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荣昌万州区打胎哪家医院最好的綦江大足区流产手术多少钱Metal, heal thyself金属,自己愈合吧Materials science: Researchers have devised an ingenious way for the damaged surfaces of metals to repair themselves when they come to harm 材料科学:研究人员构想出了一种新颖独特的方法,使得金属在表面受损时可以自我修复。SADLY for engineers, inanimate objects cannot yet repair themselves. But work by Claudia dos Santos at the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation, and Christian Mayer at Duisburg-Essen University in Stuttgart, has brought the day when they will be able to do so a little nearer. They and their colleagues have invented a way for damaged metals to heal themselves.对工程师来说悲哀的一面是,没有生命的物体还无法实现自我修复。但是在德国弗劳恩霍夫制造工程和自动化学会的Claudia dos Santos和斯图加特杜伊斯堡—艾森大学的Christian Mayer的共同研究下,无生命物体实现自我修复那一天的到来被拉近了一点。他们与同事研发出了一种能让受损金属自我愈合的方法。The surfaces of many metal objects are coated with other metals for protection. Iron, for instance, is frequently galvanised with zinc. The basic idea of the new technology is to infiltrate this coating with tiny, fluid-filled capsules. When the metal coating is punctured or scratched, the capsules in the damaged area burst and ooze restorative liquids, in the form of compounds called trivalent chromates. These react with nearby metal atoms and form tough, protective films a few molecules thick to ameliorate the damage.许多金属物体的表面都覆盖着其他金属层来保护自己。例如,铁就通常会镀上锌。而这种新技术的基本构想就是在金属覆盖层中加入微小并且充满液体的胶囊。当金属的覆盖层受到扎刺或划损时,受损区域的胶囊将会破裂并渗出具有恢复性的液体---三价铬钝化化合物。这些液体将与周围金属原子发生反应,形成几个分子厚、坚固且具有保护性的膜,以修复表面的损害。The idea of doing this has been around for years, but it has proved difficult in practice because the capsules used were too big. Surface coatings tend to be about 20 microns (millionths of a metre) thick. The capsules were 10-15 microns across—large enough to disrupt the coatings, and thus do more harm than good. The trick worked out by Dr dos Santos and Dr Mayer is how to create capsules a few hundredths of this size. 这种构想已经现世好几年了,但是由于过去所使用的胶囊太大,在实践中应用起来难度很大。金属表面的覆盖层厚度趋近于20微米(微米为一米的百万分之一),而过去用的胶囊跨度为10到15微米,这种跨度足以打乱覆盖层的结构,因此对金属造成的弊大于利。dos Santos 士和Mayer士想出来的诀窍就是如何创造跨度仅为过去的百分之几的胶囊。The capsules the researchers have come up with are made by mixing butylcyanoacrylate, a chemical found in superglue, with an oil carrying the healing compounds. This mixture is then mixed with dilute hydrochloric acid. The result is an emulsion of droplets between 100 and 300 nanometres (billionths of a metre) across. Each droplet has an oil core surrounded by a thin layer of butylcyanoacrylate. To make the droplets stable, phosphate is added to the emulsion. This triggers the polymerisation of the butylcyanoacrylate into a tough plastic, which forms the outside of the capsule.如今研究人员创造的胶囊是通过把氰基丙烯酸正丁酯和有愈合功效的化合物悬浮其中的油类混合而制的。氰基丙烯酸正丁酯是在超强力胶中发现的一种化学物质。这种混合物再跟稀释的盐酸混合,结果会产生一种乳状液, 其微滴直径在100到300纳米(纳米为一米的10亿分之一)之间。每个微滴都有一颗油核,周围包裹着一层薄薄的氰基丙烯酸正丁酯。为了稳定这些微滴,研究人员在胶状液中添加了磷酸盐,这就促使氰基丙烯酸正丁酯进行聚合反应转变成一种坚固的塑料。这种塑料就形成了胶囊的外壳。The greatest challenge for the team, however, was not making the capsules in the first place, but stabilising them during the plating process. Though galvanisation is often done by dipping steel in liquid zinc, it is sometimes done by electrolysis—nickel and copper plating are normally done this way. The capsules, though, tend to stick together in the liquids used as electrolytes during electroplating, and are also destroyed by the extreme acidity or alkalinity that is often involved in the process. To overcome these problems, Dr dos Santos and Dr Mayer used special detergents that stick to the polymerised butylcyanoacrylate shell around each capsule, which stops them sticking together and protects them from the electrolytes.然而,对于这组研究人员来说,最大的挑战并不是开始时胶囊的制造过程,而是在电解过程中如何稳定这些胶囊。尽管一般是通过液态锌蘸洗钢铁来镀锌,有时候也会用电解的方法,在电镀镍和铜时就通常使用电镀。在电镀过程中,不过,胶囊容易在使用的电解质液体中黏在一起,而且也会由于这一过程中通常出现的极酸性和极碱性而受到破坏。为了克这些问题, dos Santos士 和Mayer士使用了一种特殊的去污剂,这种去污剂可以粘附在每个胶囊周围聚合氰基丙烯酸正丁酯的外壳上,阻止这些胶囊黏在一起,并保护它们免受电解液的破坏。The researchers have now proved their techniques in electroplated layers of copper, nickel and zinc, and believe that self-repairing metals should commonly be available in the years ahead. Moreover, their nanocapsules may have other applications. Lubricants such as silicone oils can be included in them, to make the damaged surfaces of ball-bearings that have run out of oil more slippery, so that they are not scratched too rapidly. Anti-fouling compounds can be placed in capsules on the surfaces of metals intended for use in marine environments. And, in a nod to butylcyanoacrylate’s origins in superglue, capsules containing chemicals that will react to form adhesives when two surfaces are put together are also on the horizon. 研究人员现在已经在电镀铜层,镍层和锌层上实了这种技术,同时他们相信在未来的几年里将会普遍实现金属的自我修复技术。此外,他们所研发的纳米囊也可能应用到其他领域,比如硅系列油等润滑剂,可以使耗尽了油的滚珠轴承的受损表面更加光滑,避免过快擦。还可以在用于海洋环境的金属表面胶囊中植入防污化合物,以保护环境。而且,由于氰基丙烯酸正丁酯来自超强力胶水,当两种金属表面放在一起时,胶囊内含的化学物质能够反应生成粘合剂,这种新型胶囊的问世也将指日可待。201110/158951重庆涪陵中心医院做腹腔镜手术多少钱 Afghan, Pakistani Representatives Hold Jirga on Taliban Conflict巴阿部落领袖及政府代表开始会谈A suspected U.S. missile strike has killed 20 people in Pakistan's Taliban-controlled tribal regions. The attack came hours before Pakistani and Afghan tribal leaders and government representatives began two days of talks about the Taliban insurgency in both countries. 被怀疑是美军发动的一次导弹袭击在塔利班控制的巴基斯坦部落地区造成20人死亡。袭击发生几个小时之后,巴基斯坦和阿富汗部落领袖以及政府代表开始就两国境内塔利班反叛武装问题展开为期两天的会谈。Residents of South Waziristan said the early morning missile strike hit the home of a Taliban commander outside the main town, Wana. Local residents reported some foreign militants were among the dead. 南瓦济里斯坦的居民说,清晨发射的导弹击中了主要城镇瓦纳郊外一名塔利班指挥官的房屋。据当地居民报告,死者当中包括几名外国激进分子。Since late August, more than 12 such missile strikes have hit targets mainly in the North and South Waziristan tribal agencies, which are considered key strongholds of Taliban factions that also operate in Afghanistan.  去年8月以来,这类导弹袭击共发生了12次以上,主要目标是南、北瓦济里斯坦的部落特区。据认为那些地区是同时也在阿富汗活动的塔利班派系的主要聚集地。During the same time, Pakistan's military has been engaged in heavy fighting in the Bajaur tribal agency, where the army claimed this week that more than 1,500 militants and 73 soldiers have been killed since the operation began.  与此同时,巴基斯坦军方在巴焦尔部落特区与激进分子展开了激烈战斗,军方这个星期说,这次行动开始以来,已经有1千5百多名激进分子被击毙,73名士兵阵亡。Despite the increase in U.S. missile strikes and the intensified efforts of the Pakistani military, there is also growing support for using negotiations and diplomacy to resolve the Taliban conflict.  尽管美军增加了导弹袭击频率,巴基斯坦军方也加大了行动力度,但也有更多的人持通过谈判和外交途径解决与塔利班的冲突。Last week Pakistan's parliament passed a resolution supporting peace talks as the government's top priority. This week, a group of Afghan tribal leaders, clerics and government officials arrived in Islamabad for talks with their Pakistani counterparts on the Taliban insurgency.  上星期,巴基斯坦议会通过决议,持政府将和谈作为优先重点。这星期,一些阿富汗部落领袖、神职人员和政府官员抵达伊斯兰堡,就塔利班反叛武装问题同巴基斯坦方面展开两天的会谈。At the start of the two-day meeting traditionally known as a jirga, Pakistan's foreign minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi said both countries acknowledge that the Taliban insurgency must be resolved through diplomacy.  会谈开始时,巴基斯坦外长库雷希说,两国都承认,必须通过外交途径解决塔利班反叛武装问题。"There is an increasing realization that the use of force alone cannot yield the desired results. For lasting success, negotiations and reconciliation must be an essential part of the process" Qureshi said. 他说:“人们越来越认识到,只靠武力不能取得预期的结果。为了持久的成功,必须使谈判和妥协成为这个进程的重要组成部分。”Since the last Pakistan-Afghanistan jirga held in Kabul more than a year ago, relations between the two countries have worsened and the Taliban insurgency has strengthened. Afghan officials have accused elements of Pakistan's intelligence and military institutions of helping insurgents plot attacks in Afghanistan. 自从巴基斯坦和阿富汗各方一年多以前举行上一次会谈以来,两国关系有所恶化,塔利班反叛活动有所加强。阿富汗官员指责巴基斯坦情报部门和军方机构中有人帮助反叛分子策划在阿富汗境内发动袭击。Despite the difficulties, officials in both countries say there is now more support for working together to negotiate an end to the conflict. Unlike last year, representatives from Pakistan's tribal agencies are attending the talks, citing the minor but hopeful progress that was made during the last round.  尽管存在这些困难,两国官员都表示,现在人们更加持展开合作,通过谈判结束冲突。与去年不同的是,巴基斯坦部落特区的代表现在也参加了会谈,表示自上一轮会谈以来取得了微小但有希望的进展。Some critics in Pakistan say the talks are meaningless unless U.S., NATO and Taliban representatives attend. But the leader of Afghanistan's delegation, former foreign minister Abdullah Abdullah, said searching for common ground at this stage is the best way forward.  巴基斯坦一些批评人士认为,除非美国、北约和塔利班的代表也出席,否则这些会谈毫无意义。但是阿富汗代表团团长、前外交部长阿卜杜拉说,在目前阶段,寻求共同立场是取得进展的最佳途径。"Through the decisions of the peace jirga and the discussions that we have here we will explore those opportunities further and hopefully what we decide here will help us to expedite the process of dialogue and reconciliation," Abdullah said. 他说:“通过和平会谈的决定以及我们在此展开的讨论,我们将进一步探索那些机会,但愿我们在这里做出的决定将帮助我们加快对话和妥协的进程。”The talks among 50 officials and tribal elders from both countries are expected to continue through Tuesday. 预计,这50名官员和部落长老的会谈将持续到星期二。200810/54264Oracle octopus gets own World Cup for winning streakPaul the oracle octopus was given a replica of the World Cup on Monday as a reward for his perfect eight-for-eight record in picking matches as bettors worldwide collected their winnings based on his selections.The two-year-old octopus with possiblepsychicpowers turned into a worldwide celebrity for accurately predicting the winner of Germanys five World Cup wins as well as their two defeats. Paul alsotippedSpain to beat Netherlands in Sundays final.;Weve had a lot of offers for Paul but he will definitely be staying with us and returning to his old job -- making children smile,; Sea Life spokeswoman Tanja Munzig in Oberhausen said after presenting Paul with the World Cup replica.;Theres no rational reason why he always got it right.;Bettors around the world made small fortunes based on Pauls uncanny picks, said Graham Sharpe, media relations director at William Hill in London, one of Britains largest bookmakers.;Ive seen a lot of things in my lifetime but this is the first time Ive ever seen people making their picks based on what an octopus tells them,; Sharpe said.;We had people coming in saying they didnt know how to place a bet but heard about this German octopus and wanted to bet with him. Itsludicrous. But he kept getting it right,; said Sharpe. ;Its one of the finest tipping feats ever.;Sharpe said that anyone who had placed a 10-poundaccumulatorbet on Pauls picks from the start of the World Cup would have won 3,000 pounds (,500) by the end of the tournament.Pauls home at Sea Life aquarium in Oberhausen has beeninundatedwith visitors and media from across Europe. Many networks broadcast his picks live. Hundreds were on hand to watch the World Cup replica lowered into his tank on Monday.Vocabulary:psychic: outside of natural or scientific knowledge; spiritual(有特异功能的,通灵的)tip: to provide with a piece of confidential, advance, or inside information(预言……获胜;事先说……会成功)ludicrous:absurd(荒唐的;滑稽的)accumulator: a bet on a series of races or other events, where the money won or originally bet is placed on the next race, etc.(累计下注,每赢一次即押于下一轮)inundated: to overwhelm as if with a flood; swamp(淹没,洪水般的扑来)背单词 — 装英语词汇201007/108983重庆女性尿道炎如何治疗

重庆新桥医院产科Where are we right now? We're on the cusp of the second half, when we're supposed to see recovery.Yeah, I think it's unlikely for a while. I mean I get figures on dozens of, dozens of businesses. I get them daily. I mean we own them. And we have not, there is no uptick yet. There will be. I wanna assure everybody that. This country always comes back. I mean if you go, you know, we've had the Civil War, we've got the Great Depression, we've had Pearl Harbor, we get a lot of unpleasant surprises, but we always overcome them and we will this. But we haven't yet, and it doesn't look to me like it's imminent. It will happen.You know, it's rare to hear you as the Dr. Doom. I mean you know, look, the rate of jobless, job layoffs has slowed down. We got the report today on big ticket items. We have a second month of gains. (Yeah) We had existing home sales up for three, for a couple of months. So there are signs of growth. You are not encouraged by this.Well, I'm encouraged by the fact that it's gonna work over time. But I'm not, but in terms of looking at all the figures that I see, whether, you know, retail sale, everything. The unemployment is gonna keep going up significantly. But we will overcome it, I don't wanna be Dr. Doom in that respect. I'm a huge bull on America, I always have been. But I also don't believe in kidding myself. So when I look at numbers of how many yards of carpet we sold yesterday, or how many items of jewelry, or how many watches, or whatever it maybe. And I just was talking with the gentleman that runs this, this restaurant, you know, the same, the same situation. We have not bounced yet.You mentioned one of the things, rate of unemployment going up. (Yeah.) There's this talk of a jobless recovery, is there such a thing?No, eventually, but there will be, at the beginning of recovery, there will be jobless. I mean when firms tighten up, they don't start hiring a month or two months after their business turns up. They do start hiring later on. But unemployment will peak after businesses aly start/ turning up somewhat. So it won't be a jobless. We'll add millions and millions of jobs in the next decade in this country. We just won't add them in the next few months. 08/82103江北输卵管通夜哪家好 Toyota Motor Corp. says it's on track to become the world's largest automaker. CNN's Eunice Yoon reports In the race for the title of world's largest automaker, Toyota of Japan proved Tuesday it's on track to unseat US car giant General Motors.'We've posted record highs from sales to net profit in our third quarter.' In its latest quarterly earnings report, profits jumped 7% to more than .5 billion. The company sold enough Camry sedans, Prius hybrid electric cars, and other vehicles in North America to warrant the construction of new factories there.'The impressive thing about Toyota is they're expanding in multiple regions at the same time and that's giving them a lot of momentum, er, to take that number one spot.'Drivers worldwide have praised Toyota for making what they consider low maintenance, high mileage vehicles. That formula is working in North America where the automaker is now thinking of building an eighth assembly plant, a move that could help ward off political pressure. But there has been growing criticism in the US over Toyota's rising imports. One American politician from the heart of the American auto industry in Detroit says the Japanese carmaker benefits unfairly from state-run pension systems and a government that dabbles in the currency markets. The weak yen played a big part in Toyota's profits. Yet many car analysts say those remarks are unfair.'If a politician wants to come out against Toyota, he's gonna have to come out against employment and environmental technology, and that's pretty tenuous ground to be standing on.'Toyota says it's sticking by its full year forecasts and analysts say the company is on course for an eighth straight year of record earnings. Still, Toyota in Japanese tradition is staying modest.'There is a lot of talk of us becoming number one in the world. We are trying not to be too conscious of it. We want to produce cars that the market wants.'And with it looking as though the market wants more Toyota-made cars, analysts say the company will drive by GM as soon as this year. Eunice Yoon, CNN, Seoul.Vocabularyward off phr-v. To ward off a danger or illness means to prevent it from affecting you or harming you.She may have put up a fight to try to ward off her assailant.dabble v. If you dabble in something, you take part in it but not very seriously.He dabbled in business.01/61102重庆治疗重度宫颈糜烂医院

南岸输卵管造影 价格American business美国商业Big Apple v Big Oil苹果vs美孚Apple briefly becomes the world’s largest public company苹果一度成为世界第一大市值公司Aug 13th 2011 | SAN FRANCISCO| from the print editionBY ANY standards it is a remarkable achievement. In the space of 14 years, Apple has transformed itself from a computer firm on the brink of bankruptcy into a stockmarket superstar. On August 9th its market capitalisation surpassed that of Exxon Mobil, making it the world’s largest public company. Not for long: by the end of the day’s trading, the tech giant was billion smaller than the oil giant: 7 billion to 8 billion. But Exxon’s lead is fragile. If the oil price falls further, Apple will surely outstrip it.无论从哪个角度看,这都是引人注目的成就。在14年的时间里,苹果从一个面临倒闭的电脑公司成功转型,成为券市场的超级明星。在8月9日其市值超过了埃克森美孚,成为世界上第一大上市公司。但不久在当日收盘时,科技巨头苹果的市值仅以10亿美元低于石油大亨:分别是3470亿美元和3480亿美元。但埃克森的领先不堪一击,如果油价继续下跌,苹果必然会超过。Oil remains a vital raw material, and Exxon can extract it from difficult places more efficiently than any other firm. But Apple’s rise reflects the growing influence of the digital industry, and the way that industry has changed. It used to be dominated by companies such as IBM and Microsoft, which made their billions selling software and services to corporations. Apple has leap-frogged both of them by delighting consumers.石油一直都是重要的原材料,埃克森美孚能够比其他公司更高效地从恶劣环境中提炼出石油。但苹果的崛起反映了数字产业与日俱增的影响力,以及它所带来的改变。过去的数字产业是IBM和微软公司的天下,它们以出售软件和务获得了巨大的赢利。凭着用户好评,苹果已跃升至两家公司之前。201108/150893 韩国主管北韩政策的主要官员说,他认为北韩近来对国际社会的一系列挑衅行为目的是要在国内巩固权力。目前旨在使北韩最终放弃核计划的谈判陷于停顿,韩国为了应对北韩最近的威胁正在强化和伙伴国家的外交联系。North Korea's official Rodung Sinmun newspaper described the country as a "proud nuclear power" Monday, and warned it would be a "great mistake for the ed States to think it will not be hurt" in the event of military conflict on the peninsula.北韩官方报纸劳动新闻报星期一说,北韩已经是“自豪的核大国”,并警告美国不要在韩半岛发生军事冲突时认为自己不会受到攻击,否则会铸成巨大错误。That latest example of shrill rhetoric from Pyongyang comes as the U.S. Navy tracks a North Korean vessel which may be carrying missile parts or other weaponry. Such items are prohibited under the latest ed Nations Security Council resolution passed after North Korea's nuclear test last month.北韩这些最新的恐吓是在美国海军舰艇跟踪北韩船只之后发出的。被跟踪的北韩船只可能运载有导弹部件和其他武器。联合国安理会在上个月北韩核试验后通过的最新决议禁止这些物品出入北韩。South Korea's main 24-hour cable news channel network cited intelligence officials Monday as saying the North Korean vessel was probably destined for Burma.韩国主要的24小时有限新闻频道星期一援引情报官员的话说,北韩船只的目的地有可能是缅甸。South Korean Unification Minister Hyun In-taek told the Reuters news agency Monday, Pyongyang's recent provocations appear to fit a pattern.韩国统一部部长玄仁泽星期一告诉路透社,平壤最近的挑衅符合北韩的行为规律。Hyun says social instability has increased in North Korea, so leader Kim Jong-il needs to continue to reinforce his domestic power base.他说,北韩社会不稳定的状况加剧,所以,领导人金正日需要不断稳固自己的国内势力。Those comments echo earlier assessments by analysts here in Seoul, who say Kim Jong Il's apparent stroke about a year ago challenged perceptions of his complete command of the North's government.这个和此前一些首尔专家分析一致。有分析认为,金正日一年前的中风令他的领导能力受到挑战。Hyun adds, the North Korean leader also has to think about possible power succession, whether it happens right away or some time later-- that is another reason to reinforce his power base.他说,北韩领导人还考虑到可能的继任人问题,不管是在现在进行,还是稍后解决接班人问题都是金正日需要巩固权力的另一个原因。South Korea is intensifying diplomacy to contain North Korea's pursuit of nuclear weapons. President Lee Myung-bak travels to Tokyo this Sunday to discuss North Korea with Japanese Prime Minister Taro Aso. Seoul's main envoy on the nuclear issue, Wi Sung-lac, is scheduled to meet with his Russian counterpart in Moscow later this week. A South Korean envoy is also traveling to a gathering in Poland for the South's first formal participation in a U.S.-led anti-proliferation cooperative.韩国正加紧外交努力来阻止北韩发展核武器。总统李明上周日前往东京,和日本首相安倍晋三讨论北韩问题。首尔核谈判首席代表魏圣洛本周晚些时候将在莫斯科和俄罗斯代表会面。另一名韩国特使将前往波兰,代表韩国第一次出席由美国发起的反核扩散合作会议。06/75400长寿市不孕不育哪个医院比较好重庆爱德华男科挂号




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