楼主:央视之家 时间:2017年12月11日 21:34:36 点击:0 回复:0
Hablas espanol? Parlez-vous francais? 你会说中文吗?你会说西班牙语吗?你会你讲法语吗?你会说中文吗?If you answered, ;si,; ;oui,; and youre watching this in English,如果你能回答 ;si;,;oui;或是;会;,而且能用英文字幕观看这部短片,chances are you belong to the worlds bilingual and multilingual majority.你就跟世界上大多数人一样,属于双语或多语的使用者。And besides having an easier time traveling or watching movies without subtitles,除了旅游时沟通比较方便,或是看电影时不需要字幕这些好处之外,knowing two or more languages means that your brain may actually look and work differently than those of your monolingual friends.通晓两种或三种以上的语言,表示你的脑袋在外表和运作方式上,与使用单一语言的朋友有明显的不同。So what does it really mean to know a language?究竟什么是通晓一种语言?Language ability is typically measured in two active parts, speaking and writing, and two passive parts, listening and ing.衡量语言的使用能力,包含两种主动能力:说、写;另外还有两种被动方式:听、阅读。While a balanced bilingual has near equal abilities across the board in two languages,虽然一个平衡的双语使用者,对于两种语言,具有相近的使用能力;most bilinguals around the world know and use their languages in varying proportions.但是大多数的双语使用者,当初如何学习并运用语言,有许多不同的方式。And depending on their situation and how they acquired each language, they can be classified into three general types.根据个人所处的环境,以及如何学习语言的方式,通常可以把双语使用者分为三类:For example, lets take Gabriella, whose family immigrates to the US from Peru when shes two-years old.举个例子来说,Gabriella在两岁时跟着家人由秘鲁移民到美国。As a compound bilingual, Gabriella develops two linguistic codes simultaneously, with a single set of concepts,作为一个复合型双语者,Gabriella在刚接触这个世界时就同时学英语和西班牙语,learning both English and Spanish as she begins to process the world around her.所以给她一个概念,她的大脑就能同时唤起两种语言信号。Her teenage brother, on the other hand, might be a coordinate bilingual,她有一个十几岁的弟弟,是属于对等型双语使用者,working with two sets of concepts, learning English in school, while continuing to speak Spanish at home and with friends.他运用两组不同的概念,一面在学校学习英语,一面用西班牙语,跟家人、朋友沟通。Finally, Gabriellas parents are likely to be subordinate bilinguals最后是加布瑞拉的父母,他们是从属型双语使用者。who learn a secondary language by filtering it through their primary language.当他们学习第二种语言时,需要透过母语进行翻译。Because all types of bilingual people can become fully proficient in a language regardless of accent or pronunciation,上述三种双语使用者,他们至少都能精通一种语言,无论是在腔调或是发音方面,the difference may not be apparent to a casual observer.因此,一般人难以发觉这三种类型的差异。But recent advances in brain imaging technology have given neurolinguists a glimpse into how specific aspects of language learning affect the bilingual brain.然而现在,由于大脑成像技术不断进步,神经语言学家得以窥探语言学习对于双语使用者的大脑产生何种影响。Its well known that the brains left hemisphere is more dominant and analytical in logical processes,大家都知道,大脑的左半部主要掌管逻辑思考与分析,while the right hemisphere is more active in emotional and social ones, though this is a matter of degree, not an absolute split.而右半脑则掌管情感与社交活动,虽然左、右半脑有所区别,但并非完全独立运作。The fact that language involves both types of functions while lateralization develops gradually with age,事实上,语言同时包括了左脑与右脑的功能,而随着年纪增长,大脑功能逐渐侧重其中一边,has lead to the critical period hypothesis.这个观点发展出关键时期的假说。According to this theory, children learn languages more easily根据这个理论,儿童通常学习语言较快,because the plasticity of their developing brains lets them use both hemispheres in language acquisition,是因为大脑仍在发展,因此仍具有可塑性,他们可以同时利用左、右两边的大脑学习语言;while in most adults, language is lateralized to one hemisphere, usually the left.然而,多数成人会偏向採用其中一侧的大脑来学习语言,通常是左半脑。If this is true, learning a language in childhood may give you a more holistic grasp of its social and emotional contexts.如果这个观点正确,那么从小就学习语言,能够更容易掌握语言的社会和情感脉络。Conversely, recent research showed that people who learned a second language in adulthood相反地,最新的硏究指出:如果人们到了成年之后才学第二种语言,exhibit less emotional bias and a more rational approach when confronting problems in the second language than in their native one.当他们在使用第二种语言而非母语来处理问题时,会更理性,情绪化的偏见更少。But regardless of when you acquire additional languages, being multilingual gives your brain some remarkable advantages.不管你何时学习新的语言,多语言都能给你的大脑带来明显的好处。Some of these are even visible, such as higher density of the grey matter that contains most of your brains neurons and synapses,有些好处,甚至可以看得见,例如大脑灰白质的密度增加,那里包含了脑部大多数的神经元和突触,and more activity in certain regions when engaging a second language.而且学习第二语言时,大脑部分区域会变得更活跃。The heightened workout a bilingual brain receives throughout its life can also help delay the onset of diseases,使用双语的大脑,持续不断地接受强化训练,能够让一些疾病的发作,like Alzheimers and dementia by as much as five years.例如阿兹海默症与失智症,延迟高达五年之久。The idea of major cognitive benefits to bilingualism may seem intuitive now, but it would have surprised earlier experts.关于使用双语有助于人类认知的观点,在今天看似理所当然,但是对于从前的专家,他们必定会大吃一惊。Before the 1960s, bilingualism was considered a handicap that slowed a childs development在1960年代以前,人们认为使用双语对于儿童的发展是一种障碍,by forcing them to spend too much energy distinguishing between languages, a view based largely on flawed studies.因为需要迫使儿童花费精神去分辨两种语言,而这种观点主要来自于错误的研究。And while a more recent study did show that reaction times and errors increase for some bilingual students in cross-language tests,最新的硏究显示,在跨语言测验当中,使用双语学生的反应时间与错误次数增加了it also showed that the effort and attention needed to switch between languages triggered more activity in,这个结果显示,学生需要更努力与专注于转换语言,and potentially strengthened, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.这也使得前额叶脑区不仅更加活跃,而且能强化它的功能。This is the part of the brain that plays a large role in executive function, problem solving,前额叶脑区的主要工作,是进行决策、解决问题,switching between tasks, and focusing while filtering out irrelevant information.以及在多重任务中进行转换,还有集中注意力,同时排除无关的资讯。So, while bilingualism may not necessarily make you smarter, it does make your brain more healthy, complex and actively engaged,虽然学习双语,未必能让你更聪明,但是可以让大脑更加健康、多元以及活化。and even if you didnt have the good fortune of learning a second language as a child,即使在你年幼时,没有机会学习第二种语言,its never too late to do yourself a favor and make the linguistic leap from, ;Hello,; to ;Hola;、;Bonjour;、;你好;但是现在学习,永远不会太晚。学习外语的第一步,就是开始把;Hello;,转换为:;Hola;、;Bonjour;或是 ;你好;。because when it comes to our brains a little exercise can go a long way.只是小小的训练,就能对于大脑有所帮助。201707/517141TED演讲视频:袖珍卫星展示接近实时地追踪地球的变化卫星成像颠覆了我们对地球的认知,在网上可以看到几乎每个街角的清晰照片。但星球实验室的威尔·马歇尔认为我们可以做得更好,更快--方法是变得是更小。他来介绍他的袖珍卫星--体积10×10×30立方厘米--而当这些卫星集群发射后,它们能够提供地球每日更新的高清图像。201705/509592The landscape is riddled with high ridgelines and towering cliffs.遍布的高耸山脉和陡峭悬崖 形成了这里地理风貌To keep heading north,youll need to fight your way around them为了继续向北方前进 你必须越过这些岩石or take the shorter route and go straight over the top.或者走捷径 直接越过顶峰But this sandstone is soft.但这些砂石很松散Eroded by the elements,a path has been cut straight through the face.由于风雨的侵蚀作用 形成了一条垂直的通道This is no easy option.Lets have a look down here.当然 这个选择也颇具挑战 观察下地形Ahead of me lies a shear 80-foot drop.I reckon we can work our way down this.深度达80英尺 我估摸着这条路还是可行的Chimney down this bit, bridge across it.I need to stay in tight to this chimney.先下到这里 再跨到那边 我要靠紧了这根;烟囱;Use just opposing forces Back and legs down this.借用反作用力 背部和脚 顺利下去Thats an awkward little gully, actually.这道还真不好走Oh, look. A snake.Wheres he gone now?Dont want to mess around with him.看 是条蛇 它去哪了 还是少招惹它为妙There he is.Keelback snake.Theyre not,not deadly,but you certainly wouldnt want to get bitten by one.它在这 是草花蛇 这种蛇并不会致命 但被咬到也不是什么好事Snake like that out here is bad news.Last bit just down this vine.有蛇出没在外是个坏消息 还差一步了 顺藤而下The cave climb has worked for me.顺岩壁而下 这个选择是对的Its taken me right under the cliff and out the other side.让我直达岩壁之下 顺利前往另外一边201612/485861Its a story repeated through the ages.古往今来 这样的故事重复不断地上演Colonial forces attack native populations and plunder the planets riches.殖民势力欺压当地居民 掠夺世界财富Atrocities committed far from prying eyes.神不知鬼不觉 他们犯下累累暴行Harris wants to change that.哈里斯想要改变那样的状况Shell tell the world what is happening in the Congo,她要告诉全世界在刚果上演的一切That children are routinely maimed As a warning to villagers.每天都有小孩遭迫害致残 他们以此来恐吓村民Her weapon: the camera.她的武器是一台照相机For the first time, mankind can capture images of our world,那是人类首次捕捉到我们这个世界的影像Reproduce and share them.将它们重现 并与世界分享The first cameras weighed 110 pounds.第一台照相机重110磅By 1900, theyre smaller, portable,and in the hands of two million amateurs.到了1900年 相机变得小巧便携 有两百万业余爱好者有相机The invention of photography and the means to get them in front of people,摄影的发明 以及把照片呈现在众人眼前held more power than its inventors ever dreamed.它们所带来的影响远超乎创造者的想象Photos dont blink and they dont go away.照片不会说谎 也不会消失Once youve seen that image, you cant rewind.一旦你看过那些画面 你将难以忘却201605/443038

Were living during one of the largest humanitarian crisis in the world.我们处在世界上最严重的人道主义危机之中。Being able to affect as many people as we have here, thats just powerful.能够影响和我们同样多的人,是非常强大的。I was part of the emergency unit that the IRC sent to Greece我是国际红十字会派驻希腊的应急小组的一员,to assess and provide life-saving support to refugees.来给难民评估并提供求生持。This is 30 days worth of arrivals on this gigantic mound, can you imagine eight months?这一大堆是30天内到达这里的人积攒下来的,你能想象八个月是种什么情况吗?There were boats coming in day or night carrying 50, 60, 70 people each,有很多船只昼夜不停地抵达这里,每只载有50,60,70人不等,having survived this hellish trip, to face chaos.他们从地狱般的旅途中幸存了下来,却到这里来面对动荡。We were a handful of volunteers and some NGOs trying to provide basic stuff我们是一些志愿者及非政府组织,尝试提供一些基本的物品,such as food, dry clothes, medical attention and these people were totally helpless.比如食物,干燥的衣,医疗照顾。这些人们真的非常无助。Information was so scarce, they were full of anxiety of what comes next.信息不足,他们对未来充满了焦虑。You know, they had this first big step achieved, and then uncertainty.要知道,他们实现了这关键的第一步之后,接下来就不知所措了。It was incredibly important to be here and to see what was happening on the ground.来到这里亲眼看到这片土地发生了什么真的是非常重要。There were people carrying their children, a few of their personal belongings,有人带着孩子以及他们的一些私人物品,but what was interesting to see that many of them were holding phones, mobile phones.但是非常有意思的是他们中的很多人都带着电话,移动电话。And we thought, well maybe we could use our technology, with the IRC and Mercy Corps understanding of the crisis itself所以我们就想,或许可以利用我们的技术,配合国际红十字会及慈善组织对于危机本身的理解in order to give the refugees the information to stay safe.来给难民提供保持安全的信息。So together we made Refugee InfoHub.所以我们一起创办了难民信息中心。Its a mobile site that gives refugees information like where to get medical attention,它是一个给难民提供信息的移动门户。用他们的母语告诉他们哪里可以获得医疗照顾,how to find refugee camps and anything else needed all in their own language.怎样找到难民收容所,以及其他任何需要的信息。- When we went live, it was powerful.这些功能上线的时候非常强大。What would take a few days, now its a matter of minutes.之前需要几天才能做到的事情现在几分钟就可以了。What we started here – delivering life-saving information through technology我们从这里开始——通过技术传递拯救生命的信息。I think thats going to be done more in the future.我想这项技术在未来会有更进一步的发展。And the amount of people that weve touched is, its incredible.我们所接触的人数是令人难以置信的。201706/515078

Annie would just give Bill like...Heres a hundred pages, and Bill flourished with Annie more than ever anywhere.Annie会给Bill很大的创作空间和自由度,Bill的作品等在Annie的这里也比其他任何杂志都多。It was like she almost gave him his own little mini magazine just to do it however he wanted.就好像是她提供给他了一整个迷你杂志,他可以按照自己喜欢和想要的样子来做。Hed work all day, and hed come up at night, and our sessions usually lasted till about 4:00 in the morning.I worked for the Establishment during the day,他整天都在工作,有时会晚上过来,我们有时会开会到凌晨四点。我白天要为《纽约时报》工作so I was like a bird getting out of a cage, and Id go down there.我像逃出牢笼一样跑到这里来。It was marvelous.这真是很奇妙的感觉。I would come after my job at the Times, and we would lay this out, and then Id go home about 2:00.我一般在结束《纽约时报》的工作之后过来,然后我们把内容定下来,我大概两点钟左右回家。Biked back from SoHo where we were.从SoHo那边骑车过来,好了我们在这儿。I think one Details Magazine, it was Fall Special...125 pages of Bill Cunningham.我在策划Details杂志的一期秋季特刊125页Bill Cunningham的作品。A hundred pages?一百页?Ninety-nine. -Ninety-nine pages.99.-99页。We just...We never thought of it.We just went on and did what we wanted till we had said what we wanted to say.我们只是…从没想过这个。我们都是尽力在杂志上表达我们想要传达给读者的东西。111 pages. -111 pages.111页。-111页。Here are what I did was I blew up the embroidery of the coat, and we put it on the pages, and then put the coat, small, in the middle of it,这部分我要重新解构这些刺绣的外套,我们把它放在这些页,然后把衣的图片缩小到页中央,cause the news was in...-Yeah, the idea was the big...was this.因为内容是在…-是的,我们的想法是…占大部分的是这个花纹。Cause it was like something out of the Renaissance, you see?因为这有些像文艺复兴时期的东西。You try to show the er what was really new.你要努力向读者展现出这些最新的东西。Look at this. Its like something from Paul Poiret, uh, 1910.看这个…这像是Paul Poiret在1910的作品。Scheherazade, the Arabian Nights.Scheherazade的一千零一夜。Look at the embroidery, the tassels, the lace.看这些刺绣、流苏、蕾丝边。201608/459382

  • 重庆市妇保医院结扎后复通
  • 酉阳土家族苗族自治县治疗盆腔炎多少钱青年官方
  • 重庆爱德华男科电话56结果
  • 南川铜梁区治疗内分泌多少钱
  • 重庆妇幼保健院做结扎复通天极助手
  • 重庆人流去哪里大河卫生重庆做无痛人流去哪家好
  • 普及乐园重庆药流的最佳时期
  • 中关村知道重庆哪家医院引产好雅虎有问必答
  • 重庆市第三人民医院在哪
  • 重庆市无痛人流手术价格4399特惠
  • 重庆爱德华妇科整形多少钱搜搜收藏重庆看妇科哪里医院专业
  • 重庆有名的人流手术医院
  • 预约挂号指南重庆那个无痛人流医院好
  • 重庆市妇科医院四维彩超预约
  • 安卓门户重庆做无痛引产那家好谷歌移动站
  • 谷歌官方重庆市爱德华治疗子宫肌瘤多少钱
  • 重庆爱德华综合医院子宫肌瘤多少钱医院导航重庆人民医院做腹腔镜手术多少钱
  • 安卓健康网重庆爱德华医院割包皮华北之家
  • 重庆市爱德华治疗前列腺疾病多少钱搜搜问问
  • 重庆中医院看妇科好不好
  • 重庆爱德华治疗脱肛多少钱
  • 芒果助手大坪医院取环手术
  • 导医诊疗重庆爱德华男科
  • 酉阳土家族苗族自治县盆腔炎哪家医院最好的澎湃健康网
  • 巫溪黔江区武隆县治疗妇科疾病哪家医院最好的
  • 重庆市价格公道的妇科医院
  • 重庆打胎要多少钱啊
  • 重庆市妇幼保健院输卵管检查费用询价生活
  • 央广报道重庆爱德华综合医院无痛人流多少钱
  • 重庆做无痛人流便宜好的地方
  • 相关阅读
  • 瞒天过海!集体耕地上建厂房!村民:相关部门集体哑火(三)
  • 暮影战神武灵攻略大全
  • 唐嫣赵丽颖吴昕林允儿李易峰和谁最有感(图)
  • 酒类电商双罢斗
  • 南京查处违规补缴社保证明份购房证明被注销
  • 内蒙古自治区政协原副主席赵黎平一审被判处死刑
  • 近日李念与刚斩获年北京青年电影节影帝的巩峥出现在街边
  • 徐娇穿白袜撑伞古典韵味十足邻家有女初长成
  • 单机斗地主下载:首存优惠
  • 小学生作业本开口说话曝光盗伐林木团伙
  • 相关推荐