原标题: 重庆涪陵中心医院妇科医生咨询
Hello.大家好My name is Stephen Hawking.我是斯蒂芬·霍金Physicist, cosmologist,物理学家,宇宙学家and something of a dreamer.有时也是一个梦想家Although I cannot move and I have to speak through a computer.尽管我行动不便,说话要借助电脑In my mind, I am free.但在精神世界中,我是自由的Free to explore the universe自由地去探索宇宙and ask the big questions.探究深奥的问题Such as is time travel possible?比如,时间旅行可能吗Can we open a portal to the past?我们能打开通往过去之门吗Or find a shortcut to the future?或者找到通往未来的捷径Can we ultimately use the laws of nature我们最终能利用to become masters of time itself?自然规律操纵时间吗Check it out.一起去探索吧 Article/201506/383312Ice has bulldozed and carved the world we know on a colossal scale.冰用巨大的规模来推平和雕刻世界But what is it that gives something as brittle as ice在地球上能找到像冰一样易碎supremacy over the hardest and most resilient rocks却能比最硬的石头to be found on the planet?还坚固的东西么?To find out, you need to see inside a glacier.若要找出,你需要看到冰川的内部The Svartisen Glacier in Norway is one of the few places on Earth斯瓦迪森冰川坐落在挪威的北极圏where ice can really be seen in action.这里你能看到冰在运动It#39;s thanks to this glacier that scientists are starting to understand感谢这个冰川让我们揭开the secrets of ice#39;s great power.冰伟大力量的神秘Deep beneath the glacier, in a chamber at the end,在隧道尽头的房间里scientists come face to face with ice.科学家们能与冰层亲密接触了Then it#39;s two days of of hard work using hot water花了两天的时间喷洒热水to melt a cave big enough to get inside the glacier and see it in all its glory.大小足够人们进入 用来仔细观察它的光辉Here#39;s the ice tunnel. Watch your head!这里就是冰层隧道,注意头顶!Miriam Jackson#39;s a glaciologist.米里亚姆杰克逊是一位地理学家She spends up to three weeks at a time down here.她在这底下一次都要待上整整三个礼拜Look at that!It#39;s beautiful! -It#39;s amazing, isn#39;t it?看啊!太漂亮了!-不可思议,对吧?It#39;s absolutely beautiful.简直太漂亮了This is like a piece of art. It is, isn#39;t it?就像是一件艺术品是吧?Wow!You#39;ve got to remember there#39;s 200 metres of ice over us now.哇喔!米里亚姆·杰克逊士挪威水资源和能源士你要知道我们头顶上的冰层有两百米厚200 metres?JACKSON: Yes, we#39;re at the bottom of the glacier and the ice is over us.两百米?是的,我们正处于冰河的底下冰层就在我们头上-It#39;s also closing in on us. -As we speak, it#39;s contracting in?-而冰层正在靠近我们-靠近?这里的空间在缩小?Yeah. We couldn#39;t stand here for 48 hours,是的,这里不能待超过48小时the ice would close in on us.冰将把我们关在这里We#39;d be stuck fossilised in the ice, like a big ice cube.我们会变成冰化石就像一个大的冰立方 Article/201510/404020

栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghai#39;s English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。 Article/201612/481061

在LIFT 2007的演讲中,苏伽特·米特拉介绍了他的“墙中洞”项目(Hole in the Wall)。在该项目中,儿童能够揣如何使用个人电脑,并且将方法教给其他儿童。米特拉问道,儿童还能教会自己什么呢? Article/201410/331714Oral cancers are the 7th most common types of cancer口腔癌是世界上第七种最常见的癌症类型that occur world wide. The majority are oral squema最主要的是口腔squema细胞癌cell carcinomas, they consist of cancers that form它们以口腔或者咽腔组织in the tissues of the oral cavity or the oral pharynx,的形式形成癌症this includes the lips, tongue, cheek linings, hard这包括嘴唇,舌头,面颊内部and soft palettes, salivary glands, gums and throat.软腭和硬腭,唾液腺,牙龈和喉咙75 to 80% of oral cancers are related to tobacco75%到80%的口腔癌都和滥用烟酒有关and alcohol use. The remaining oral cancers剩下的不是由烟酒not caused by tobacco or alcohol are typically引起的口腔癌通常是由caused by plaque surrounding the teeth and gums.牙齿和牙龈周围的噬菌斑引起的There are many different risk factors for oral cancer;口腔癌有很多不同的风险因素African American males suffer the higher incidence and非裔美国男人是所有人里面发病率最高lowest survival rates among any group. The use of存活率最低的群体tobacco products greatly increases the risk of oral吸食香烟和酗酒cancer as well as heavy alcohol use. When both are极大地增加了患口腔癌的风险used simultaneously the risk is 15 times higher.当两者同时使用患(口腔癌)的风险高出15倍Similarly with other cancers, risk increases with age.与其他癌症相似,这种风险随年龄递增Gender plays a role in oral cancer as well,性别也起着同样重要的作用specifically, men over the age of 40 have a 3 times特别是那些40岁以上的男人被诊断出higher risk of being diagnosed than women. There are患口腔癌的几率比同龄妇女高出3倍many different signs and symptoms to look for during我们在调查期间寻找到许多不同的标志和症状detection. Some of the main ones include sores, lumps那些主要症状包括口腔疼痛or ulcers in the mouth, pale or discolored tongue,肿块和溃疡,舌头或者嘴唇及嘴巴周围发白lips or area around the mouth, painful chewing or脱色,咀嚼下咽疼痛并且颈部出现淋巴结肿大swallowing and swollen lymph nodes in the neck. Many许多人感觉到了嘴巴疼times people will notice a sore mouth but will usually但是他们并没有not take it too seriously and just wait for it to把这当回事go away. During this period of waiting the cancer may就等着让它自己变好be metastasizing or sping. Oral cancer cells can在这期间,癌症将会很快转移和扩散sp quickly to surrounding cells; they enter blood口腔癌细胞会快速地向周细胞扩散vessels or lymph vessels which branch into all tissues它们通过进入在身体内由血管和淋巴管of the body. The cancer cells often appear first in各个分组成的组织the nearby lymph nodes in the neck; cancerous cells这些癌细胞通常首次出现在脖子的淋巴结附近may attach to other tissues and grow to form new癌细胞可能依附其他的组织并生长成新肿瘤tumors that may damage those tissues as well. For这同样会损害那些组织example; if oral cancer sps to the lungs it is not例如,如果口腔癌扩散到肺部treated as oral cancer, it is simply referred to as a就不能当成口腔癌治疗metastatic oral cancer and is treated as oral cancer.它仅仅被称作转移性口腔癌并被当作口腔癌Diagnosis of oral cancers is difficult. Regular dental口腔癌的诊断很困难or doctor examinations usually discover many oral定期牙科或常规体检通常会发现许多cancers. Some of the tests used to confirm the口腔癌病人,一些测试常用来实这种诊断diagnosis include a gum or tongue biopsy as well as包括牙龈,舌头的检查以及x-rays, CT scans, MRI or PET scans to determine if the使用X光 CT MRI或PET扫描等cancer has sp. Whether the cancer is an early设备判断口腔癌是否扩散cancer or advanced cancer depends on the stage.是早期癌症还是晚期癌症取决于阶段Early cancers are either stage 1 or 2 and usually早期癌症要么是第一阶段要么是第二阶段consist of a small tumor, smaller than a walnut.由一些小肿块构成,体积比胡桃还小Also no cancer cells are found in the lymph nodes.然而淋巴结里没有癌细胞Advanced cancers have reached stage 3 or 4 and are晚期癌症已经到达第三或第四阶段usually a large tumor, as big as a lime. The cancer由如酸橙一般的大肿块构成may have invaded nearby tissues, sp to lymph nodes并且癌细胞可能已经侵入了附近的组织or sp to other parts of the body. After the扩散到了淋巴结或身体的其他部位diagnosis is made a treatment plan can be made.随后,治疗方案随着诊断的实而落实 Article/201501/353975

The educated materials presented here were developed这里展示的教学材料by students and faculty of由爱荷华州立大学食品科学the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition及人类营养学系的at Iowa State University.师生完成Funding for this project was provided by grants from此项目由the American Cancer Society美国癌症协会Midwest and the Lance Armstrong Foundation.中西部和兰斯阿姆斯特朗基金会赞助持The materials are intended for educational use此材料仅作教学使用and are not meant to provide medical advice.而非医疗咨询We welcome your feedback about these materials.我们希望收到你对于这些材料的反馈Please use the evaluation survey link on the homepage请通过首页上的评估调查链接to provide your comments and suggestions.给我们提供评价和建议As we get started examining this topic在我们开始研究这个话题之际here#39;s a question for you to think about.请你们思考一个问题How much tea do you consume daily?你们每天喝多少茶?Why do you drink tea?你们为什么喝茶?All tea comes from the plant Camellia sinensis.所有的茶都来在于野茶树这种植物The types of tea that can be found are已发现的茶的种类有white, green, oolong, and black.白茶,绿茶,乌龙以及红茶All the teas from the grocery store食品杂货店里所有的茶are derived from these types and flavor is added.都是这几种,并添加了口味The type of tea is determined茶的种类by when the tea is harvested由茶叶的收获季节or the time the tea is picked.或采摘时间决定The amount of oxidation that occurs also plays a role.茶叶的氧化程度也是其中一个因素Oxidation occurs when the picked leaves当采摘下来的叶子暴露在空气中时are exposed to the air.它就会开始被氧化The leaves then react with the oxygen in the air叶子与空气中的氧气反应and start to turn brown. This is similar to开始变成褐色,这类似于what happens when leaves fall from a tree.叶子从树上落下时发生的变化Another determining factor of the type of tea另一个决定茶叶类别的因素is the processing that it goes through. Tea is grown in是茶的处理过程,茶叶的产地有China, India, Japan, Sri Lanka, and Taiwan.中国,印度,日本,斯里兰卡以及台湾White tea is picked before leaf buds fully open白茶是在叶芽完全张开之前and are still covered with fine silky hairs.表面依然长着柔滑细毛的时候采摘的The white tea leave buds are air dried白茶的叶芽在空气中晾干preserving more of its antioxidant properties.其含有的抗氧化成分很大程度被保留了下来White tea is said to have three times据说白茶含有的more antioxidants than green tea.抗氧化成分比绿茶的多三倍Green tea is tea leaves that绿茶是have undergone minimal oxidation during processing.在加工过程中氧化程度最低的茶叶Oxidation is a chemical reaction that takes place氧化是一种在茶叶被采摘后when tea leaves are picked and begin to wither and die.并开始枯萎凋零时发生的化学反应After tea leaves are picked茶叶采摘后they are left in a climate controlled room会被放置在一间环境可控的屋子里where they turn darker as time progresses.并且随着时间的推移颜色逐渐变暗This is due to the enzymatic breakdown of chlorophyll.这是由于叶绿素在酶的作用下被降解了Green tea is only 5 to 40% oxidized.绿茶的氧化程度只有5%到40%It is heated immediately through steam一旦到了那个氧化程度,它会立刻被放在蒸汽or dry cooking pans once it reaches that level.或者干炒平底锅里加热It is usually processed within 1 to 2 days of harvesting.并通常在采摘后的一到两天内进行处理Oolong tea is oxidized between green tea and black tea.乌龙茶的氧化程度介于绿茶和红茶之间It is oxidized for 2 to 3 days before being processed.在处理前,会对它进行两到三天的氧化Black tea is formed当茶叶完全氧化时when the leaves are allowed to completely oxidize.就成了红茶This creates the deep rich flavor.这能产生一种浓重的口味They are oxidized between 2 weeks and 1 month.它们要氧化两周到一个月的时间Again the composition of tea is affected by总而言之,茶叶的成分会受growing season, strain or variety,生长季节,品种或类别storage and brewing conditions.贮存及煮制条件的影响Herbal teas such as chamomile, ginger tea像野菊花,姜茶或薄荷茶这样的草药茶or peppermint are really not tea at all.实际上根本不是茶This is because herbal tea is not made这是因为草药茶不是from Camellia sinensis. It is made from seeds, roots, flowers,从野茶树上采摘得来,而是用植物和草药的种子,根,花or other parts of plants and herbs.或者其他部位制成的As a result herbal teas are nearly always caffeine free.因而草药茶一般几乎不含咖啡因 Article/201506/381764This Christian holiday and festival is known as Pasca in non-English-speaking countries. Welcome to WatchMojo.com, and today we#39;ll be learning more about Easter.这个基督教节日及节庆在非英语系国家以Pasca着称。欢迎收看WatchMojo.com,今天我们会学到更多关于复活节的事。I#39;ll show you how we color eggs.我会示范给你看我们怎么绘蛋。You get the eggs y, and I#39;ll mix up all the colors.你把蛋准备好,我会把颜色全都调好。Easter is a religious holiday celebrated by Christians to remember the resurrection of Jesus Christ.复活节是由基督徒庆祝以纪念耶稣复活的宗教节日。As written in the New Testament of the Bible, Christians believe Jesus was betrayed by His disciple Judas shortly after the Last Supper. Because of this, He was arrested by Temple Guards in the Garden of Gethsemane, and crucified by Pontius Pilate over accusations that He claimed to be the Son of God. The day of His crucifixion is commemorated by Christians as a holiday called Good Friday.如同新约圣经里所记载的,基督徒相信耶稣在最后的晚餐不久后被他的门徒犹大背叛。因此,他在客西马尼园被神殿卫兵逮捕,且因为他声称是上帝之子的指控而被彼拉多钉上十字架。他被钉在十字架上处死的那一天,被基督徒当做一个称为耶稣受难日的节日来纪念。After His death, Jesus#39;s body was wrapped and laid to rest in a tomb by Joseph of Arimathea. His subsequent resurrection is revealed two days later when female visitors discover His empty tomb. It is His rising from the dead that is celebrated as Easter.在他的死亡后,耶稣的躯体被包裹起来,并由亚利马太的约瑟放进一座墓里安息。他接下来的复活是在两天之后,当女性访客发现他空空荡荡的墓时被揭露的。正是他的死而复生被当作复活节来庆祝。Since Easter falls on the first Sunday following the first full moon after the spring equinox,it takes place between March 22 and April 25 in Western Christianity. As Jesus#39;s resurrection proved to Christians He was truly God#39;s son and that, with faith, they too will be given new life,it is one of the cornerstones of the religion.因为复活节落在春分之后的第一次月圆后的第一个周日,所以在西方基督教中它在3月22日至4月25日间举行。因为耶稣的复活向基督徒明了他确实是上帝之子,且有着信念,他们也将会被给予新的生命,所以这是这宗教的基石之一。Preceding Easter Sunday is Holy Saturday, which is the last day of what is known as Holy Week. Holy Saturday marks the end of a time of fasting, self-denial, and repentance of sins called Lent. It also symbolizes the period between Jesus#39;s death and His resurrection.在复活节周日前是圣周六,那是以圣周着称的日子里最后一天。圣周六标记了斋戒、自我否定、叫做大斋节的罪过悔改这段时光的结束。它同样也象征了耶稣的死亡及他的复活间那段时期。The first celebration at Jesus#39;s resurrection by many traditional churches is the Easter or Paschal Vigil. This important service and Mass is usually held at midnight between Holy Saturday and Easter Sunday, and includes the blessing of the Paschal candle, the celebration of the sacrament of Baptism, the chanting of Alleluia, and the Eucharist for Catholics.许多传统教堂第一个庆祝耶稣复活的活动是复活节或是守夜礼。这个重要的仪式及弥撒通常举办在圣周六及复活节周日之间,且包括了复活蜡烛祝福、受洗圣礼、圣歌咏唱、以及给天主教的圣餐。Easter is often celebrated by believers with a feast featuring blessed food, such as lamb, eggs, and ham.复活节通常让信奉者以一顿以祝福食物为特色的大餐来庆祝,像是羊肉、鸡蛋、以及火腿。Despite its holy significance to Christians, Easter has become quite commercialized. In the 1200s, people started painting hard-boiled eggs, with the egg representing Jesus#39;s empty tomb. Today, these decorated eggs are sometimes used in Easter egg hunts, though man-made, chocolate eggs are used as well. Every year, the President of the ed States invites young children to participate in The White House Easter Egg Roll.不论它对于基督徒的神圣意义,复活节已变得颇商业化的。在1200年间,人们开始绘水煮蛋,那蛋代表耶稣空荡荡的墓。今日,这些装饰蛋有时被用在复活节寻蛋活动,虽然是人造的,也会使用巧克力蛋。每一年,美国总统邀请年幼的孩子参加白宫复活节滚蛋大赛。It is believed the rabbits were first linked to Easter by European Protestant in the 1600s.This idea has evolved into the figure of the basket-carrying Easter Bunny, who distributes Easter eggs and candies to children.据信兔子是在1600年代由欧洲新教徒首先连结到复活节的。这个点子已演变成提着篮子的复活节兔这角色,牠分送复活节蛋及糖果给孩子们。Despite its importance in Western and Eastern Christianity, Easter is not celebrated by all Christian groups. Some believe there is no biblical basis for the moveable feast. Since Easter Sunday is not necessarily a public holiday in all Christian nations, Easter Monday is sometimes celebrated as one instead.即便它在西方及东方基督教中的重要性,并不是全部的基督教团体都庆祝复活节。有些人相信这个不固定日期的节日并没有圣经依据。因为复活节周日并不一定在所有基督教国家中都是国定假日,复活节周一有时被作为替代来庆祝。The 50 days following Easter are known as Eastertide or the Easter Season, which celebrates Jesus#39;s new life after His resurrection, including His Ascension into heaven. For some Easter cooking ideas, or for more great historical s, be sure to subscribe to WatchMojo.com.复活节接下来的五十天以Eastertide或是复活季为人所知,那庆祝耶稣在他复活之后的新生命,包括他的升天。想要一些复活节的烹饪点子,或是更多很棒的历史影片,一定要订阅WatchMojo.com。It#39;s Easter, and they aly have the Christmas decorations up.才复活节,他们已经把圣诞装饰摆上了。Good grief!我的天啊! Article/201501/352444

In Rome at this time Christianity became the state religion, and almost contemporaneously, in Iran, the Sasanian Dynasty built a highly centralised state, in which secular and religious authority were bound together. At its height, this Iranian empire stretched from the Euphrates to the Indus-in modern terms, from Syria to Pakistan. And for several centuries it was the equal, and the rival, of Rome, in the long struggle to control the Middle East.当时,基督教刚成为罗马国教。而在伊朗,萨珊王朝几乎在同一时期建立起了高度中央集权、政教合一的国家。伊朗帝国的领土从幼发拉底河一直延伸到印度河流域,用现代地理概念来说,便是从叙利亚一直到巴基斯坦。在数个世纪的时间里,它的实力与罗马相当,是与罗马争夺中东控制权的强有力的对手。The Sasanian king out hunting on this programme#39;s silver dish is Shapur II, who ruled with resounding success for 70 years, from 309 to 379. It#39;s a shallow silver dish, I suppose it#39;s about the size and the shape of a small Frisbee, but it#39;s made of very high quality silver, and as you move it around you can see that it#39;s got highlights in gold. The King sits confidently astride his mount, and on his head he wears a very large crown, with what looks like a winged globe on the top of it. Behind him, ribbons flutter over the silver, giving an impression of movement. Everything about his dress is rich-pendant earrings, long-sleeved tunic with carefully embroidered shoulder pads, highly decorated trousers and ribboned shoes. What we#39;re looking at is an elaborate, carefully worked out ceremonial image of wealth and power.银盘上狩猎的萨珊国王是沙普尔二世, 他在位时间为公元309年至公元379年,他成功地统治伊朗长达70年之久。这是一个浅底银盘,大小与形状都类似小号飞盘。它用上好的白银制成,一经转动还会发现它曾用黄金点缀。国王镇定地跨坐在坐骑上,头顶巨大的王冠,冠顶的装饰就像一个带翅膀的地球仪,绶带飘扬在身后,表现出动感。他的衣饰极为奢华:垂坠的长耳环,带精美垫肩的长袖束 腰外衣,装饰华美的长裤以及带缎带的鞋子。一副精心塑造的表现财富与权力的仪式性形象。 Article/201505/373589We waste more water and use more chemicals in our bathrooms than any other place in the house! Here’s how to green yours up.比起家中任何地方,我们在浴室里浪费的水和使用的化学物质都更多!下面是让浴室更加绿色环保的方法。You Will Need你需要Fluorescent light bulbs荧光灯泡Plants植物Low-flow showerhead低流量花洒Food coloring食用色素Natural personal care products天然个人护理产品Low-flow toilet低流量马桶Vinegar醋Baking soda苏打粉Steps步骤STEP 1 Switch your lights1.更换灯泡Swap your regular light bulbs for compact fluorescent lights. Not only do they use up to 90% less energy, they also last up to 10 times longer than incandescent bulbs.把常规灯泡换成紧凑型荧光灯。这种灯泡不仅可以节能90%,使用寿命也比白炽灯多十倍。STEP 2 Get a plant2.放置植物Get a plant. They don’t just look nice; according to a study by NASA, they actually clean the air of toxins like acetone and formaldehyde. And they reduce humidity, so you’ll have less mold and mildew.放置一盆植物,不仅更加美观,根据NASA一项研究,还可以净化空气中的毒素,比如丙酮和甲醛。植物还可以降低湿度,从而减少霉菌和真菌。The best plants to rid the air of chemicals include spider plants, rubber tree plants, English ivy, Boston ferns, peace lilies, and any kind of palm.消除空气中化学物质的最好的植物包括吊兰,橡胶树,英国常春藤,波士顿蕨,和平百合,以及任何一种棕榈树。STEP 3 Replace your showerhead3.替换花洒Replace your showerhead. A typical showerhead drops about seven gallons of water every minute, while a low-flow one only gives off about half that.替换花洒。普通花洒每分钟洒落7加仑水,而低流量的花洒水流量只有一半。STEP 4 Check your toilet4.检查马桶A single leaky toilet can waste up to 100 gallons of water a day! To see if yours is leaking, put a few drops of food coloring into the tank, wait 20 minutes, then check if the water in the bowl has changed color.一个易漏水的马桶每天浪费100加仑水!如果要检查自己的马桶是否漏水,向马桶水箱中加入食用色素,等20分钟,然后查看水是否变色。STEP 5 Use natural products5.使用天然产品Use only all natural shampoos, soaps, and conditioners. Not only do they reduce the amount of toxic chemicals that get into your body, they prevent those chemicals from going down the drain and into the groundwater.只用纯天然的洗发水,香皂和和护发素。不仅可以减少身体吸收的有毒化学物质,还可以防止这些化学物质进入下水道,渗入地下水。STEP 6 Swap your toilet6.更换马桶Replace your existing toilet with a low-flow model. While regular toilets can use as much as five to seven gallons of water per flush, new models use less than two.把现在的马桶换成低流量马桶。普通马桶每次冲水使用5至7加仑的水,而新型马桶用水量低于2加仑。Some cities give partial rebates for buying a low-flow toilet.一些城市为购买低流量马桶提供部分退税。STEP 7 Clean the natural way7.天然方法清洁Instead of using toxic cleaners, make your own. White vinegar fights germs, soap scum, mold, mildew, and mineral deposits, while two parts baking soda and one part hot water is great for cleaning tile and grout. Now you’ve created a green sanctuary…不要使用有毒的清洁剂,自己制作。白醋可以消除细菌,肥皂斑,霉菌,真菌和矿物质残留。两份苏打粉和一份热水混合可用于清洁瓷砖和地板。现在,你已经打造出绿色环保的圣所!Low-flow toilets save Americans .3 million every day on their water bills!低流量马桶每天为美国人节约1130万美元的水费! Article/201501/356659You may have heard the saying ;the early bird gets the worm;,but when it comes to humans,do morning people really have an advantage over right owls?Does one come out on top as more intelligent or successful than the other in this battle over bed time? The somewhat surprising truth is that we have little say in sleep preference as it#39;s almost entirely genetically pre-determined.你可能听过“早起的鸟儿有虫吃”,而至于人类,起早的真比夜猫子好吗?就起床时间而言,一 类人真的会比另一类更成功吗?说实话,睡 眠倾向方面我们没啥好说的,因为这大多是由基因决定的。Chances are,if you#39;re a night owl,it was likely passed down from an ancestor who was also a night owl.And from an evolutionary perspective.it makes sense;having individuals with varying sleeping patterns would allow for better protection of a group throughout day and right.Instead of everybody sleeping at one time,some people naturally stay up later,and some wake up earlier,aware of threats or predators while other sleep.很可能一只夜猫子,只是另一只夜猫子的后代而已。从进化的角度而言,这也不无道理;人群睡眠规律不同,有 助于更好地全天候保护这个群体。并非所有人都会同时入睡,一 些人熬得晚些,一些人醒得早,并 在他人睡觉时留心威胁和捕食者。But considering most modern societal activities happen between 9am-5pm,it may seem clear that night owls are put at a disadvantage.And researchers have actually coined the term ;social jet lag;to describe the sleep deprivation many experience to accommodate social norms.不过,介于大多现代社会活动都在上午9点到下午5点间,显然,夜猫子们略逊一筹。研究者们借“社交时差”一词,来描述人们为适应社会规范而产生的睡眠缺乏。For night owls,this social jet lag feels like living in a different time zone every single day.Considering chronic sleep deprivation has a direct effect on brain functioning,it#39;s no surprise that studies report night owl university students have lower overall grades.夜猫子们的“社交时差”就象每天住在一个不同的时区。慢性睡眠剥夺对大脑也有直接影响,无怪有研究表明,大 学夜猫子们的绩点更低。Not to mention early birds tend to display more positive social traits such as being proactive and optimistic,and are less prone to depression or addictions to nicotine,alcohol and food.And we can see these traits represented physically in the brain,particularly the white matter which helps neurons communicate.Night owls exhibit significantly less white matter and,as a result,there are fewer pathways for feel good hormones such as serotonin or dopamine to travel through.更不用说早起的人积极社交特征更多,比如,更积极,更乐观,不易焦虑,或是沉迷于纳尼克丁,酒 精或食物。这些特征在大脑内也有体现,在促进神经交流的白质中尤为明显。夜猫子的白质要少得多,因此,感 觉好好荷尔蒙,如 血清素和多巴胺,可 穿行的通路更少。But it#39;s not all bad for the late nighters.In fact,they tend to be much more creative,have been found to have higher cognitive abilities.and are known to be risk takers.What they lack in white matter,they make up in cortisol levels.不过,夜猫子们也并非罪该万死。其实,他们更有创造力,认知能力更强,更倾向于冒险。高水平的皮质醇也弥补了他们白质的缺陷。This stress hormone;gets your body y to face an immediate threat,contributing to their risk taking behaviour,which studies show can translate into opportunities and potentially more financial gain.Furthermore,even though morning people can be very energetic right after waking,they tend to lose steam faster than night owls throughout the day.这种“压力荷尔蒙”让你随时准备应对威胁,使他们更爱冒险,研究也表明他们更易抓住机会,挣得更多。此外,尽 管早起鸟起床后精神饱满,他们一天内精力下降的更快。Both sides perform eually well in reaction-time tests an hour after waking,but after 10 hours of being awake,night owls perform significantly better.Your inner clock is regulated by many proteins which are created from various genes in your DNA.Studies have even shown that a single change of the genetic code,near a gene called Period 1,can result in an hour difference in your waking time.在刚睡醒后,双方在反应时间比较上势均力敌,但起床10小时后,夜猫子的表现要好得多。你的生物钟由体内多种基因创造出的蛋白质共同管理。研究甚至表明Period 1 基因附近,一个基因序列变化会使你起床时间改变1小时。As crazy as it seems,scientists also found a correlation between these same genes and your time of death.The early risers were more likely to die around 11am,while the night owls were more likely to die before 6pm.What about teenagers,you say?It#39;s true most tend to be night owls due to the hormonal changes during puberty,but this tends to wane out into your genetic default as you enter adulthood.疯狂的是,科学家也找到了这些基因与你死亡时间的关系。早起的鸟儿更可能在上午11时左右过世,夜猫子更多在晚上6点前。那年轻人呢,的 确,青 春期的荷尔蒙变化造就了无数夜猫子,不过,成 年后基因再度决定了一切。So while there may be some truth to early birds getting the worm,night owls aren#39;t exactly lagging behind in life.They#39;re just lagging behind in time!因此,尽管早起鸟儿有虫吃有一定的道理,夜猫子并未沦落为人生输家。他们只是慢了半拍而已! Article/201504/367531

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