But there are situations when it brings nature closer to people. That’s exactly what has happened here in this power plant in Florida. These are West Indian manatees, residents of the Florida coast. People and manatees don’t usually get along. Increasing boat traffic has become a big threat to manatees and some bear the scars of painful encounters with boat propellers.由于北美人类用地的增加,很难看到野生动物聚集的景象了。但是在有些情况下,这也使自然离人们更近了。在佛罗里达的这个发电厂的景象正能反应这一点。这些是西印度海牛,它们是佛罗里达海岸的常住居民。人类和海牛不能很好相处。海上交通变得越来越拥挤,这威胁到了海牛,有的海牛被船上的螺旋桨打到,留下了深深的伤疤。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201312/270421

But even on its own, a mammoth was still highly dangerous and an attack required stealth and teamwork. Oneof the hunters may have acted as a decoy, distracting the animal while others surrounded it. These huntershad another trick up their sleeve. Using a specially crafted wooden stick called an atlatl, they were able to launch sharp pointed darts more than 40 meters. So we know these people were efficient hunters, but could they really have wiped out all the mammoths of the North American continent?但是就其本身而言,一直猛犸象还是及其危险的,因此猎人们需要偷袭,同时也要进行配合。一个猎人可能作为一直诱饵来分散猛犸象的注意力,而其他人则趁机包围。这些猎人的手里还有另一种武器。他们使用一种称作“梭标投射器”的特殊制作的手工木,这种尖利飞的射程可达40米以上。因此我们知道这些猎人们极具效率,但是他们这能够杀光北美大陆所有的猛犸象吗?Today the remains of mammoths, in particular their tusks, may help answer that question. To the clues contained within these tusks, you need to look at the mammoths’ closest living relative, the elephant.如今猛犸象们的化石,尤其是它们的象牙,可能帮助我们回答这个问题。想要读懂这些遗留在象牙化石中的线索,你需要观察一个猛犸象的近亲——大象。Elephant tusks grow throughout their lives, with the tip being the oldest part. Mammoth tusks show the same pattern of growth as modern elephants. Each year of life is represented by a ring, just like tree rings.大象的象牙一生都在不停生长,尖端的最早生长的部分。猛犸象的象牙和现代大象象牙的生长方式相同。每年增加一环,就像树木的年轮一样。But tusks can also be a record of the most stressful period in an elephant’s life. As bulls mature, they are forced out of the family group and have to fight to survive. During this stressful time, they don’t have so much energy for growth, so the space between each ring is narrower.然而象牙同样也可以反映一头大象生命中的最艰难的时期。当它们成熟后,它们会被强迫离开家庭群体,并且自立谋生。在这样的时期里,它们没有足够的能量维持生长,因此象牙每一环的间距都相对较窄。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201310/262271

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