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2018年04月22日 14:50:37来源:时空媒体

The fight against Zika just took a huge step forward.对抗寨卡病毒前进了一大步。The U.S. is enrolling volunteers for testing on an experimental vaccine. This is one of the first Zika vaccine to make it to broader human testing.美国正在招募志愿者进行实验性疫苗试验。这是首个寨卡疫苗进行更为广泛的人体试验。The first volunteer got a dose in Houston in late March. The next step is to test 90 adults with different doses to see which one works best.第一名志愿者三月下旬在休斯敦注射了一定剂量。接下来要对90名成年人进行不同剂量测试,看哪一个效果最好。After that, the researchers aim to test more than 2,000 volunteers from five at-risk countries: Brazil, Mexico, Panama, Costa Rica and Peru.在此之后,研究人员的目标是试验超过2,000名来自五个风险国家的志愿者,分别是巴西、墨西哥、巴拿马、哥斯达黎加和秘鲁。Traditionally, vaccines imitate an infection to train the body to fight against it. This one is slightly different.传统上,疫苗会模仿感染训练身体对抗它。这一个略有不同。Its called a DNA vaccine, and it carries genes from the actual virus that resemble Zika to trick the immune system into building up a defense.这就是所谓的DNA疫苗,它携带来自类似寨卡实际病毒的基因,欺骗免疫系统建立防御。Zikas status as a ;public health emergency; was lifted last year, but its still a big problem in the Americas. The virus can cause severe birth defects if a mother gets it when shes pregnant.去年取消了寨卡“突发公共卫生事件”的状态,但它仍然是美国的一个大问题。当母亲怀时,病毒会导致严重的出生缺陷。Still, the vaccine likely wont be widely available for a while.不过,这种疫苗可能暂时不会广泛使用。译文属。201704/502109。

  • Imagine you take two dogs and put them in two different areas...设想一下,把两只小放在两个不同的地方…You shock the first dog and you give him an option to escape.电击第一只小,让它可以选择逃跑。He tries to escape, hes successful, and he gets away from the shocks.它尝试并成功逃离了电击。The second dog however, you put in a place where no matter what he does, he cannot escape the shocks.然而第二只小,把它放在一个无论做什么都无法逃脱的地方。He soon figures out that theres nothing he can do, he gives up, and hell just sit there and accept the shocks.它很快就发现什么也做不了,于是放弃了,坐在那默默承受。Now you take these two dogs and put them in two new areas again, but this time they can both escape.现在把它们放在两个新地方,但这次它们都可以逃走。The first dog, who had learned that he was able to escape, will get out of there like usual.第一只已经学会逃跑的小,会像往常一样逃离那里。But the second dog will just lay there and accept the shocks, even though in this new environment he could just escape.但是第二只小就只会趴那继续承受,尽管这次它可以逃跑。This is what is known as learned helplessness, and you probably know people who act like the helpless dog.这就是习得无助,你可能知道有些人的行为很像那只无助的小。The opposite of this is learned optimism.与之相反的是习得乐观。Learned Optimism is basically the idea that you can learn to be optimistic, and positive, and happy.习得乐观基本的就是你可以学会乐观,积极和高兴。You can cultivate these things.你可以培养这些心态。And this is exactly what Seligman was trying to do, by running a workshop.塞利格曼通过运行工作组来尝试这种培养。The results of the workshop were promising...结果很有前景。Thirty-two percent of the students in the control group had a moderate to控制组中32%的学生有中度severe episode of depression in contrast to 22 percent of the group that was in the workshop.到重度的抑郁症状,对比来看,工作组中的比例占有22%。Also... 15 percent of the controls had an episode of generalized anxiety disorder而且…控制组中15%的学生有广泛性焦虑症的症状versus only 7 percent of people who took the workshop.工作组中的这部分比例只有7%。They also found that it was the change from pessimism to optimism that caused the prevention of depression and anxiety.他们还发现从悲观到乐观的转变,阻止了抑郁和焦虑的发展。And these studies are great, but even when I look at my own life, happiness, positivity, optimism...这些研究很棒,但即使当我审视自己生活的时候,高兴,积极,乐观…These are the things that Ive had to learn and that I have to keep cultivating.这些是我不得不学习并一直在培养的东西。When I was a kid, I hated my life. I was constantly depressed and anxious.当我还是个孩子的时候,我讨厌生活。一直很沮丧和焦虑。I had suicidal thoughts for the majority of my childhood.我童年的大部分时间里都有自杀的想法。But thats all gone now and my life just keeps getting better, but this is something that you need to put effort into.但现在那些都消失了,我的生活也越来越好,但是这是一件值得你为之努力的事情。This is something that can be learned. So now lets look at the benefits of optimism...这也是值得学习的。所以我们来看一下乐观的好处…Optimists on average achieve more, have better overall health, and just lead a more enjoyable life.通常来说乐观者会获得更多,身体更健康,生活更愉悦。Pessimists, on the other hand, are more likely to give up, are more likely to suffer from depression,另一方面,悲观者更有可能放弃,也更容易沮丧,and just lead a not really enjoyable life.所以生活也不是那么愉悦。And the big difference between pessimists and optimists悲观者和乐观者的最大差距comes from their explanatory styles about whether things are permanent, pervasive, and personal...在于他们对于事物永久性,普遍性以及个体性的归因方式…So lets say you walk up to a girl, and you just get humiliated and rejected...比如你靠近一个女孩,受到了羞辱还被拒绝了…If youre a pessimist youll think that its permanent: Ill never be able to attract a girl.如果你是个悲观者,你就会认为那是永久的:我从来都不能吸引女生。If youre an optimist, youll think that it isnt permanent: There are going to be plenty of girls who like me.如果你是个乐观者,你会想那不是永久的:以后会有很多女生喜欢我的。If youre a pessimist youll think that its pervasive: Im just not an interesting person.如果你是个悲观者,你会认为那是个普遍现象:我是个很无聊的人。If youre an optimist, youll think that it isnt pervasive:如果你是个乐观者,你会想那不是普遍的:It was just one isolated situation. It doesnt mean that Im not interesting.只是个例罢了。并不意味着我很无趣。If youre a pessimist youll think that its personal: Im ugly. Of course shes going to humiliate me.如果你是个悲观者,你会认为那是个人原因:我很丑。她当然会羞辱我。If youre an optimist, youll think that it isnt personal: Well, she might have been in a bad mood...如果你是个乐观者,你会觉得那不是个人原因:可能是她的心情不好…And Ive seen this so many times. If you have a pessimistic explanatory style, youre going to have your soul crushed.我见过很多次这种情况。如果你用悲观的归因方式,你的灵魂会受到创伤。Every single friend Ive had who was good with women always had an optimistic explanatory style.我认识的每一个和女性相处很好的朋友都具有乐观的归因方式。So optimism is much more helpful to you than pessimism but you also NEED BALANCE,所以乐观主义比悲观主义对你的帮助要大,但是你也需要平衡二者,Just like with everything else, YOU NEED BALANCE…和其他事物一样,你需要平衡…Otherwise, you can get really delusional and actually end up hurting yourself.否则,你会变得妄想,而且会伤害到自己。Imagine if you have a really bad business idea and youre just a naive optimist…想象一下如果你有一个非常差劲的生意点子,你只是一个幼稚的乐观主义者…The business isnt going anywhere and you say, ;Well, this isnt permanent...;生意发展并不好,你说,“这种情况不会持续很久的…”And you keep wasting resources on a stupid idea.然后你继续在这个糟糕的点子上浪费资源。Youve put in six months aly and it hasnt gone anywhere and you say,你已经投入了六个月的时间,依然没有进展,你说,;Well, its just this part of the project thats slow, but the project as a whole is amazing.;“嗯,只是项目的这一部分进展比较慢,但是从整体上来看这个项目还是不错的。”Or you try to get support and no one wants to go along with your terrible idea and you say,或者是,你想获得持,但没人愿意附和你那个糟糕的想法,你会说,;Well, they were probably just in a bad mood today.;“可能他们只是今天心情不好吧。”I dont know if I would call this person an optimist or just an idiot.我真不知道是应该把他称之为乐观主义者呢,还是笨蛋。The biggest problem with optimism is when its not balanced,乐观主义最大的问题就是在它没有得到平衡的时候,because you might end up not taking responsibility when you need to.因为你可能最终没有承担应有的责任。So I would absolutely recommend being optimistic but at the same time balancing it out with pessimism,所以我肯定还是建议要保持乐观理念,但是同时要维护好它和悲观主义的平衡,or not even pessimism in my opinion, but just simply realism.或者是在我看来不叫悲观主义,可以简单理解为现实主义。201706/515716。
  • Without water, there can be no life,没有水就没有生命but its distribution over the land is far from even.不过,水在陆地上的分配极不平均Deserts cover one third of the lands surface and theyre growing bigger every year.沙漠覆盖了地球表面的1/3,而且面积每年都在增大This is the Kalahari Desert in Southern Africa.这里是南部非洲的卡拉哈里沙漠Its the dry season and thousands of elephants have started to travel in desperate search for water.现在是旱季,数千头大象开始长途跋涉,不顾一切地寻找水源All across Southern Africa animals are journeying for the same reason.所有横穿南部非洲的野生动物都怀有同样的目的Buffalo join the great trek.非洲水牛也加入了这浩大的队伍Nowhere else on Earth are so many animals on the move with the same urgent purpose.如此之多的动物出于同一个紧急目的而进行大规模迁徙,这在地球上其它地方可看不到Theyre all heading for the swamps of the Okavango, a vast inland delta.它们的目的地是奥卡万戈大沼泽,一片巨大的内陆三角洲At the moment it is dry, but water is coming.这时它仍处于旱季,可是水马上就要来了。The travellers are hampered by dangerous dust storms.肆虐的沙尘暴困住了这群迁徙的动物。201702/490412。
  • UNICEF warns 75,000 kids in Nigeria could die from hunger if they dont get proper aid within a year. 联合国儿童基金会警告称,如果一年内没有获得适当的援助,尼日利亚的75,000个孩子可能会死于饥饿。And its because the terrorist group Boko Harams attacks that are cutting off aid. All over Nigeria, people are starving. 这是因为恐怖组织科圣地的攻击正在切断援助。尼日利亚的人们都在挨饿。In Northern Nigeria, there are seven times as many people cut off from aid as in Aleppo, Syria. 在尼日利亚北部,相比于叙利亚阿勒颇,有七倍多人的援助被中断。My wife died. We just lost a baby three days ago that my brothers wife gave birth to. My brother is dead; my father died not too long ago. 我的妻子死了。刚在三天前,我们失去了一个婴儿,是我兄弟的妻子生下的。我的兄弟死了,我的父亲不久前也去世了。Aid groups are trying to offer food, but theres not enough to go around. 援助组织正试图提供食物,但是食物远远不够。One of the biggest issues? A lot of people outside of the country have simply stopped paying attention. 最大的问题之一?外界的许多人都已经停止对其关注。译文属。201610/473018。
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