明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年11月20日 08:29:17
In the fog-wrapped city of Yichang on the Yangtze in the shadow of the world’s largest hydroelectric dam, Wan Xindi is triumphant as she cares for her new baby daughter. Her second child is healthy and cute, but Wan is most proud of how she came into the world: the old-fashioned way.宜昌位于长江畔,紧挨着全世界最大的水电站大坝。在这座时常雾气弥漫的城市里,万歆笛照料着刚出生的女儿,心中充满胜利的喜悦。这是她的第二个孩子,小女儿健康可爱,但最让她自豪的是女儿来到这个世界的方式——古老的自然分娩。A natural birth is in itself an accomplishment in China, where caesarean section rates were, until a few years ago, the highest in the world. Wan was one of the many Chinese women who underwent a medically unnecessary C-section when her first baby arrived. During her second pregnancy, the 25-year-old went to every hospital in Yichang, determined to find a doctor willing to allow her to attempt a vaginal delivery. In the process, she became a foot soldier in the battle to wean China off its addiction to C-sections.在中国,自然分娩本身就是了不起的成就,几年前中国的剖腹产率还是世界最高的。与许多中国妇女一样,万歆笛在第一个宝宝降生时经历了一场医疗上不必要的剖腹产手术。在怀二胎期间,25岁的万歆笛走遍了宜昌每一家医院,决心要找到一位愿意让她尝试顺产的医生。在此过程中,她成了中国戒断“剖腹产执念”大战里的一名战士。“We think of ourselves as tunnel fighters or guerrillas. We find all kinds of ways to make it happen,” she says. Her weapon of choice: the smartphone.她说:“我们觉得自己好像地道战的战士或游击队员。为了能顺产,我们找了各种方法。”她首选的武器是智能手机。China’s decision in 2013 to allow most couples to have two children has involved undoing social practices entrenched over 35 years of the one-child policy. One of those is the preference for C-sections that are not needed for any medical reason.2013年,中国决定允许多数夫妇生二胎,这需要改变许多在35年独生子女政策下牢固确立起来的社会惯例,其中之一就是在没有任何医疗需要的情况下,对剖腹产的偏好。All else being equal, C-sections involve a slightly higher risk to the mother than natural births. They also increase the possibility of life-threatening complications in future pregnancies, including rupture of the uterus or abnormal attachment of the placenta. These risks become a national problem when nearly half of women approaching their second labour have had a C-section during their first.在其他条件都相同的情况下,剖腹产对产妇的风险略高于自然分娩。剖腹产手术还增加了未来怀出现致命并发症的可能性,包括子宫破裂或胎盘异常附着。在近一半准备生二胎的女性头胎都是剖腹产的情况下,这些风险就变成了一个举国问题。In the first half of this year aly, the number of maternal deaths has climbed by nearly one-third compared with last year. “This is due to the second-child policy,” says Mao Qun’an, a spokesman for the National Health and Family Planning Commission. “We are promoting the idea that women need to consider that if they choose C-sections for their first birth it could affect their second pregnancy.”今年上半年,产妇死亡人数比去年同期增加了近三分之一。国家卫生和计划生育委员会新闻发言人毛群安表示:“这是二孩政策导致的。我们正在推广一个理念,女性需要去考虑,如果她们头胎选择剖宫产,可能会影响她们第二次怀。”“It’s very dangerous,” says Pang Ruyan, vice-president of the Chinese Maternal and Child Health Association, which argues against C-sections in the Chinese system and advocates a greater role for midwives to assist with natural births. “The only reason the rate of C-sections is so high is because people expected to only have one child. They didn’t need to think about having another, or the risk of ruptures.”中国妇幼保健协会副会长庞汝彦表示:“这是很危险的。”该协会反对中国医疗体系中剖腹产泛滥的现象,主张助产士发挥更大作用,帮助产妇自然分娩。“剖腹产率如此之高的唯一原因就是人们预期只生一个孩子。他们不需要考虑再生一个,也就无需考虑子宫破裂的风险。”The World Health Organisation puts the optimal C-section rate for the health of mothers and babies at between 10 and 15 per cent. In the US, with its lawsuit-prone system geared towards medical intervention, the rate is 33 per cent. In the UK, it is 24 per cent. In China, the rate had reached 46 per cent by 2008 before health officials realised the extent of the problem. Some urban hospitals delivered more than 70 per cent of babies by C-section until the government began to stem the practice about four years ago.世界卫生组织(WTO)认为从母婴健康角度来说最适宜的剖腹产率在10%到15%之间。美国医疗体系诉讼多发,为医疗干预提供了土壤,其剖腹产率为33%;英国为24%。中国剖腹产率在2008年达到46%,随后卫生官员意识到了这个问题的严重性。有些城市医院接生婴儿70%以上是剖腹产,直到四年前政府开始遏制这种现象。As China prepares for an increase in second births, the health system is moving away from C-sections. In the spirit of the planned economy, public hospitals have been given C-section as. Doctors — some of whom have never attended at a vaginal delivery — are being given crash courses in natural birth or are being retrained in surgical techniques to reduce the risks in future pregnancies.随着中国准备增加二胎,其医疗卫生系统正逐渐减少剖腹产。遵循计划经济精神,公立医院被限定了剖腹产指标。医生们被要求上自然分娩速成班——其中许多医生从没参与过自然分娩——或者进修外科技术,以降低产妇未来怀要面对的风险。China’s official C-section rate has dropped to 35 per cent, and the health ministry has embarked on an unusual attempt to change public perceptions in favour of natural birth. Efforts to re-educate Chinese mothers range from online classes and smartphone information apps featuring healthy pink infants, to gory s of C-sections that go viral on Mother’s Day.中国官方公布的剖腹产率已下降到35%,卫生部也开展了一项不寻常的行动,力求让公众转变观念,持自然分娩。他们采取多项举措对中国妈妈们进行再教育,包括网上课堂,和主推健康粉嫩婴儿的智能手机信息应用;或是在母亲节推广血淋淋的剖腹产视频。The second front in the battle to wean China off C-sections is being led by women like Wan. Some mothers like her who have aly had a C-section have decided to attempt vaginal delivery the second time around (known as a “vaginal birth after caesarean”, or VBAC). This option carries its own risks: the first scar can rupture during the birth.戒断“剖腹产执念”大作战的第二阵线由万歆笛等女性充当主力。她们这些做过剖腹产手术的妈妈们决定在生二胎时采用顺产,即“剖宫产后阴道分娩”(VBAC)。这种选择自有其风险,第一次剖腹产留下的疤痕可能会在分娩时破裂。Their inspiration and support come from a stocky professional midwife in her 50s named Zhang Hongyu, an agony aunt for women in China hoping to take control of how their babies are born. From her home in the southern island province of Hainan, Dr Zhang maintains smartphone apps that extol the benefits of natural birth. She hosts forums — online and on the ubiquitous Chinese social-networking app WeChat — that buzz with discussions between hundreds of expectant mothers. Some women text for help and advice straight from the delivery room. “A lot of people are not very clear about this natural process,” Dr Zhang says.而给予她们鼓舞、持的是一位五十多岁、胖乎乎的专业助产士,她的名字叫张宏玉。对于这些渴望掌握自己宝宝出生方式的中国女性来说,她就是她们的知心大。张宏玉家在海南省,她在家维护着多个智能手机应用,宣传自然分娩的好处。她在互联网和微信——中国无处不在的社交网络应用——上主持了多个论坛,数百名准妈妈们在这些论坛上讨论得热火朝天。有些妇女甚至直接从产房发信息求助咨询。张宏玉说:“很多人对自然分娩过程不是很清楚。”In the chatrooms, converted mothers like Wan jump in to answer the concerns of novices to natural birth. “I learnt so much in all these online classes, I feel I should share it. Some of the mothers, they don’t bother to research much,” she says.在聊天群里,像万歆笛这样已转变观念的妈妈们会亲身上阵,为没有经验的女性解答关于自然分娩的问题。她说:“我在这些网络课堂上获益匪浅,我觉得我应该把知识分享。有些妈妈懒得做太多研究。”Wan’s own quest for a VBAC was followed avidly by the group. “I’m not going to livestream,” she told her followers the day she checked into the hospital. She nonetheless proceeded to text updates. “The pain is bearable,” one. “They were all waiting to see if I could do it. I’ve inspired a lot of them,” she says.万歆笛对VBAC的追求在群里受到热烈关注。她住进医院的当日对关注者们表示:“我可不会直播啊。”不过她仍继续进行文字更新,其中一条写道:“这个疼受得了。”她说:“她们都等着看我能不能做到。我激励了她们很多人。”Why do so many Chinese women choose C-sections? Doctors blame the families. New parents and, critically, grandparents, will do anything to make sure their one baby is perfect, including selecting the right day and even hour for an auspicious birth. Older people believe that young women brought up as single children are too pampered to bear pain. For years, C-sections have been marketed as high-tech and pain-free, with no mention of discomfort after the operation or the risk to future pregnancies.为什么这么多中国女性会选择剖腹产?医生们归咎于家庭。新手父母们,更关键的是祖父母们,愿意做一切事以确保他们的独苗是完美的,包括为孩子的问世选择良辰吉日。老人们认为作为独生子女长大的年轻女性太娇惯,吃不得苦。剖腹产多年来一直被标榜为高科技、无痛手术,却只字不提术后的不适以及未来怀会遇到的风险。“When people only have one child they are overly worried,” says Dr Zhang. “They are worried about loss of oxygen; they want to hurry up and get it out and have their healthy baby. Plus they think surgery is simple and fast.”张宏玉说:“当人们只会有一个孩子时,他们会过于担心。他们担心缺氧,他们想孩子快点出生,得到一个健康的宝宝。他们还认为手术是简单快捷的。”Women like Wan argue that not-so-subtle pressures from doctors scare women (or their husbands and in-laws) into asking for medically unnecessary C-sections. “The doctors always tell you the worst-case scenarios. First-time mothers always listen to the doctors,” she says. “Second-time mothers are much more confident.”万歆笛等女性认为是医生们较为露骨的施压,吓得妇女们(或她们的丈夫和婆家人)在没有医疗需要的情况下要求剖腹产。万歆笛说:“医生总是告诉你最坏的情况。头胎妈妈总是会听医生的。二胎妈妈就有信心得多。”For overcrowded urban hospitals, the financial incentives are clear. In Yichang, a natural birth costs about Rmb3,000 (0) and requires a nurse or midwife’s attention for several hours. A C-section costs up to Rmb11,000 and only takes up about 30 minutes of the doctor’s time, providing a much more attractive revenue stream. Surgeries also yield a larger hongbao (a gift packet) from grateful families. Unscrupulous doctors can pad out revenues further by making quicker (but harder to heal) vertical incisions, charging per suture to close the wound or adding extra fees to remove gauze or stitches.在人满为患的城市医院,经济动机是明显的。在宜昌,顺产费用约为3000元人民币(合450美元),且需要一名护士或助产士照顾几个小时。剖腹产的费用可高达1.1万元人民币,且只占用医生半个小时左右,提供了一个更有吸引力的收入来源。感恩戴德的家庭还会给大夫包上一个大红包。无良医生赚钱门路更多,他们可以采用更快的竖切(但更难愈合)手术,对每根缝合线都收费,又在拆纱布或拆线时另收费。In the 1980s, hospital births were the privilege of China’s urban citizens. Women in rural areas had their babies at home and went to hospital for abortions or sterilisations after out-of-plan pregnancies. But by the 2000s, as migration to cities accelerated, the vast majority of Chinese women gave birth in hospital. It is no coincidence C-section rates rose steeply at the same time.上世纪八十年代,去医院生产是城里人的特权。农村妇女在家生孩子,只有在计划外怀后需要堕胎或绝育时才去医院。但进入21世纪,随着人口向城市迁移速度加快,绝大多数中国妇女都在医院分娩。同时剖腹产率自然也就急剧上升。The relaxation of the one-child policy has revealed a disturbing downside to entrusting the future of the nation to the knives of surgeons in a hurry. Unofficial statistics for Beijing show a rate of complications in pregnancies after C-sections of about 10 per cent.一孩政策的放宽暴露出了将国家的未来匆忙交到外科医生手术刀下的弊端。据北京市非官方统计显示,剖腹产后怀并发症的发生率约为10%。“Families, mothers, doctors all need to think differently,” says Dr Pang, who co-authored the 2008 study in The Lancet medical journal that detailed, for the first time, the extent of China’s C-section problem. With the protection of a long career at the WHO — and the blessing of the health ministry — she released it to the state television broadcaster, triggering a national discussion of the problem.庞汝彦说:“家庭、母亲、医生都需要转变想法。”她是医学杂志《柳叶刀》(The Lancet)上2008年一篇调查报告的合著者,该调查首次详细披露了中国剖腹产问题的严重程度。凭借在世卫组织的长期职业生涯,以及中国卫生部的持,庞汝彦将这一调查结果发布给了国家电视台,引发了一场对该问题的全国讨论。New public messaging in favour of natural birth has found a receptive audience at Beijing’s main maternity hospital, where up to 1,500 babies are born each month. Heavily pregnant women stream through the doors. One day in May, every expectant mother who stopped for a chat agreed she would prefer a natural birth — a switch in attitudes from just a few years ago.持自然分娩的新舆论宣传在北京主要妇产医院找到了受众,这里每月新生婴儿最多能达到1500名。挺着大肚子的妇们川流不息地走入医院大门。5月的一天,每一位驻足接受简短采访的准妈妈都表示倾向自然分娩。仅仅几年时间,人们的态度就发生了转变。But altering public opinion is one thing; changing hospital procedure is another. In China, as in the US, institutional factors such as doctors’ pay structure and hospital protocols keep C-section rates high.但改变舆论是一回事,改变医院程序是另一回事。中国与美国一样,由于医生薪酬结构以及医院治疗方案等制度因素,剖腹产率居高不下。In bigger cities, epidurals, known in Chinese as “no pain” births, now rival C-sections in popularity (and revenue potential). Dr Pang believes this is simply trading one interventionist approach for another: “Conditions are different here. We don’t have enough anaesthesiologists.” For that matter, she thinks VBACs are also too risky to be carried out widely in China, given the need for quick surgery and ample blood supply if labour goes wrong.在大城市,硬膜外麻醉——在中国称为“无痛”分娩——如今在受欢迎程度以及创收潜力上都能与剖腹产相匹敌。庞汝彦认为这只是把一种干预主义手段换成另一种。她说:“中国的情况不同。我们没有足够的麻醉师。”也正是出于这一原因,她认为在中国大范围推广VBAC风险太大,因为如果分娩中出现问题,需要能够快速进行手术并保有充足的血液供应。In hospitals in rural areas, where most families cannot afford C-sections, women are encouraged to walk around during labour and eat or drink for strength and hydration in line with traditional practice. Many urban hospitals forbid that. “The hospital has me lying on my back and won’t let me move!” one expectant mother told Dr Zhang’s group. Twelve hours later, denied food or water, “I ran out of energy and went for the C-section”, she texted.在中国农村地区,多数家庭负担不起剖腹产费用,当地医院鼓励产妇在分娩期间四处走动,并按照传统方法进食饮水。许多城市医院禁止这么做。一位准妈妈在张宏玉的群里说:“医院让我仰躺着别动!”就这么干躺着12个小时,不许进食和喝水。她写道:“我力气耗尽,做了剖腹产。”Women who have not used the smartphone information apps only receive vague guidance at hospital birth classes. The focus is on maternal nutrition until the eighth month, when mothers-to-be are given a cursory explanation of what to expect during the birth. “Open classes are like a big rice bowl or a cafeteria — they aren’t tailored to personal needs,” Dr Zhang says.有些妇女没用过智能手机信息应用,只在医院分娩课程上接受过模糊的指导。这些课程向准妈妈们重点介绍怀八个月内的妇营养,但没有详细解释分娩中可能遇到的情况。张宏玉表示:“开放式课堂就像大锅饭或自助餐厅,不是针对个人需求而设。”As China’s health system reverses the trends that tipped the scales towards unnecessary C-sections, advocacy by determined mothers like Wan could help make reforms stick. “You have to inform yourself,” she says. “If the doctors see that you know what you are talking about, they respect you and give you the information you need.”随着中国医疗卫生系统着手扭转这股偏好不必要剖腹产的趋势,万歆笛这些意志坚定的妈妈们所做的努力或许有助于坚定这一改革。她说:“你必须自己去了解信息。如果医生看出你知道自己在说什么,他们会尊重你,把你需要的信息告诉你。” /201612/482057

BEIJING — China launched the world’s first quantum communications satellite from the Gobi Desert early Tuesday, a major step in the country’s bid to be at the forefront of quantum research, which could lead to new, completely secure methods of transmitting information.北京——周二凌晨,中国从戈壁滩发射升空了全球首颗量子通信卫星。这是中国为争取站在量子研究最前沿而迈出的重要一步。量子研究可能会带来新的完全安全的信息传输方式。Researchers hope to use the satellite to beam communications from space to earth with quantum technology, which employs photons, or particles of light. That type of communication could prove to be the most secure in the world, invulnerable to hacking. Scientists and security experts in many countries are studying the technology.研究人员希望,通过量子技术,用这颗卫星将信息从太空传输到地球。量子技术会用到光子,也就是光的微粒。这种通信方式可能会明是全世界最安全、最不易受黑客攻击的。很多国家的科学家和安全专家在研究这项技术。The satellite is expected to circle the earth every 90 minutes after entering orbit at an altitude of about 310 miles, according to a report by Xinhua, the state news agency.官方通讯社新华社的一篇报道称,在进入距地面约500公里高的轨道后,这颗卫星预计每90分钟绕地球一圈。China’s many high-tech scientific endeavors, including its ambitious space program, have enormous backing from the central government. The country’s 13th Five-Year Plan, an economic blueprint that was announced in March, listed quantum technology as a focal point for research and development.中国的很多高科技科研活动,包括其宏大的太空计划,得到了中央政府的大力持。中国今年3月公布的有关经济发展蓝图的十三五规划纲要将量子技术列为一个研发重点。Traditional communications satellites send signals using radio waves. But a quantum communication satellite uses a crystal that produces a pair of entangled photons whose properties remain entwined even as one is transmitted over a large distance. Messages could be sent by manipulating these properties.传统的通信卫星使用无线电波发送信号。量子通信卫星用的则是一种结晶体,这种晶体会产生一对相互纠缠的光子。即便将其中一个传输到很远之外,它们的属性依然会纠缠在一起。可以通过控制这些属性来发送信息。An article about the Chinese program published by the journal Nature in July said any tinkering with quantum communications would be detectable, which is why the method is secure. “Two parties can communicate secretly,” the article said, and could be “safe in the knowledge that any eavesdropping would leave its mark.”今年7月,《自然》杂志(Nature)发表了一篇文章,介绍中国这个项目。文中称,对量子通信做手脚的任何行为都会被发现,而这正是这种方式安全的原因。文章说,“双方能够秘密交流”,并且“有一种安全感,因为知道任何偷听都会留下痕迹”。If China succeeds in its satellite launch, the article said, that could mean many more such Chinese satellites in orbit, “which will together create a super-secure communications network, potentially linking people anywhere.”文章表示,如果中国的卫星发射成功,可能意味着中国会把更多的这类卫星送上轨道,它们“合起来将构成一个超级安全的通信网络,可能会将任何地方的人连接在一起”。“But groups from Canada, Japan, Italy and Singapore also have plans for quantum space experiments,” the article said.“但加拿大、日本、意大利和新加坡的团队也有量子太空实验计划,”文章说。While the communication would be unbreakable, the data transmission rate would also, at least at first, be glacial, more akin to the telegraph than the internet.尽管这种通信方式可能固若金汤,但数据传输速率起码一开始会极慢,更像电报而非互联网。The Chinese researchers hope to use the satellite and quantum communications to establish secure transmissions between two ground sites. In theory, the satellite can provide the connection between them. The first major link in China would be between Beijing and Shanghai, and might open this year, according to Xinhua.中国的研究人员希望利用这颗卫星和量子通信,在地面上的两个地点之间建立安全的信息传输。理论上,它能够提供两地之间的联络。新华社称,中国最先实现这种联络的可能是在北京和上海之间,或许会于今年开通。The satellite, which weighs over 1,300 pounds, is called Quantum Experiments at Space Scale, or Quess, and nicknamed Micius, after a Chinese philosopher and scientist in the fifth century B.C.这颗卫星逾重600公斤,名叫量子科学实验卫星,英文缩写为Quess,昵称墨子号。这是为了纪念公元前五世纪的中国哲学家、科学家墨子。Pan Jianwei, the chief scientist of the quantum satellite project, told Xinhua earlier that the overall project involved building four ground stations for quantum communication and one station in space for experimental quantum teleportation.量子卫星项目的首席科学家潘建伟早前对新华社表示,整个项目涉及修建四座量子通信地面站,一座空间量子隐形传态实验站。A 2012 article in Nature said Mr. Pan was in his early 30s when, in 2001, he set up China’s first laboratory for manipulating the quantum properties of photons.《自然》杂志2012年发表的一篇文章称,在2001年,30岁出头的潘建伟创建了中国首个研究如何控制光子的量子属性的实验室。“The lucky thing was that, in 2000, the economy of China started to grow, so the timing was suddenly right to do good science,” Nature ed him as saying.“幸运的是,2000年,中国的经济开始起飞,因此进行高质量科学研究的时机突然到了,”《自然》杂志当时援引他的话报道。 /201608/461309

  Property prices in China’s top cities soared as much as 57 per cent in the year to February, widening the gap with the country’s ailing smaller locations. 2月份,中国大中城市的房价最高同比上涨了57%,拉大了与每况愈下的小城市的差距。 Shenzhen, the tech-heavy city across the border from Hong Kong, typifies the rise — some say bubble — under way even as China’s economic growth slows and the country braces for a wave of lay-offs from heavy industry. 毗邻香港、科技企业云集的深圳,就是房价飙升(有人认为这是泡沫)的典型。在中国经济增长放缓、国家准备应对重工业下岗大潮之际,深圳的房价却在大涨。 Prices of new residential buildings in Shenzhen rose 57 per cent from a year earlier, up from January’s increase of 52 per cent, data from the National Bureau of Statistics showed on Friday. Meanwhile, the northern city of Dandong in rust-belt Liaoning province saw prices drop 3.9 per cent. 中国国家统计局周五发布的数据显示,深圳新建住宅价格同比上涨57%,高于1月份52%的同比涨幅。而在位于“锈带”辽宁省的北方城市丹东,新建住宅价格同比下降了3.9%。 Nationally, prices rose at an average annual 2.8 per cent, the biggest one-month rise since June 2014, according to FT calculations based on government data. There are signs that price gains are also feeding through to increased construction activity. Growth in property investment accelerated in the first two months of 2016, breaking a two-year run of slowing growth. 英国《金融时报》根据中国政府的数据估算,2月份中国全国房价平均同比上涨2.8%,为2014年6月以来的最大单月涨幅。有迹象表明,房价上涨还推动建筑活动增加。2016年头两个月,房地产投资增长提速,打破了两年来增长放缓的局面。 Governments in Beijing and Shanghai are now concerned about housing-market overheating and undersupply, while other cities still face an overhang of unsold houses built in expectations of gravity-defying property inflation. 北京市和上海市的政府如今担心的是住房市场过热和供给不足,而其他城市仍面临未售房屋过剩的局面,这些房屋都是因预期房价会只涨不跌而建造的。 The central bank said last week it will clamp down on unregulated peer-to-peer lending for mortgage downpayments — a source of shadow finance that analysts say has helped fuel property speculation. 中国央行上周表示,它将整治不受监管的P2P首付贷。分析师称,这一影子金融渠道对房地产投机起到了推波助澜的作用。 “The gap between cities is expanding,” said Liu Jianwei, an analyst from the National Bureau of Statistics. “Prices in tier one and tier two cities are increasing year-on-year, and this month’s increase is even larger than last month. At the same time, prices in tier three cities are decreasing year-on-year, and the rate of decrease is slowing.” “城市间房价涨幅差距进一步加大,”国家统计局高级统计师刘建伟表示,“分城市看,一、二线城市房价同比平均上涨,涨幅比上月扩大;三线城市同比平均下降,降幅继续缩小。” Overall, 32 of 70 cities in the government’s official price survey posted annual price gains in February, up from 25 cities in January. Analysts expect local governments in major cities to adopt measures to tamp demand, while a slow-motion recovery in smaller cities will continue. 总体来看,中国官方房价调查列出的70个大中城市当中,2月份新建住宅价格同比上涨的城市有32个,较1月份的25个有所增加。分析师预计,大城市的地方政府将采取措施抑制需求,而中小城市将继续缓慢复苏。 “The magnitude of housing price increases will continue to grow, at least through the first half of the year, driven by a rise in transaction volumes,” said Yan Yuejin, research director of E-house China Ramp;D Institute. “In some large cities, inventories are aly insufficient, which is leading to market expectations of even bigger price increases.” “受成交量上升推动,住宅价格将加速上涨,至少在今年上半年会是如此。”易居房地产研究院(E-house China Ramp;D Institute)的研究总监严跃进称,“在部分大城市,库存已经不足,这促使市场预期,甚至会有更大的价格涨幅。” Local media described a recent scene in Shanghai, where hundreds of would-be buyers queued overnight, complete with blankets, to steal a march on a property sale. 当地媒体描述了上海近期出现的一个场景:数百名准买家裹着毯子连夜排队,以求在开盘时能抢在别人前头。 Highlighting the contrasting fortunes of China’s two-tier property market, the central bank last month cut the minimum downpayment requirement on mortgages outside of top cities from 25 to 20 per cent, in a bid to boost demand. 上月,中国央行将非一线城市首套房最低首付款比例从25%下调至20%,试图以此来刺激需求。此举突显出了中国“双层”房地产市场中存在的冰火两重天局面。 These cities are also seeking to woo rural migrants as a means of whittling back inventory. This week, southeastern Jiangxi province began a publicity push that advised migrants: “When farmers buy houses in the city, the value rises; when farmers build houses in the fields, the value falls.” 非一线城市还试图通过吸引农民工进城来去库存。本周,江西省开始公开宣传鼓励农民进城买房:“农民在城市购房是升值,在农村建房是贬值。” Excess housing supply, as with overcapacity in other parts of the economy, is expected to spill over on to the banking sector. One analyst said empty houses suggest a larger volume of bad debts than banks’ official figures indicate, since local governments encourage local banks to engage in “extend and pretend” to keep developers liquid. 与经济其他领域的产能过剩一样,住房供应过剩预计将对业形成溢出效应。一名分析师称,空置住宅意味着实际坏账规模要大于公开给出的数字,这是因为地方政府鼓励当地以给贷款展期然后佯装问题不存在的方式来维持开发商的流动性。 Some developers are turning to diversification in a bid to protect profitability. Two of China’s biggest property developers, Vanke and Country Garden, this month said they will start providing elderly care, after-school classes and catering in their residential areas. 一些开发商正转向多元化经营来保持盈利能力。本月,中国两大房地产开发商万科(Vanke)和碧桂园(Country Garden)称,它们将开始在其住宅区内提供老年人护理、课外班和餐饮务。 /201603/432719


  Consumers in China will be entitled to a full refund on unsatisfactory products purchased online, even if the packages have been unsealed, under a draft regulation that protects buyers#39; rights.根据一项保护消费者权益的条例草案,对于不尽人意的网购商品,我国消费者有权获得全额退款,即使包裹已拆封。The latest draft, released by the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, is based on China#39;s consumer protection law. Public opinion is being sought until Sept 5.国家工商总局近日发布了这项基于我国的消费者权益保护法的最新草案。目前相关部门正就草案公开征求意见,截止日期为9月5日。The draft says businesses must provide refunds to consumers within seven days of receiving returned products.根据草案,商家必须在收到退回商品7天内给消费者退款。The returned goods must be intact. Goods whose packages have been opened for inspection or goods that have been tested only for inspection of quality and function are considered intact, the draft says.退回商品必须完好无损。草案称,出于查验目的而被拆封的商品,或仅被查验过品质和功能的商品被视为完好。The rule does not apply to several types of goods such as those that can pose hazards to personal safety or health after opened, or perishable goods that are near their expiration dates, it says.规定不适用于几类商品,比如拆封后会影响人身安全或健康的商品,或临近保质期的易变质商品。Under China#39;s consumer rights protection law, revised in 2014, consumers can return goods for up to seven days, and get a refund for items that fail quality standards.根据2014年修订的中国消费者权益保护法,消费者可以在最多七天之内退货,并获得没有达到质量标准产品的退款。Wu Jingming, an associate professor in economic law at China University of Political Science and Law who participated in the formulation of the draft, said this is the first draft regulation in China that specifies clearly that goods bought online can be returned for a refund, even if the packages have been opened.参加了制定该草案的中国政法大学经济法学副教授吴景明表示,这是中国第一个明确规定网上购买的商品,即使已经打开包装也可退还退款的草案。;The regulation is scheduled by the State Council to be adopted in October, though there are likely to be some changes made to the draft,; he said.他说道:“虽然这个草案很有可能会有多处更改,但是按照计划,该条例会于今年十月由国务院获批通过。” /201608/460393

  Volunteers wearing red and blue raincoats stand in formation to create a pair of human lungs on Sunday in Beijing to promote environmental protection awareness.周日,北京一组志愿者身穿红色和蓝色雨衣形成人体肺叶图,以此来促进环保意识的提高。About 1,500 people in Beijing braved heavy smog Sunday to form an image of giant lungs in a move to raise awareness of air pollution and respiratory health.大约有1500名志愿者不顾雾霾的笼罩,勇敢站在路上形成巨大的肺部形状,以此来提高人们对大气污染和呼吸道健康的意识。The Guinness World Records-setting event was criticized by some on Chinese social media, who argued organizers had put the participants#39; health at risk.一些中国社会媒体批评了吉尼斯世界纪录的组织者,说道组织者这样的行为没有顾及到参与者的健康。The group of university students and other volunteers collected at the Beijing Garden Expo to endure what the local environmental bureau labeled a ;heavily polluted; day, the Beijing Youth Daily reported.北京每日青年报报道,一些大学学生和其他志愿者集聚在北京园林览会,一起来经受被环保部门认为“最严重污染日”的折磨。An organizer of the event, surnamed Chen, said the date was scheduled a month earlier and the heavy smog was a coincidence.这件事的组织者之一,姓陈,说道这件事早在一个月之前就预计好了,而重度雾霾只是巧合。A representative for Guinness, named only as ;Dunn; in reports, announced the new record at around 3:10 pm, breaking the previous record for ;Largest human image of an organ; set by 982 people in Gurgaon, Haryana, India, on February 22.一位吉尼斯纪录组织代表Dunn 表示说,当天下午3点10分,这些志愿者打破了世界纪录,超越了2月22日在印度Haryana的Haryana由 982人组成的“最大的人体器官图”纪录。Despite the record, some participants were thinking more about their own lungs.尽管赢得了最高纪录,一些参与者在考虑自己的肺部健康问题。;Standing outside for hours on such a polluted day isn#39;t good for the lungs,; said a 40-something participant surnamed Lin. Another said participants were not allowed to wear masks during the event.“在重度雾霾天气下,站在户外几个小时,这对肺很不好,”一位约40岁左右的姓林的参与者说道。另一位志愿者说,在这个活动中,参与者是不允许戴口罩的。Some at the scene questioned the effectiveness and aim of the activity. ;I don#39;t know if getting a Guinness record has any real significance,; said one witness.一些在场的人员质疑这个活动的效果和目的。“我不知道赢得世界纪录是否会有实质的重要影响。”一位目击者说道。 /201511/410360

  ISLAMABAD: As a verbal duel between Pakistan and India heats up in the backdrop of escalation of violence in the disputed region of Kashmir, Islamabad on Tuesday renewed its proposal for a bilateral agreement for a moratorium on testing of nuclear devices.伊斯兰堡:在克什米尔争议地区的冲突升级让印巴两国的口水战愈演愈烈之际,巴基斯坦周二重新提议两国签订双边协议以停止核试验。The bilateral arrangement will send a positive signal to the members of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), which are currently discussing non-proliferation commitments of non-NPT states in relation to the question of membership, Foreign Office spokesperson Nafees Zakria said in a statement.巴基斯坦外交部发言人Nafees Zakria在一份声明中说道,双边协议将给核供应国集团成员发去积极信号,目前该集团成员正在谈论未加入《不扩散核武器条约》国家加入该条约所需作出的核不扩散承诺。Pakistan and India both seek a membership of the NSG and have aly voluntarily declared that they will not conduct more nuclear tests. But Zakria said the unilateral moratoriums declared by the two countries were legally non-binding and could be withdrawn unilaterally.巴基斯坦和印度都寻求加入核供应国集团,并且双方都已经自愿宣布不会进行更多的核试验。但是Zakria称如果两国只是单边的宣布暂停核试验,那么在法律上是没有约束性的,而且可以单方面取消。“A bilateral arrangement will be mutually binding and difficult to withdraw unilaterally,” he added.他补充道:“只有签订双边协议才能互相约束,而且无法轻易的进行单方面取消。”The spokesperson said that following the nuclear tests in 1998, Pakistan had offered India simultaneous adherence to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The proposal did not elicit a favourable response from India, he regretted.这位发言人称在1998年的核测试之后,巴基斯坦向印度提议共同遵守《全面禁止核试验条约》。但是这个提议并没有获得印度方面的积极响应,他遗憾的说道。 /201608/461550



  Deadly bomb blasts in Thai tourist resort areas have failed to deter the country’s military rulers from raising entry fees for holidaymakers from 19 countries and territories, including China.泰国旅游度假区发生的致命炸弹爆炸事件未能阻止该国军事统治者对来自19个国家和地区(包括中国)的游客上调签费。The decision to press ahead with plans to double visa-on-arrival costs to 2,000 baht () has generated mixed reviews, with some commentators arguing it will undermine efforts to shore up confidence in a rare growth industry in the stuttering economy.按计划把落地签费翻倍至2000泰铢(合58美元)的决定,引发了褒贬不一的,有些人士提出,旅游是泰国增长乏力的经济中一个难得的成长型行业,而此举将破坏提振对该行业信心的努力。The tariff changes widen the disparity between Chinese holidaymakers and western counterparts who can still visit for free, even though the doubling of Thailand’s tourist numbers in six years has been driven by China.上调签费将扩大中国游客与仍可免费入境的西方游客之间的差距,尽管赴泰国的游客人数在六年内翻一番是由中国这个客源国推动的。The higher charges appear to reflect official ambivalence in Bangkok towards a sector that has delivered income during political turbulence but is putting increasing strain on infrastructure.上调费用似乎反映了泰国官方对旅游业的矛盾心理,该行业在泰国政治动荡时期带来了收入,但正给基础设施带来越来越大的压力。Chanapan Klaewklachyawut, secretary-general of the Thai-Chinese Tourism Alliance Association, said: “This extra charge is not much for Chinese tourists. 泰中旅游同业公会(Thai-Chinese Tourism Alliance Association)秘书长Chanapan Klaewklachyawut表示:“这笔额外费用对中国游客不算多。If they can’t even afford this amount, how will they have enough money to spend on travelling in Thailand?”如果他们连这笔钱都负担不起,他们在泰国旅游期间还会有足够的钱花销吗?”The Thai government announced last week that the new charges would come into force next month, weeks after bomb attacks across tourist resorts in south Thailand killed four people and wounded dozens more, some of them foreigners.泰国政府上周宣布,新的签费标准将在下月生效实施。就在几周前,泰国南方的几个旅游度假胜地遭遇多起炸弹袭击,导致4人遇难,数十人受伤,其中一些是外国人。The fees lift Thailand out of the bracket of visas-on-arrival for or less charged by other Southeast Asian holiday-maker destinations, such as Cambodia and Indonesia.上调签费使泰国退出了东南亚收取40美元或以下落地签费(如柬埔寨和印尼)的旅游国家行列。Some Thai commentators have questioned both the decision to raise the prices and the timing of the announcement, which follow approval by the military-dominated cabinet earlier this year.泰国一些人士质疑提高签费的决定,也质疑宣布这一决定的时机,此前军方主导的内阁在今年早些时候批准了此举。The Bangkok Post newspaper this week condemned the “outrageous” change as “out of sync with every other current tourist policy”, particularly as Taiwan, one of the other territories affected, has just scrapped its visa requirement for Thai tourists.《曼谷邮报》(Bangkok Post)本周谴责这一“离谱”的变动,称其“与其它每一项现行旅游政策不合拍”,尤其是台湾这个受影响的地区之一刚刚取消了针对泰国游客的签要求。The increases are particularly striking because China has provided almost half the more than 15m extra arrivals that have lifted Thailand’s foreign tourism visitor numbers from 14.15m in 2009 to 29.88m last year. 令签费上涨格外引人注目的是,中国提供了过去六年逾1500万新增入境游客人数中的近一半,这些新增游客使泰国的外国游客人数从2009年的1415万人增至去年的2988万人。The boom is apparent in the snaking queues at Bangkok’s Don Mueang airport for taxi ranks and at immigration desks that proclaim the official policy of “Good guys in, bad guys out”.这种繁荣体现于曼谷廊曼机场(Don Mueang airport)出租车上车处和入境检查柜台的蛇形队列;泰国出入境部门宣称其官方政策是“好人进来,坏人出去”。Some observers link the visa price rise to official efforts to attract more high-spending visitors and draw away from the cheaper — and seedier — elements of Thailand’s tourist success story.一些观察人士把签价格上涨与官方的一项努力联系起来,后者的目的是吸引更多高消费旅客,同时抑制泰国旅游业成功故事中一些比较廉价、比较粗俗的元素。Photos and s have surfaced alleging various episodes of spitting and other bad mannered behaviour by Chinese tourists, who have flocked in particular to temples and other sites featured in a hugely popular 2012 road trip movie called Lost in Thailand.近年流传的照片和视频据称记录了中国游客吐痰和其它不良行为。2012年出品的旅游电影《人再囧途之泰囧》(Lost in Thailand)票房极为成功,片中出现的泰国寺庙和其他景点如今挤满了中国游客。Some tourism sector insiders argue the higher fees could even be a good thing, because they will help ease the congestion that rapid expansion has brought.一些旅游业经营者认为,签费上调甚至可能是一件好事,因为这将有助于缓解游客剧增所带来的拥堵。 /201608/463228



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