重庆中医院治疗月经不调百度爱问

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 重庆中医院治疗月经不调
Scientists, like mothers, have long suspected that midnight snacking is inadvisable. But until a few years ago, there was little in the way of science behind those suspicions. Now, a new study shows that mice prevented from eating at all hours avoided obesity and metabolic problems — even if their diet was sometimes unhealthful.长期以来,母亲们都认为不宜在半夜吃零食,科学家们对此也持有相同的看法。但直到几年前,人们也只是有此怀疑,却没有多少科学据可以持它。现在,一项在小鼠中进行的新研究显示,即使有时候它们的饮食不够健康,但只要不是一天到晚吃个不停,就可避免肥胖和代谢问题。Researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego and elsewhere began experimenting with the eating patterns of laboratory mice in a previous study. On that occasion, some mice consumed high-fat food whenever they wanted; others had the same diet but could eat only during an eight-hour window. None exercised. The mice that ate at all hours soon grew chubby and unwell, with symptoms of diabetes. But the mice on the eight-hour schedule gained little weight and developed no metabolic problems. Those results were published in 2012.在此前的一项研究中,美国圣地亚哥索尔克生物研究所(Salk Institute for Biological Studies)和其他机构的研究人员们开始对实验室小鼠的饮食模式进行实验。在该研究中,有一部分小鼠可以依自己的喜好,随时食用高脂肪食物,而其他小鼠虽然也可以享用完全相同的饮食,但它们每天可以进食的时间限制在八小时。两组小鼠都未进行任何运动。全天均可进食的小鼠很快就胖得圆滚滚的,健康也发生了问题,出现了糖尿病的症状。但是严格遵照八小时时间表进食的小鼠体重几乎没有增加,而且也未出现代谢问题。上述研究结果在2012年发表。For the new study, which appeared in the journal Cell Metabolism in December, Salk scientists fed groups of adult males one of four diets: high-fat, high-fructose, high-fat and high-sucrose, and regular mouse kibble. Some of the mice in each dietary group were allowed to eat whenever they wanted throughout their waking hours; others were restricted to feeding periods of nine, 12 or 15 hours. The caloric intake for all the mice was the same.而在去年12月发表于《细胞-代谢》(Cell Metabolism)杂志上的新研究中,索尔克生物研究所的科学家们分别以四种不同的饮食喂养四组成年雄性小鼠:高脂肪、高果糖、高脂肪兼高糖以及普通鼠粮。在每个饮食组中,又允许一部分小鼠在清醒状态下的任何时候进食,其他小鼠每天的进食时间则分别限制在9、12或15小时。所有小鼠摄入的热量卡路里数均相同。Over the course of the 38-week experiment, some of the mice in the time-restricted groups were allowed to cheat on weekends and eat whenever they chose. A few of the eat-anytime mice were shifted to the restricted windows midway through the study.在为期38周的实验过程中,限时进食的小鼠中又有一部分获准在周末“放纵一下”,随心所欲地在任何时间进食。在研究的中途,还有几只原本随时可以进食的小鼠被转移入限时进食组。By the end, the mice eating at all hours were generally obese and metabolically ill, reproducing the results of the earlier study. But those mice that ate within a nine- or 12-hour window remained sleek and healthy, even if they cheated occasionally on weekends. What’s more, mice that were switched out of an eat-anytime schedule lost some of the weight they had gained.在研究结束时,随时可以进食的小鼠普遍都变得肥胖,并患上了代谢疾病,这印了早期的研究结果。但相比之下,即使周末偶有放肆,那些平时每天只有9或12小时可以进食的小鼠体型保持得很好,身体也很健康。更重要的是,从随时进食组转入限时进食组的小鼠原本增加的体重也有一定程度的减轻。“Time-restricted eating didn’t just prevent but also reversed obesity,” says Satchidananda Panda, an associate professor at the Salk Institute who oversaw the studies. “That was exciting to see.” Mice that consumed regular kibble in fixed time periods also had less body fat than those that ate the same food whenever they chose.“限时饮食不仅可以预防肥胖,还可以逆转肥胖,”该研究的负责人,索尔克生物研究所的副教授萨特旦安达·潘达(Satchidananda Panda)说,“这样的发现真令人兴奋。”此外,与在一天的任何时间都可以食用鼠粮的小鼠相比,每天只能在固定时段食用相同食物的小鼠的体脂肪量也较低。Precisely how a time-based eating pattern staved off weight gain and illness is not fully understood, but Dr. Panda and his colleagues believe that the time at which food is eaten influences a body’s internal clock. “Meal times have more effect on circadian rhythm than dark and light cycles,” Dr. Panda says. And circadian rhythm in turn affects the function of many genes in the body that are known to involve metabolism.目前尚不完全清楚基于时间的进食模式是如何避免体重增加和疾病的,不过,潘达士及其同事们认为,进食的时间影响了身体内部的生物钟。潘达士指出:“进食时间对昼夜节律的影响比光暗周期更大。”反过来,昼夜节律又可以影响体内许多已知与新陈代谢有关的基因的功能。To date, Dr. Panda’s studies have been conducted with only mice, but he says the results seem likely to apply to humans. The upshot: Contain your eating to 12 hours a day or less. And pay attention to when you begin. The clock starts, Dr. Panda says, with “that first cup of coffee with cream and sugar in the morning.”迄今为止,潘达士仅在小鼠身上进行了研究,但他相信这些结果有可能同样适用于人类。因此我们最好将一天中的饮食时间限制在12小时或12小时之内,并留心每天开始进食的时间。“当你早上饮用第一杯加了奶油和糖的咖啡时”,计时就开始了,潘达士说。 /201502/358433

A new economics paper has some old-fashioned advice for people navigating the stresses of life: Find a spouse who is also your best friend.新近发表的一篇经济学论文,给正面临生活压力的人提了一个有些老派的建议:找最好的朋友做你的配偶。Social scientists have long known that married people tend to be happier, but they debate whether that is because marriage causes happiness or simply because happier people are more likely to get married. The new paper, published by the National Bureau of Economic Research, controlled for pre-marriage happiness levels.社会科学家向来知道,已婚人士往往更幸福,但对于这是因为婚姻带来了幸福,还是说越幸福的人越可能走进婚姻,他们意见不一。美国国家经济研究局(National Bureau of Economic Research)新近发表的一篇论文,将婚前的幸福水平作为控制变量。It concluded that being married makes people happier and more satisfied with their lives than those who remain single – particularly during the most stressful periods, like midlife crises.文章的结论是,婚姻使人们比孑然一身者更幸福,对生活更满意,特别是在压力最大的时期,如中年危机。Even as fewer people are marrying, the disadvantages of remaining single have broad implications. It’s important because marriage is increasingly a force behind inequality. Stable marriages are more common among educated, high-income people, and increasingly out of reach for those who are not. That divide appears to affect not just people’s income and family stability, but also their happiness and stress levels.尽管结婚的人减少了,但单身的弊端影响广泛。这一点颇为重要,因为婚姻越来越成了不平等背后的一个因素。稳定的婚姻在受过教育的高收入人群中更普遍,而情况与之相反的人则越来越难获得稳定的婚姻。这一差异影响的似乎不仅是人们的收入和家庭的稳定,还有他们的幸福和压力状况。A quarter of today’s young adults will have never married by 2030, which would be the highest share in modern history, according to Pew Research Center. Yet both remaining unmarried and divorcing are more common among less-educated, lower-income people. Educated, high-income people still marry at high rates and are less likely to divorce.皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)称,当下的年轻人中,有四分之一不会在2030年前结婚,这一比例将是现代历史上的最高水平。但在受教育较少、收入较低的人群中,未婚和离异都更普遍。受过教育的高收入人群结婚的比例依然较高,离婚的可能性也更小。Those whose lives are most difficult could benefit most from marriage, according to the economists who wrote the new paper, John Helliwell of the Vancouver School of Economics and Shawn Grover of the Canadian Department of Finance. “Marriage may be most important when there is that stress in life and when things are going wrong,” Mr. Grover said.这篇文章的作者是两名经济学家,分别是温哥华经济学院(Vancouver School of Economics)的约翰·赫利韦尔(John Helliwell)和加拿大财政部的肖恩·格罗弗(Shawn Grover)。他们认为,生活最困难的人从婚姻中的受益最大。“当生活中出现了压力,有了问题时,婚姻可能是最重要的,”格罗弗说。They analyzed data about well-being from two national surveys in the ed Kingdom and the Gallup World Poll. In all but a few parts of the world, even when controlling for people’s life satisfaction before marriage, being married made them happier. This conclusion, however, did not hold true in Latin America, South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.他们对英国的两项全国性调查,以及盖洛普全球民意调查(Gallup World Poll)中和幸福有关的数据进行了分析。全世界除少数几个地方外,即便将婚前的生活满意度作为控制变量,婚姻也会让人们更幸福。然而,这一结论对拉美、南亚和撒哈拉以南的非洲来说不成立。Intriguingly, marital happiness long outlasted the honeymoon period. Though some social scientists have argued that happiness levels are innate, so people return to their natural level of well-being after joyful or upsetting events, the researchers found that the benefits of marriage persist.有趣的是,婚姻带来的幸福远比蜜月期更长久。一些社会科学家称,幸福感是与生俱来的,因而在令人高兴或苦恼的事情过后,人们会回归天生的幸福感,但研究人员发现,婚姻带来的益处会持续下去。One reason for that might be the role of friendship within marriage. Those who consider their spouse or partner to be their best friend get about twice as much life satisfaction from marriage as others, the study found.原因之一或许是婚姻中的友谊所起的作用。研究发现,视配偶或伴侣为至交的人,从婚姻中获得的生活满足感大约是其他人的两倍。The effect of friendship seems to be the result of living with a romantic partner, rather than the legal status of being married, because it was as strong for people who lived together but weren’t married. Women benefit more from being married to their best friend than men do, though women are less likely to regard their spouse as their best friend.友谊的这种影响,似乎源自和一个浪漫的伴侣一起生活,而非法律上的已婚身份,因为它对那些未婚同居的人的影响同样大。和男性相比,女性从与至交结婚中受益更多,不过女性视配偶为至交的可能性更低。“What immediately intrigued me about the results was to rethink marriage as a whole,” Mr. Helliwell said. “Maybe what is really important is friendship, and to never forget that in the push and pull of daily life.”“相关结果立即引起我的兴趣,让我重新从整体上考虑婚姻,”赫利韦尔说。“或许真正重要的是友谊,并且永远不要在日常生活的波折起伏中忘了这一点。”Marriage has undergone a drastic shift in the last half century. In the past, as the Nobel-winning economist Gary Becker described, marriage was utilitarian: Women looked for a husband to make money and men looked for a woman to manage the household.过去半个世纪,婚姻经历了剧变。从前,就像获得了诺贝尔奖的经济学家加里·贝克尔(Gary Becker)所描述的那样,婚姻是功利的:女性为了找个丈夫挣钱,男性为了找个妻子持家。But in recent decades, the roles of men and women have become more similar. As a result, spouses have taken on roles as companions and confidants, particularly those who are financially stable, as the economists Betsey Stevenson and Justin Wolfers have discussed.但近几十年,男女的角色变得更加相似。结果,就像经济学家贝特西·史蒂文森(Betsey Stevenson)和贾斯汀·沃夫斯(Justin Wolfers)讨论的那样,配偶承担起了同伴和知己的角色,特别是那些经济状况稳定的人。The benefits of marital friendship are most vivid during middle age, when people tend to experience a dip in life satisfaction, largely because career and family demands apply the most stress then. Those who are married, the new paper found, have much shallower dips – even in regions where marriage does not have an overall positive effect.人到中年,往往会经历生活满意度的下降,主要是因为这时职业和家庭需求带来的压力是最大的。这个时候,婚姻中的友谊益处最为明显。新发表的这篇文章发现,即便是在婚姻总体上未产生积极影响的地区,已婚者生活满意度下降的幅度也要小得多。“The biggest benefits come in high-stress environments, and people who are married can handle midlife stress better than those who aren’t because they have a shared load and shared friendship,” Mr. Helliwell said.“最大的益处出现在高压环境中,和单身或离异者相比,已婚者能更好地应对中年压力,因为有人和他们一起承担压力,分享友谊,”赫利韦尔说。Overall, the research comes to a largely optimistic conclusion. People have the capacity to increase their happiness levels and avoid falling deep into midlife crisis by finding support in long-term relationships. Yet those relationships seem to be less achievable for the least advantaged members of society.总的来说,这项研究得出的结论基本上是乐观的。人们有能力通过在长期关系中找到持,来增强幸福感,避免深陷中年危机。但对最弱势的社会成员而言,形成这种关系的可能性似乎更小。 /201501/354737

Beef Sandwich牛肉三明治A man went into a deli shop and took a seat at the lunch counter.有一名男子走近一家熟食店,在吃午餐的柜台旁选了一个位置。;Give me corned beef sandwich,;he ordered.他点餐时说:“给我来个腌牛肉三明治。”;Corned beef sandwich is not on the ,but I can give you a sandwich with corned beef in it ,like our midnight Special.;;菜单上没有腌牛肉三 明治,但是我可以给你一个里面有腌牛肉的三明治,像是我们的午夜特餐。”;What#39;s a Midnight Special?;“午夜特餐是什么?”;A triple decker with corned beef,tongue,bologna,tomato,lettuce,onion,pockle and mayonnaise,on toasted raisin b.;“有三层,里面是腌牛肉、牛舌、熏香肠、蕃茄、莴苣、 洋葱、腌泡菜,还有美乃滋的三层烤葡萄干面包。…;Could you just place a piece of corned beef between two slices of white b and serve it to me on a plate?;;你可不可以在两片白面包中间只放一片腌牛肉,装在一个盘子上端给我吃?”;Why,sure!;Then,turning to the sandwich man ,“哦,当然可以。啦!”接着他就转向制作三明治的人,he sang out:;One Midnighet Special.Make it one deck,hold the tongue,bolgna,tomato,lettuce,onion,pickle and mayonnaise,and make the raisin b white,untoasted!;大声喊出:“一个午夜特餐。把它做一层就好,里面不要加牛着、熏香肠、蕃茄、莴苣、洋葱、腌泡菜和美乃滋,把葡萄干面包做成白面包,不要烤!” /201504/361486Dumplings are said to bring good fortune, and eating them is a time-honored traditional way to celebrate the Chinese New Year, which falls on Feb. 19 this year. So why not rally a few friends for a little homemade dumpling feast?据说饺子能带来好运,吃饺子是中国农历新年(今年是2月19日)的悠久传统。那么,何不约上三五好友,来个小小的家庭自制饺子宴呢?I’m not recommending an elaborate dim sum sp at home. That’s a daunting concept, unless you have a kitchen equipped with bamboo steamers and woks, and a small army of skilled cooks with cleavers.我不是要劝你在家做复杂的中式点心。那实在是令人望而却步的事情——除非你家里有蒸笼、炒锅,以及几位刀功了得的厨子。But good dumplings (or won tons) are well within a home cook’s reach and, frankly, are often better than what is served at restaurants.但是饺子(或馄饨)完全是能在家里自己搞定的,而且说实话,家里做的饺子往往比餐馆的还好吃。Don’t misunderstand — there are many fine Chinese restaurants serving impeccable delicate dumplings, the likes of which no amateur could reproduce. But we all know that sad, thick-doughed, stodgy, indifferent dumplings abound. Factory-made and frozen, they are cheap and filling. Dunking them in a spicy dipping sauce makes them edible, barely.不要误会:有很多优质中式餐馆供应无可挑剔的精致饺子,那是业余厨师难以超越的。但是我们都知道,到处都有那种难看、厚皮、硬实、难吃的饺子。它们是工厂加工的速冻饺子,很便宜,也能很快填饱肚子。要在辣蘸汁里蘸一下,才能勉强下咽。I’m here to tell you that it’s not that hard to make good ones, so don’t settle.我在这里想跟你说的是,做出好饺子并不是很难,所以没必要将就着吃速冻饺子。If you want to go all out, you can make your own dough — it’s a basic one, made with just flour and water, which you then form into little blobs and roll to a flat circle. But why complicate matters? Opt for store-bought wrappers, then be sure to have a delicious filling. I like a hand-chopped mixture of shrimp and scallops, seasoned simply with ginger, scallions, hot pepper and sesame oil. It takes no time to put together, and can even be prepared a day in advance.如果你想大干一场,可以自己做面团——这是包饺子必不可少的东西,它由面粉和水做成,然后你把它分成很多小团,擀成圆片。但是为什么要搞得那么复杂呢?还不如去商店买现成的饺子皮,然后确保你做的馅料美味就行了。我喜欢手剁的虾和扇贝混合馅料,只用简单地加入姜、葱、辣椒和芝麻油。这种馅料很快就能做好,甚至可以提前一天做好。Rope a friend into helping stuff and crimp the wrappers. It’s a surprisingly rapid business. I like to cook a dozen at a time, enough to give four diners a few dumplings to drizzle with a savory chile-spiked vinegar dressing.找一个朋友帮忙做馅料,包饺子。速度会快得出乎你的预料。我喜欢一次煮12个,够四个人每人吃上几个,上面洒一点美味的辣椒醋调味汁。The beauty of it all is this: Once the dumplings hit boiling water, you are a mere four minutes away from a bowlful of pleasure. Of course you’ll want more than one bowlful. Not a problem — simply repeat as necessary.这一切的迷人之处在于:把饺子放入沸水之后,你只用等四分钟就能享用一碗美味了。当然你可能还想多来几碗。没问题,重复上述过程就行了。INGREDIENTS配料:FOR THE DUMPLINGS:饺子配料:#8226; #189; pound sea scallops, roughly chopped0.5磅海扇贝,粗略切碎#8226; #189; pound shrimp, peeled, cleaned and roughly chopped0.5磅虾,去皮,洗净,粗略切碎#8226; 1 teaspoon kosher salt1茶匙粗盐#8226; #189; teaspoon coarsely ground black pepper0.5茶匙粗磨黑胡椒#8226; 1 tablespoon grated ginger1汤匙姜末#8226; #8531; cup chopped scallions1/3杯葱末#8226; 1 teaspoon toasted sesame oil1茶匙烤芝麻油#8226; #189; cup chopped cilantro, leaves and tender stems, plus a few sprigs for garnish1/2杯切碎的香菜(叶子和嫩茎),留几根梗装饰用#8226; 1 serrano chile, finely chopped1个墨西哥辣椒,切碎#8226; 40 round dumpling wrappers, 3 1/2-inch diameter40个圆饺子皮,直径3.5英寸FOR THE DIPPING SAUCE:蘸汁配料:#8226; #189; cup rice vinegar1/2杯米醋#8226; 1 teaspoon spicy sesame oil1茶匙辣芝麻油#8226; 2 scallions, thinly slivered2根大葱,切成小片 /201502/359180

THIS is arguably America’s greatest hiking trail, a 2,650-mile serpentine path running through desert and wilderness from the Mexican border to the Canadian border. The Pacific Crest Trail meanders through cactus and redwoods, challenging humans with rivers and snowfields, rattlesnakes and bears.这可以说是美国最重要的旅行步道:一条2650英里(约合4260公里)长的蜿蜒之路,穿越沙漠和荒野,从美国和墨西哥的边界延伸到与加拿大的边界。沿着太平洋屋脊步道(Pacific Crest Trail)行走,会途经仙人掌丛和红杉林,需跨越河流、雪地,还会碰到响尾蛇和熊。It’s a trail of extremes. Hiking it with my daughter near the Mexican border this month, we sweltered on our first day in soaring temperatures and a 20-mile dry section through the desert. Six days and a bit more than 150 miles later, near the town of Idyllwild, we shivered in 30-degree temperatures as the heavens dumped snow on us.这是一条充满极限挑战的路。这个月,我和女儿从美墨边境附近的路段开始徒步。第一天,我们走的是一段20英里长的干燥的沙漠地,气温不断飙升,感觉酷热难耐。花六天时间走了150多英里之后,我们到达靠近爱德怀镇的地方。天降大雪,我们又开始在华氏30度(约合摄氏零下1度)的低温下瑟瑟发抖。The trail is a triumph of serenity and solitude. Except that, these days, the solitude is getting crowded.这条路是属于宁静和孤独的,只不过,近段时间以来,那份孤独开始变得有些热闹。Apparently, in part because of the book and movie versions of “Wild,” about Cheryl Strayed’s journey of discovery and self-repair on her hike, some areas of the trail feel as busy as a scout jamboree.如今,这条步道的一些路段像童子军大联欢一样熙熙攘攘,显然部分原因在于,人们受到了《走出荒野》(Wild)这本书和据此改编的电影的影响。谢丽尔·史翠德(Cheryl Strayed)在其中讲述了自己在这条路上的发现之旅,以及她自我修复的过程。I’ve been backpacking the Pacific Crest Trail since I was a kid, inspired by the first person to complete a thru-hike from Canada to Mexico, Eric Ryback, who wrote a book published in 1971 about his feat. My 17-year-old daughter and I aim to eventually hike the full trail, section by section, in this narrow window in which she is strong enough and I’m not yet decrepit. Last year, we completed Oregon and Washington, and this month’s section took us through the southernmost part of California desert.还是个孩子的时候,我就开始在太平洋屋脊步道上背包旅行,当时是受到埃里克·里巴克(Eric Ryback)的启发。他是完成从加拿大到墨西哥的徒步穿越旅程的第一人,并且根据自己的经历写作了一本书,于1971年出版。我和17岁的女儿计划分段走完整条步道,趁着现在女儿已身强体健而我还没老去。去年,我们完成了位于俄勒冈州和华盛顿州的路段,这个月我们走完了加州荒漠最南端那部分。Fewer people have hiked the full Pacific Crest Trail than have reached the summit of Mount Everest. Yet, this year, so many want to hike it that a limit has been placed on permits so that no more than 50 thru-hikers can begin at the Mexican border each day.走完太平洋屋脊步道全程的人比登上珠穆朗玛峰的人还要少。但今年太多人想要穿越这条路,使得管理方不得不加以限制,每天只允许不超过50人从墨西哥边境出发。Another memoir may add to the mystique. In “Girl in the Woods,” scheduled for publication in September, with a possible television spinoff, Aspen Matis recounts how she was raped on the second day of college and then fled campus to seek healing on a Pacific Crest Trail thru-hike. She starved and suffered on the trail but also found redemption — and, yes, her future husband by the 2,000 mile mark.还有一本回忆录也会增加它的神秘性。在计划于今年9月出版的《林中女孩》(Girl in the Woods)一书里,阿斯彭·马蒂斯(Aspen Matis)讲述了自己的故事。此书还可能会改编成电视剧。她在上大学第二天遭到强奸,然后逃离校园去穿越太平洋屋脊步道寻求疗愈。旅行中,她忍受饥饿,经受磨难,但也获得了救赎。是的,她还在走到2000英里的时候找到了自己未来的丈夫。(I wonder if women don’t have the edge in trail memoirs. Male hikers project toughness, female hikers vulnerability. Ask a man resting on a trailside log how he’s doing, and he’ll boast of how many miles he has walked. Ask a woman, and she’ll confide about her blisters, mosquito bites and insecurities. That’s not universally true, as Bill Bryson can attest, but women seem more comfortable opening up about the woes that are inevitably much more interesting than the miles.)(我在想,女性在撰写旅行回忆录方面是否真的没有优势。男性徒步者通常会突显自己的强韧,而女性徒步者则喜欢强调自己的脆弱。问一个正在路边木头上休息的男性当下感觉如何,他会大谈特谈自己已经走了多长的路。问一个女徒步者,她会讲自己的水泡、蚊子叮咬的包和不安全感。尽管就像比尔·布来森(Bill Bryson)明的那样,事情并非绝对如此,不过女性似乎的确更愿意展露困难的一面,而这显然比讲走了多少英里更吸引人。)Most would-be thru-hikers will probably drop out — one woman gave up this year on the first day, after 13 miles — but hundreds are expected to walk every step of the way to Canada.大部分计划走完全程的人可能会中途退出——今年有一名女士刚走13英里就在启程的第一天放弃了——但预计有成百上千人会一步步抵达步道那一端的加拿大。Old hands fret that these neophytes don’t know what they’re doing (The Wall Street Journal ed one woman this month who had never spent a night outdoors until she began her “Wild”-inspired hike) and could endanger themselves. The trail begins at the Mexican border with a 20-mile dry stretch, and my daughter and I ran across five inexperienced men who had all separately run out of water on that stretch and become dehydrated.经验丰富的徒步者担心新手们对自己正在做的事认识不足(这个月,《华尔街日报》有篇文章引述了一名女士的例子。在受《走出荒野》启发开始徒步之旅以前,她没有任何夜间户外生存的经验),可能会让自己陷入危险的境地。这条步道在墨西哥边境的开头部分是一段20英里长的干燥地段。我和女儿那里曾先后遇到五个没有经验的徒步者,全都因用光了随身携带的饮品而进入脱水状态。Drought has also forced hikers to carry more water: The first eight creeks that we crossed were dry.干旱也迫使徒步旅行者随身携带更多水:我们在路上经过的头八条小溪都已干涸。We encountered another hazard in the form of a rattlesnake that my daughter almost stepped on. Yet, in the end, most hikers do just fine, apart from blisters and a few lost toenails, and it’s hard to begrudge anyone the chance for a bit of nature therapy in the Cathedral of Wilderness.我们遇到的另一个危险来自响尾蛇,我女儿就差点踩到一条。但是到最后,除了长点水泡和掉些脚趾甲,大部分徒步者都还好。而且,实在是很难剥夺人们在荒野圣殿里感受一点自然疗法的机会。It’s striking that hikers come to the trail for solitary reflection, yet often end up coalescing into groups — because we are social animals, and solitude is so much more fun when you have somebody to share it with.不同寻常的地方在于,那些前来徒步寻求孤独反思的人最后往往反倒融入了群体——因为我们是群居动物,而孤寂在有人分享时反倒显得有趣得多。There’s a hobo spirit on the trail, with no social distinctions and everybody helping everyone else. One example of this generosity is the work of “trail angels” who lug water, soda, hamburgers, cookies or other treats to places where a road intersects a trail, to delight exhausted backpackers. This is controversial, partly because animals also dine on treats that are left out, and it’s also not exactly wilderness when you come across a cooler with soda.行走在这条路上的人们有一种流浪者精神,他们相互之间没有社会地位差别,彼此帮助。这种慷慨的例之一是“徒步天使”的事迹。他们往徒步路线和普通道路的交叉口运送饮用水、汽水、汉堡、饼干和其他零食,提供给精疲力尽的背包客。这种行为存在争议,部分原因在于那里的动物也会享用剩下的食物,而且如果有机会在中途喝上冰冻汽水,这称不上为真正的野外徒步了。Still, all this generosity and mutual assistance is truly heartwarming. At about the 140-mile mark, my daughter and I came across a trail angel “library” — a glass-protected bookshelf of paperbacks for any hikers needing to weather out a snowstorm.不过,这种慷慨和互助的确很暖心。在步行到大约140英里的地方时,我和女儿遇到了一个徒步天使“图书馆”——一个由玻璃保护起来的书架,摆着平装书,提供给需要熬过暴风雪的徒步者。Professor Robert Putnam of Harvard may be right that an unfortunate fragmentation of society has left us Americans “bowling alone.” But, on the brighter side, we’re “hiking together”!哈佛教授罗伯特·帕特南(Robert Putnam)表达的观点可能是对的,社会分化非常不幸地让我们美国人陷入了“独自打保龄”的境地。然而幸运的是,我们还在“一起徒步”! /201506/382765When you go to bed, and how long you sleep at a time, might actually make it difficult for you to stop worrying. So say Jacob Nota and Meredith Coles of Binghamton University in the US, who found that people who sleep for shorter periods of time and go to bed very late at night are often overwhelmed with more negative thoughts than those who keep more regular sleeping hours.当你上床睡觉的时候,你一次睡眠的时间长短可能会对缓解你的忧虑有一定的作用。美国宾汉姆顿大学的Jacob Nota和Meredith Coles就如此认为,他们发现睡眠时间短和睡觉时间晚的人相比于平时睡眠时间充足的人更容易被负面情绪影响。The findings appear in Springer#39;s journal Cognitive Therapy and Research.普林格出版的《认知疗法与研究》杂志上发表了这一发现。People are said to have repetitive negative thinking when they have bothersome pessimistic thoughts that seem to repeat in their minds. They feel as though they have little control over these contemplations. They also tend to worry excessively about the future, delve too much into the past, and experience annoying intrusive thoughts. Such thoughts are often typical of people suffering from generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and social anxiety disorder. These individuals also tend to have sleep problems.据说在有让人讨厌的悲观想法不断地出现在心里的时候人们会产生一些连续的消极思想。他们觉得好像对于此类想法无能为力。而且他们倾向于极度担心未来,沉迷过去,并且胡思乱想。这些思想常常是患有焦虑,失落,受伤,强迫症,社会焦虑症的人的典型表现。这些人都倾向于有睡眠问题。Previous studies have linked sleep problems with such repetitive negative thoughts, especially in cases where someone does not get enough shut eye. Nota and Coles set out to replicate these studies, and to further see if there#39;s any link between having such repetitive thoughts and the actual time when someone goes to bed.早期研究表明睡眠质量和不断出现的消极情绪有一定关系,特别是在没有获得充足睡眠的情况下。Nota和Coles对这些实验做了重复性的研究,并且进一步研究了产生消极情绪和睡眠的确切时间是否有一定联系。They asked 100 young adults at Binghamton University to complete a battery of questionnaires and two computerized tasks. In the process, it was measured how much the students worry, ruminate or obsess about something -- three measures by which repetitive negative thinking is gauged. The students were also asked whether they were more habitual morning or evening types, preferring to hold regular hours or to have a sleep-wake schedule that is more skewed towards later in the day,Nota和Coles要求一百位在宾汉姆顿大学的成年人完成一份调查问卷和两个电脑测试。在此过程中,测量了学生们到底有多担心,忧虑或者困扰于某些事情——这是三种主要的反复出现的消极情绪。参与实验的学生被问了一些问题,像更习惯早起还是熬夜,是会倾向于坚持一个正常的作息时间还是会有一个睡眠的时间安排表——但是不一定遵守。The researchers found that people who sleep for shorter periods of time and go to bed later often experience more repetitive negative thoughts than others. This was also true for those students who described themselves as evening types.研究者发现睡眠时间短和喜欢熬夜的人相比其他人更容易经受消极情绪。对那些喜欢熬夜的学生来说也是如此。;Making sure that sleep is obtained during the right time of day may be an inexpensive and easily disseminable intervention for individuals who are bothered by intrusive thoughts,; remarks Nota.Nota提醒说,“对那些经常被消极思想困扰的人来说,确保该睡觉的时候睡觉应该是一种廉价和易得的方式。”The findings also suggest that sleep disruption may be linked to the development of repetitive negative thinking. Nota and Coles therefore believe that it might benefit people who are at risk of developing a disorder characterized by such intrusive thoughts to focus on getting enough sleep.这个发现还意味着,睡觉的时候被打扰可能也和消极情绪的产生有一定关系。因此,Nota和Coles相信对于因为消极情绪而处于混乱状态的人,充足的睡眠不失为一种有益的方法。;If further findings support the relation between sleep timing and repetitive negative thinking, this could one day lead to a new avenue for treatment of individuals with internalizing disorders,; adds Coles. ;Studying the relation between reductions in sleep duration and psychopathology has aly demonstrated that focusing on sleep in the clinic also leads to reductions in symptoms of psychopathology.;“如果将来的研究表明睡眠的时间和消极情绪的出现有联系,那么有一天可能会产生一种新的治疗人们情绪混乱的方法。”Coles补充说,“睡眠时间的减少和心理活动的关系的研究已经明在小屋里睡觉也能够减少心理活动。”This study is part of a line of research examining the relations between sleep behavior and mental health. Based on growing evidence linking sleep and psychopathology, Nota and Coles and their colleagues at Binghamton University are aiming to understand how information about sleep may be used to help individuals with anxiety disorders.这个研究只是睡眠行为和精神健康之间关系的一部分。基于睡眠和心理之间有联系的据的不断增加,Nota和Coles以及他们宾汉姆顿大学的同事致力于掌握如何运用有关睡眠的信息帮助情绪紊乱的人。 /201412/348041

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