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2017年12月17日 04:27:56|来源:国际在线|编辑:网上对话
In 2009, Nadeem Shamim left London to work for Standard Chartered Bank in Hong Kong. Although eager to make his mark in a new role, his enthusiasm was tempered by sadness. Unable to obtain the necessary visa to accompany him, his partner Peter, a web-marketing professional, was staying behind in Britain.2009年,纳迪姆#8226;沙米姆(Nadeem Shamim)离开伦敦到香港的渣打(Standard Chartered Bank)工作。虽然渴望在新岗位上做出成绩,但他的热情却被悲伤冲淡了。他的配偶、网络营销专家彼得(Peter)无法获得伴随沙米姆驻香港所需的签,只能留在英国。The couple spent the next two years shuttling between Asia and Europe, working one week in every six from each other’s location. Despite the diary juggling, the jet-lag and separations, Mr Shamim counts himself fortunate that he had a considerate boss who encouraged him to work flexibly. “Without [regular] contact, I think the relationship would have ended. It was tough#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;but we managed.”在接下来的两年里,这对情侣来回穿梭于亚洲和欧洲之间,每六周飞往彼此的所在地工作一周。尽管要在日程安排上费些心思,还要忍受调整时差和两地分居之苦,但沙米姆仍认为自己算是幸运的,因为他有一位善解人意的老板,持他的弹性工作方式。“少了(定期的)联络,我原本以为这段恋情会结束。那段时间很难熬……但我们撑下来了。”Run-ins with visa authorities are one of a number of vexations familiar to gay and lesbian executives who work internationally. While many global corporations say they treat all employees equally, the countries in which they do business often differ hugely in their acceptance of same-sex relationships, making company-wide equality pledges hard to fulfil.对跨国工作的同性恋高管来说,与签当局的口舌之争是他们不感到陌生的众多烦恼之一。虽然许多跨国公司声称自己对所有员工一视同仁,但它们的业务所在国对同性恋情的接受度却常常有着巨大差异,这使得它们难以兑现公司所有员工一律平等的承诺。Although the number of states that recognise same-sex unions and marriages is growing, most still do not. Consequently, employees who are married or civilly partnered in one jurisdiction may find that immigration authorities elsewhere do not recognise their union, refuse their partner a visa, and may dispute their parental relationship with any children. Some countries, including with#173;in the EU, have passed equality laws protecting against discrimination and homophobic bullying. But in 78 countries it is homosexuality that is criminalised, with punishments ranging from fines to imprisonment, hard labour and even death.尽管有越来越多的国家承认同性结合和同性婚姻,但大多数国家对此却仍不认可。因此,在某一司法管辖区内结婚或民事结合(civilly partnered)的员工可能会发现,其他地方的移民当局不承认他们的结合,拒绝给他们的配偶发放签,并且可能会质疑他们与任何孩子的亲子关系。包括欧盟(EU)国家在内的一些国家已通过涉及平等的法律,保护同性恋者不受歧视和“恐同”欺凌。但在78个国家里,同性恋是犯罪行为,惩罚包括罚款、监禁、劳役、甚至死刑。So what to do in a world where employers encourage staff to “bring their whole self to work” #8722; yet still expect top executives to have worked in a mix of markets, some of which may be unwelcoming to gay employees, or even unsafe?雇主们鼓励员工“把整个自我溶于工作”,而且希望高管在各种市场历练过——其中一些市场可能不欢迎同性恋员工,甚至对他们来说是不安全的。在这样的一个世界里,到底应该怎么做?Matching gay and lesbian executives to socially progressive destinations might seem to solve the conundrum. However, executives sometimes worry that if they avoid strategically important markets because of anti-gay laws, for example in some Asian, African and Middle Eastern countries, their career will stall – even if their employer assures them it will not.把同性恋高管刻意安排到社会文化进步的目的地看似可以解决这个难题。然而,高管们有时担心,如果他们因某些地方——比如部分亚洲、非洲和中东国家——存在的反同性恋法而避开具有战略重要性的市场,他们的职业生涯将会停滞——即便他们的雇主担保不会发生这种事。Rather than prejudge situations, Simon Feeke, who leads the workplace programme at Stonewall, the lobby group for lesbian, gay and bisexual people, recommends offering a choice of destinations and allowing individuals to decide what is right for them. “For the right opportunity, a minority of gay people would be prepared to travel to a country where there’s a severe penalty for being gay,” he says.同性恋与双性恋人群游说组织“石墙”(Stonewall)的职场项目主管西蒙#8226;菲克(Simon Feeke)建议,不要预判情况,而是列出若干目的地供员工选择,让他们自己决定哪个目的地适合自己。他说:“如果机会确实难得,少数同性恋者愿意前往对同性恋有严重惩罚的国家。”According to Stonewall, about a quarter of gay employees hide their orientation from colleagues. This can create difficulties if an employee feels forced to accept a posting to a country with homophobic laws. They worry that if they say no, their employer will press for a reason. To mitigate the problem, the law firm Simmons amp; Simmons revised its policies to allow its lawyers to request an alternative to an offered destination, without saying why. “We realised people were opting out of secondments altogether, because of not wanting to be sent to particular countries,” says David Stone, who co-chairs the firm’s lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender network.“石墙”的数据显示,约四分之一的同性恋员工对同事隐瞒自己的性取向。如果员工觉得不得不接受调派到一个有“恐同”法律的国家工作,这个问题可能会对他造成困扰。员工担心,如果他们拒绝接受借调,雇主会逼问他们理由。为了在一定程度上解决这个问题,西盟斯律师事务所(Simmons amp; Simmons)修改了公司政策,允许旗下律师要求公司给出指派目的地之外的另一选择,而且无需向公司说明理由。该事务所女同性恋者、男同性恋者、双性恋者与跨性别者(LGBT)网络联席主管戴维#8226;斯通(David Stone)说:“我们意识到,员工一口回绝借调的原因是,他们不想被派到特定的国家。”Employers will sometimes go to un#173;usual lengths to make secondments do-able for gay executives whom they would struggle to replace. From 2005 to 2012, Steve Wardlaw headed the Moscow office of the law firm Baker Botts, on secondment from London, accompanied by his partner Ian, who was taking a career break. When in 2008 Russia tightened its visa rules, Baker Botts created a job for Ian, en#173;abling him to remain in Russia as an employee of the firm. “If we had been unable to fix it, I would have come back to London,” Mr Wardlaw says.为了让一些难以取代的同性恋高管的借调具有可行性,雇主有时会尽其所能。2005年到2012年,史蒂夫#8226;沃德洛(Steve Wardlaw)从伦敦的贝克茨律师事务所(Baker Botts)借调到该事务所在莫斯科的办事处当主管。他的配偶伊恩(Ian)当时正处于职业暂休期,就陪他去了莫斯科。当俄罗斯在2008年收紧签规定时,该事务所为伊恩创造了一个职位,让他能以事务所员工的身份留在俄罗斯。沃德洛说:“如果我们当时无法解决这个问题,我恐怕就回伦敦了。”Employers are rarely so accommodating to junior employees sent abroad for professional development. However, relocation packages design#173;ed with the needs of traditional couples uppermost can sometimes be tweaked to better suit same-sex couples. Simmons amp; Simmons used to pay for the spouses of lawyers who went on unaccompanied secondments to visit them during the posting. Now, the spouse’s visits can be converted into trips home for the seconded employee, which same-sex couples often prefer when the host country is unwelcoming to gay people.雇主们很少会对出于职业发展目的派往海外的初级员工这么通融。然而,企业有时可以调整主要针对传统伴侣需求设计的搬迁福利,使它更适用于同性伴侣。西盟斯律师事务所过去曾为单身赴任的律师付他们借调期内配偶的探亲费用。现在,配偶的探亲之旅可以转为借调员工的回家之旅——当派驻国不欢迎同性恋者时,同性伴侣往往更喜欢现在的安排。Secondees sometimes have opportunities to shift how colleagues from socially conservative cultures perceive gay people. But it is advisable to t carefully, cautions Mr Wardlaw. When managing Russian colleagues who were baffled by same-sex partnerships and gay adoption, his response was to invite them to ask him anything and to do his best, over Friday night drinks, “to dispel myths” about gay lifestyles. “Once or twice the debates became fairly heated, but usually because people were struggling with an idea [that challenged their assumptions].”有时候,借调员工有机会改变那些来自保守社会文化的同事对同性恋者的看法。但沃德洛警告说,最好谨慎行事。面对对同性伴侣关系和同性恋收养感到困惑的俄罗斯同事,他的回应是,在周五晚上邀请他们来喝杯酒,让他们想问他什么就问什么,并尽自己所能驱散关于同性恋者生活方式的“神话”。“有一两次,争论变得相当激烈,但通常是因为人们当时正纠结于一个想法 (而这个想法挑战了他们想当然的东西)。”Suki Sandhu, founder of OUTstanding, a professional network for lesbian and gay executives and their supporters, urges corporations to use their investment leverage to influence governments to repeal anti-gay laws: “If companies want to develop and nurture all of their talent, it’s important they make it as practical as possible for LGBT employees to work overseas.”OUTstanding是一个面向同性恋高管及其持者的专业网络,它的创始人苏基#8226;桑德胡(Suki Sandhu)敦促企业利用它们的投资影响力去推动政府废除反同性恋法律:“如果企业想培养和培育它们的全部人才,它们就应当尽可能地让LGBT员工到海外工作变得更具可行性。”In the absence of widesp tolerance, however, gay employees need up-to-date intelligence to make in#173;formed decisions on where to work and how to stay safe. At Simmons amp; Simmons, returning secondees produce guides on destination cities. These give information on local laws regarding homosexuality and whether local people and law enforcers are more or less accepting of same-sex relationships than might be inferred from the statute book.然而,在不被广泛接纳的情况下,同性恋员工需要最新的情报,以便做出该在哪里工作和该如何保安全的明智决定。西盟斯律师事务所的回国借调员工制作了目的地城市指南。这些指南提供的信息包括:当地关于同性恋的法律,以及与从当地法律中推断出的情况相比,当地居民和执法者是更能还是更不能接受同性恋情。For some, secondments are an opportunity to live openly. After years of concealment in Russia and east Africa, Svetlana Omelchenko asked her then employer for a transfer to Britain and came out. Now employed by Coty in Paris, she has decided to work only in countries where she and her partner can live openly. In the digitally connected world, she notes, it is increasingly difficult to be out in some markets and not in others. “In London, I knew people who were out only to [trusted] gay colleagues, because they didn’t want word to get back to their home country.”对一些同性恋者来说,借调是一个能以自己真实身份生活的机会。经历了在俄罗斯和东非多年“躲在柜中”的生活后,斯韦特兰娜#8226;奥梅利琴科(Svetlana Omelchenko)要求她当时的雇主将她调派到英国,并在那里“出柜”了。现在,奥梅利琴科受雇于巴黎的科蒂集团(Coty),她已决定,只在她和她的配偶能以真实身份生活的国家工作。她指出,在数码连接起来的世界中,只在某些市场公开身份是越来越难了。“在伦敦,我知道有些人只向(可信任的)同性恋同事公开身份,因为他们不想让消息传回自己的祖国。”Mr Shamim, now returned to London, plans to start a network connecting gay employees seconded abroad with people back home in whom they can confide. Although in Hong Kong he lived openly, he remembers from his early career the painfulness of concealing his sexuality. “For individuals [posted to markets with anti-gay cultures] who go back into the closet, having someone with whom they can talk difficulties through can be a huge support.”沙米姆现在已经回到了伦敦。他计划创办一个网络,让借调海外的同性恋员工能与他们在家乡充分信赖的人相互联系。虽然他在香港是以真实身份生活,但他还记得在他职业生涯早期隐瞒自己性取向时的痛苦。“对那些(借调到拥有反同性恋文化的市场)‘回到柜中’的人来说,有人能与他们讨论困难会是一个巨大的持。” /201409/328653Entrepreneurs in Hong Kong are developing innovative ways to help inhabitants of tiny apartments as the Chinese territory embraces a micro-living trend that is catching on in London, New York and beyond.香港企业家正在开发创新方法来帮助居住在微小公寓的市民,这个中国的特别行政区正在拥抱伦敦、纽约和其它国际都市正在兴起的“微型生活”趋势。From suitcase rental to external goods storage managed by smartphone apps, businesspeople in Hong Kong have established a range of start-ups designed to capitalise on the lack of living space.从行李箱出租到通过智能手机应用管理的外部储物,香港商人创立了一批旨在获利于居住空间狭小的创业型企业。Hong Kong has the world’s most expensive residential property after Monaco, according to estate agents Knight Frank, with tiny 20 sq mapartments on sale for as much as HK.5m (0,000). Three-quarters of apartments in this densely populated city of 7m people have no dedicated storage space, according to Colliers, another estate agent.根据地产代理莱坊(Knight Frank)的数据,香港住宅价格在世界上排名第二,仅次于纳哥,区区20平方米的狭小公寓每套售价就高达450万港元(合58万美元)。另一家地产代理高力(Colliers)称,在这个700万市民的人口密集的城市,四分之三的公寓楼没有专门的储物空间。As they struggle to afford decent housing, young professionals from London to Hong Kong are increasingly opting for micro-apartments that range from ill-fitting conversions to slickly designed buildings with shared facilities such as gyms and lounges.从伦敦到香港,年轻的专业人士在很难负担体面的住房之际,越来越多地选择微型公寓单位,此类住宅既有不怎么宜居的旧楼改造,也有设计新潮、配备健身房和休息室等共用设施的新建公寓楼。“Prices are rising all the time and apartments are getting smaller by the day,” says Rachel Cheung, a former public relations officer who launched Hong Kong’s first suitcase rental business in October. “A suitcase takes up a huge amount of space at home but doesn’t get used that often.” Her company, Rent-a-Suitcase, leases upmarket Rimowa suitcases from HK a day and she has served 300 customers so far as she looks for investors to help expand her business.“楼价不断上涨,公寓单位一天比一天小,”前公关人员、去年10月推出香港第一家行李箱租赁公司的Rachel Cheung表示。“行李箱在家里占用大量空间,但用得并不是太频繁。”她的公司“租游列国”(Rent-a-Suitcase)出租高档的Rimowa行李箱,每天收费68港元,迄今她已向300位客户提供务。目前她在寻觅投资者以求扩大业务。Norman Cheung, a former investment banker, has got much further with his micro-storage start-up, which has raised .1m since January from some of Asia’s best-known investors, including the founders of Ting Hsin group, the world’s biggest maker of instant noodles.前投资家张迅豪(Norman Cheung)的迷你储物务创业型企业走得更远。自1月份以来,他已从亚洲一些最知名的投资者募集810万美元,包括世界上最大方便面生产商顶新集团(Ting Hsin group)的创始人。Mr Cheung’s company, Boxful, offers a much more flexible version of the traditional self-storage model, where customers have to travel to a distant warehouse and hire large amounts of space for fixed periods.张迅豪的公司宝易存(Boxful)提供远比传统自助储物模式更为灵活的自助储物务。传统的自助储物模式要求客户亲自往返遥远的仓库,租用较大储物空间,而且期限固定。Boxful’s staff go to the customers, providing standard-size crates, and offer an on-demand pick-up and drop-off service from HK a month.宝易存的员工上门取送,提供标准尺寸的储物箱和预约取件/送件务,费用从每月49港元起。Boxful, like US counterparts Boxbee and MakeSpace and London’s SpaceWays, has an app that allows users to photograph their belongings and generate an electronic inventory.就像美国同类企业Boxbee和MakeSpace,以及伦敦的SpaceWays那样,Boxful有一个应用,允许用户对入箱的物件拍照,生成一份电子清单。“Most of our customers have never used self-storage before and that is unexpected but very encouraging because we’re creating a new market,” says Mr Cheung, whose company stored 3,500 boxes as of April, with growth accelerating month by month.“我们的多数客户以前从未用过自助储物,这是令人意外但又非常鼓舞人心的,因为我们正在创造一个新的市场,”张迅豪表示。他的公司截至4月储存了3500个储物箱,业务增长速度逐月加快。Stuart Cerne, who co-founded Boxful’s main Hong Kong rival Spacebox, says the business model will generate economies of scale as individuals outsource personal storage and the companies buy warehouse space in bulk.宝易存在香港的主要竞争对手Spacebox的联合创始人斯图尔特张尼(Stuart Cerne)表示,随着人们外包私人物品储存,随着企业批量购买仓储空间,这种商业模式将形成规模经济效益。Spacebox is also working on a new service that will allow customers to share boxes of their belongings, whether they contain baby clothes or electronics.Spacebox还在研究一项新的务,让客户分享装有自己物品(从婴儿衣物到电子设备)的储物箱。Mr Cerne says his company, which has 500 users and is targeting 5,000 by the end of the year, is not just about storing goods but “using technology to unclutter your life”.Cerne表示,他的公司有500名用户,争取到今年底发展到5000名,其意义不只在于储物,而是“用科技去除你生活中的杂乱”。Boxful’s Mr Cheung is convinced the service will take off around Asia as property prices rise sharply in developed and developing cities alike. “We’re thinking about expanding internationally from next year and we’re looking at Shenzhen, Shanghai and Beijing in China as well as Singapore, Jakarta, Manila, Bangkok and Tokyo,” he says.宝易存的张迅豪确信,随着发达国家和发展中国家的城市楼价大幅上涨,他的务将在亚洲各地起飞。“我们正考虑明年开始国际扩张,我们在研究中国内地的深圳、上海和北京,还有新加坡、雅加达、马尼拉、曼谷和东京,”他表示。 /201507/387777For years, Hong Kong#39;s Victoria Harbour has been known for its vaulting skyscrapers, fireworks displays and stunning mountain vistas. Now, if all goes as planned, a site for the Chinese military may soon join that list.多年来,香港的维多利亚港一直以高耸的天大楼、璀璨的烟花表演和醉人的山色美景闻名。现在,如果一切按计划进行,这个标志性景观的名单中可能很快就要添入中国军用码头。On Friday, urban planners in the former British colony voted to pave the way for the construction of a dock for the People#39;s Liberation Army. The approximately 0.3 hectares site will sit in front of the walled garrison the army maintains in Central, the city#39;s main financial district, adjacent to Hong Kong#39;s current government offices.上周五,香港的城市规划部门投票通过了相关方案,为中国人民解放军在维多利亚港兴建码头铺平了道路。这个面积约为0.3公顷(合3,000平方米)的码头将坐落在解放军驻港部队总部的正前方。驻港部队总部位于香港主要金融区中环,毗邻香港特区政府所在地。The plan faces significant local opposition: during a public consultation exercise last year, some 19,000 parties registered objections to the rezoning with the Town Planning Board, a government body. Some residents called the plans #39;visually obstructive,#39; while others declared such a military presence would create a #39;pressing feeling.#39;在维多利亚港兴建军用码头的计划在香港本地遭到强烈反对。在去年公开征求意见时,香港城市规划委员会(Town Planning Board)收到了约1.9万份对该项目的反对意见。一些居民称该建设项目会“阻挡视线”,另一些人表示军事设施的出现会带来“压抑感”。Though Hong Kong returned to Chinese control in 1997, tensions with the mainland are running high. Concerns have grown among many in Hong Kong in recent years that the territory#39;s politics and free press are threatened by Beijing#39;s authoritarian ways and that its streets are being overrun by mainland Chinese tourists. Over the weekend, scores of demonstrator marched through a luxury shopping district to protest the presence of the latter, who some locals dub #39; locusts.#39;尽管香港已于1997年回归中国,但香港与中国大陆之间的紧张关系却有增无减。近几年来,许多香港人越来越担心中国大陆的集权化体制对香港的政治制度和言论出版自由构成了威胁,而且香港会被来自中国大陆的游客淹没。上周末,数十名示威者穿过一个奢侈品购物区,抗议大陆游客的涌入。一些本地人还将大陆游客称为“蝗虫”。#39;It seems we#39;ve gone from being one colony to becoming another,#39; said Katty Law, convener of the Central Harbourfront Concern Group, which lobbies against the military dock construction. Ms. Law is among the residents who registered an objection to the Victoria Harbour plan.中环海滨关注组(Central Harbourfront Concern Group)的召集人罗雅宁(Katty Law)说,香港就好像是从一个殖民地变为另一个殖民地。罗雅宁也反对在中环海滨建军用码头。中环海滨关注组的目标是游说相关部门,以阻止在维多利亚港修建军用码头。Under the terms for its return to China, Hong Kong maintains its own independent political, economic and judicial systems, but defense and foreign relations are handled by Beijing. The People#39;s Liberation Army currently maintains several garrisons scattered across the small territory.在“一国两制”的制度下,香港保留独立的政治、经济和司法体系,但防务和外交事务由中央政府管制。中国人民解放军目前在香港有多个驻点。Plans for the site can be traced back to a 1994 agreement, prior to the handover. Hong Kong#39;s government agreed to leave free 150 meters of permanent waterfront for the construction of a military dock in Central, the planning board says. The board says that the military zone would be only a small fraction of the surrounding overall waterfront open space, which totals 9.87 hectares of contiguous space. It also says that the development would be restricted to 5.8 meters, or 19 feet, in height and that the land would be open to the public when not in military use.有关修建军用码头的计划可以追溯到1994年签署的一份协议,当时香港尚未回归。香港城市规划委员会称,当时香港政府同意免费留出150米的永久海滨用于在中环修建一个军用码头。该委员会表示,海滨邻近地区的总面积为9.87公顷(约合98700平方米),因此这一军用码头只会占到周围整个海滨的一小部分。城市规划委员会还称,该军用码头的高度将被限制在5.8米,而且在不作军事用途时会对公众开放。However, Paul Zimmerman, founder of nonprofit Designing Hong Kong, said he is concerned about public access to the land. #39;Are you allowed to sit there and protest? Can you congregate? Do you have the right of recreation?#39; he said.然而,非营利组织创建香港(Designing Hong Kong)的创始人司马文(Paul Zimmerman)表示,他对公众能否使用这一军用码头感到担忧。他说,会允许人们在那儿静坐抗议吗?人们能在那儿集会吗?人们有在这里休闲的权利吗?Following the city planning board#39;s decision, the plan will next be voted on by the city#39;s executive council. In the meantime, those concerned about the plan may file for judicial review of the planning board#39;s decision to try and prevent it from proceeding, said Mr. Zimmerman.在获得香港城市规划委员会的批准后,修建军用码头的计划接下来将被提交给香港行政会议(Executive Council)进行投票表决。司马文称,在此期间,对该项目感到担忧的人士可能会申请对城市规划委员会决定的司法复核,以阻止该方案被继续推进。For her part, Ms. Law said she believed the PLA was interested in a new foothold in Victoria Harbour solely for the location#39;s symbolic and political weight. #39;They want to establish their sovereignty and show that this site belongs to them. That#39;s all,#39; said Ms. Law. #39;Hong Kong people feel very bad about this.#39;罗雅宁表示,她相信驻港部队要在维多利亚港修建一个新的驻点只是缘于该港口的象征意义和政治意义。她说,他们想宣示主权,向外界显示这个地方属于他们,仅此而已;香港民众对此感到非常不快。 /201402/276434

Just over one-third of the manufacturers in China’s Pearl River delta — the country’s export powerhouse — plan to shift production capacity to cheaper locations within the country or to bases in southeast Asia, Bangladesh, India and Sri Lanka, a survey of manufacturers shows.一项针对制造商展开的调查显示,在中国的出口基地珠江三角洲地区,大约三分之一的制造商计划将生产产能转移至国内劳动力成本更为低廉的地区或者东南亚、孟加拉国、印度和斯里兰卡地区。The main motivation for the capacity relocations is labour shortages that are driving wages higher and reinforcing pressures for more generous social welfare payments, according to a survey of 290 manufacturers in the delta region conducted by Standard Chartered in February and March this year.渣打(Standard Chartered)在今年2月和3月对珠三角地区290家制造商展开的调查显示,企业转移产能的主要动机是劳动力短缺推动薪资上涨,并使得企业不得不付更为慷慨的社会福利缴款。Survey respondents said they expected migrant worker wages to rise 8.4 per cent this year, up from 8.1 per cent last year (see chart) — suggesting a real wage growth of 6.8 per cent after allowing for a projected inflation of 1.6 per cent, according to Kelvin Lau, an author of the Standard Chartered report.受访者表示,他们预计今年农民工薪资将上涨8.4%,高于去年8.1%的涨幅(见右边的图表)。渣打报告编制人之一刘健恒(Kelvin Lau)表示,这意味着在计入1.6%的预期通胀率之后,实际的薪资涨幅将是6.8%。The finding corresponds with a nationwide survey of blue collar wages in April by China Confidential, an FT research service, which showed a year-on-year wage increase of 7.8 per cent.该报告结论与英国《金融时报》旗下研究务机构《中国投资参考》(China Confidential)今年4月对全国蓝领工人薪资的调查相符,后者显示蓝领工人薪资同比上涨7.8%。Plans to relocate factories away from the delta area — which generates 27 per cent of the country’s exports and receives almost 20 per cent of its inward foreign direct investment (FDI) — reveal a divergence in destinations between some relatively low-cost inland areas of China and countries across Asia.将工厂搬迁出珠三角地区的计划揭示出,不同企业计划搬迁的目的地不同,有的要搬到劳动力成本相对较低的中国内陆地区,而有的则要搬迁到其他亚洲国家。珠三角地区贡献了中国27%的出口,并接收了近20%的投向中国的外商直接投资(FDI)。Some 20 per cent of survey respondents said they would move inland, down from 28 per cent in the same survey last year, while 11 per cent said they would move overseas, down slightly from 13 per cent in last year’s survey. Although the findings suggest a big further shift out of the delta area, most companies opted to stay put while boosting automation and other equipment investments to defray rising labour costs (see chart).约20%的受访者表示,它们将会搬到内地,去年同一调查中这一比例为28%;同时11%的受访者表示,它们将搬到海外,略低于去年调查的13%。尽管该报告表明制造商进一步大规模撤出珠三角,但大多数公司仍选择留在当地,同时提升自动化水平和加大其他设备投资来抵消劳动力成本上升的影响(见左边的图表)。The 10-member Association of South East Asian Nations (Asean) is set to become the biggest beneficiary of the delta area’s waning competitiveness, the survey found. This is underlined by other advantages Asean enjoys; its labour force is expected to expand by 70m workers between 2010 and 2030, while China’s is likely to contract by the same margin, according to ed Nations projections.该调查发现,东盟(Asean)十国将会成为珠三角地区竞争力下降的最大受益者。东盟的其他优势强化了这一点:联合国预计,从2010年到2030年该地区将增加7000万劳动力,同时中国可能减少这么多劳动力。“ASEAN is likely to benefit from comparatively low wage costs and abundant labour supply over the next 20 years,” the Standard Chartered report says. “Manufacturers shifting production to Asean are also positioning themselves to capture a share of the region’s growing consumer market, driven by high economic growth and a rising middle class.”渣打报告显示:“东盟可能在未来二十年受益于相对较低的薪资成本和充裕的劳动力供应。随着东盟地区经济高速增长和中产阶层人数日益增加,将生产转移到东盟的制造商也在布局争取在这个日益增长的消费市场分得一杯羹。”Given the weight of the delta area in global FDI flows, even a relatively minor relocation could have a big effect on investment into recipient countries. In 2013, for example, a total of 6.1bn in FDI entered the Pearl River delta, nearly four times the amount flowing into India, nearly five times that into Indonesia and 12 times that into Vietnam. Similarly, the delta area’s annual exports — of 7bn in 2013 — vastly exceed those from each Asean country.鉴于珠三角地区在全球FDI流动中占着较大比重,即便是较小规模的产能迁移也可能对投资接受国产生巨大影响。例如,2013年,进入珠三角地区的FDI总额达1061亿美元,几乎是进入印度的FDI的四倍,接近印尼的5倍,是越南的12倍。珠三角地区的年出口额(2013年为6070亿美元)也远远超过东盟各国。Among survey respondents who said they plan to move manufacturing capacity overseas, 36 per cent favoured moving into Vietnam, 25 per cent into Cambodia, 10 per cent into Bangladesh, 10 per cent into Indonesia, 5 per cent into India, 5 per cent into Sri Lanka, 5 per cent into Thailand and 3 per cent into the Philippines, Standard Chartered said.渣打表示,在计划将制造产能迁往海外的受访企业当中,36%有意迁往越南,25%有意迁到柬埔寨,10%想迁到孟加拉国,10%想迁到印尼,5%想迁往印度,5%想迁往斯里兰卡,5%想迁往泰国,3%想迁往菲律宾。 /201505/375058

In the global luxury real-estate scene, is Lagos poised to be the next big thing? 拉各斯会成为下一个全球热门豪宅市场吗?The Nigerian city is among a list of 12 up-and-coming luxury markets around the globe, according to a new report from Savills World Research, in cooperation with design firm Candy amp; Candy and Deutsche Asset and Wealth Management. 据第一太平戴维斯全球研究部(Savills World Research)、设计公司Candy amp; Candy以及德意志资产及财富管理(Deutsche Asset and Wealth Management)联合发布的新报告,全球12个前景良好的豪宅市场中包括尼日利亚首都格拉斯。The other cities are Beirut, Cape Town, Chennai, Chicago, Dublin, Istanbul, Jakarta, Melbourne, Miami, Panama City and Tel Aviv. The most expensive city is Tel Aviv, where an entry-level, two-bedroom luxury apartment typically cost .45 million in March; the least expensive was India#39;s Chennai, where a luxury two-bedroom cost around 0,000. 另外11座市场是贝鲁特、开普敦、金奈、芝加哥、都柏林、伊斯坦布尔、雅加达、墨尔本、迈阿密、巴拿马城和特拉维夫。其中豪宅最贵的城市是特拉维夫,3月份特拉维夫一套两居室的初级豪宅公寓的售价通常为145万美元;最便宜的城市是印度的金奈,在金奈一套两居室豪宅的售价大约为16万美元。The report considered economic factors, such as job-market potential and gross domestic product, but also a number of qualitative aspects, like cultural attractions and the presence of English as a first or second language. 这份报告考虑了包括就业市场前景和生产总值在内的经济因素,但也考虑了诸如文化吸引力和英语是否为第一或第二语言等一系列定性因素。In 2013, there were nearly 200,000 people world-wide with wealth exceeding million, according to the Wealth-X amp; UBS World Ultra Wealth Report. As prices continue to rise in prime markets like New York, London and Hong Kong, Yolande Barnes, director of Savills World Research, predicts that luxury buyers will increasingly look to less mature markets for better value. 据Wealth-X amp; UBS World Ultra Wealth报告,2013年,全球有近20万人的财富超过3,000万美元。第一太平戴维斯全球研究部负责人巴尔内斯(Yolande Barnes)预计,随着纽约、伦敦和香港等主要市场房价的继续上涨,豪宅买家将越来越多地在不太成熟的市场寻找更有价值的物业。The cities run the gamut, from well-established markets like Melbourne and Tel Aviv, which have yet to reach their full investment potential, the report notes, to developing markets like Chennai and Lagos, which may have larger returns but more risk for buyers. #39;You have to look at the political risk,#39; said Nick Candy, CEO of Candy amp; Candy, noting that unpredictable currency exchange and ownership hurdles for foreigners in some markets might dissuade some buyers. 报告指出,这份名单既包括墨尔本和特拉维夫这样知名但还没有释放出全部投资潜力的市场,也包括金奈和拉各斯这样潜在收益可能更高但风险也更大的发展中市场。Candy amp; Candy的首席执行长坎迪(Nick Candy)称,投资者必须考虑政治风险。他指出,一些市场难以预测的汇率情况以及对外国人持有房产的限制会让一些买家放弃购买。In Tel Aviv, the Manhattan Tower attracts cosmopolitan buyers, says Tomer Fridman, CEO of Israel Sotheby#39;s International Realty. #39;Ten to 15 years ago, there wasn#39;t an international product,#39; he said. Today, the 10,000-square-foot penthouse in the tower is listed for million. He credits the city#39;s thriving tech industry and interest from Europeans, among others, for the surge in foreign buying. Israel Sotheby#39;s International Realty的首席执行长弗里德曼(Tomer Fridman)称,特拉维夫的曼哈顿大厦(Manhattan Tower)吸引着全球各地的买家。他表示,10至15年前还没有国际性产品,而现在这座大厦上1万平方英尺的顶层公寓标价2,500万美元。他认为,这座城市蓬勃发展的科技行业、以及来自欧洲买家的兴趣是外国人购买豪宅数量激增的主要原因。Other markets on the list are similar to Panama City. The Central American hub is poised for rapid growth thanks to a mix of foreign investment and government policies that benefit international buyers, said Andrea Kam, a consultant for real-estate brokerage Bonavivi in Panama City. 这份名单上的其他城市与巴拿马城相似。巴拿马城房地产中介Bonavivi的顾问卡姆(Andrea Kam)称,得益于外国投资以及巴拿马政府有利于国际买家的政策,巴拿马的豪宅市场即将出现快速增长。The global recession hit some markets on the list particularly hard, but the report says home prices are rebounding. In Dublin, for example, inventory is tightening and demand is rising, said Graham Murray, head of residential for Savills in Dublin. 全球经济衰退对名单上某些市场的打击尤其惨重,但这份报告称,住宅价格正在反弹。第一太平戴维斯驻都柏林的住宅业务主管默里(Graham Murray)举例称,都柏林的住宅存量在减少,而需求却在增长。 /201405/294374

BERLIN — A week at the American Academy in Berlin leaves me with two contradictory feelings: one is that Germany today deserves a Nobel Peace Prize, and the other is that Germany tomorrow will have to overcome its deeply ingrained post-World War II pacifism and become a more serious, activist global power. And I say both as a compliment.柏林——在柏林美国学院(American Academy)度过的一周,给我留下两个相互矛盾的感受:一是今天的德国理应得到一座诺贝尔和平奖,二是明天的德国必须摒弃二战以来根深蒂固的和平主义,成为一股更威严、更主动的全球力量。两者都是一种赞誉。On the first point, what the Germans have done in converting almost 30 percent of their electric grid to solar and wind energy from near zero in about 15 years has been a great contribution to the stability of our planet and its climate. The centerpiece of the German Energiewende, or energy transformation, was an extremely generous “feed-in tariff” that made it a no-brainer for Germans to install solar power (or wind) at home and receive a predictable high price for the energy generated off their own rooftops.关于第一点,德国人已经把电网中将近三成的电力来源转换成太阳能和风能,大概15年前这个比例接近零,这对我们这个星球和气候的稳定性是有重大意义的。德国的Energiewende(能源转型)的核心是“上网电价补贴”(feed-in tariff),该政策给出的条件极为优厚,让德国人毫不犹豫地开始在家中安装太阳能(或风能),而且自家屋顶产生的能源能够卖出可预见的高价。There is no denying that the early days of the feed-in tariff were expensive. The subsidies cost billions of euros, paid for through a surcharge on everyone’s electric bill. But the goal was not simply to buy more renewable energy: It was to create demand that would drive down the cost of solar and wind to make them mainstream, affordable options. And, in that, Energiewende has been an undiluted success. With price drops of more than 80 percent for solar, and 55 percent for wind, zero-carbon energy is now competitive with fossil fuels here.不可否认的是,上网电价补贴在初期代价会非常大。数十亿欧元的补贴,是通过增收所有人的电费来付的。但这样做的目的不只是购买更多可再生能源:它要创造需求,以压低太阳能和风能的成本,把它们变成主流的、廉价的能源选项。在这一点上,Energiewende获得了无可争议的成功。太阳能电价降幅超80%,风能降幅55%,现在零排放能源跟化石燃料比是有竞争力的。“In my view the greatest success of the German energy transition was giving a boost to the Chinese solar panel industry,” said Ralf Fücks, the president of the Heinrich-B#246;ll-Stiftung, the German Green Party’s political foundation. “We created the mass market, and that led to the increased productivity and dramatic decrease in cost.” And all this in a country whose northern tip is the same latitude as the southern tip of Alaska!“在我看来,德国能源转型的最大成功在于促进了中国太阳能产业的发展,”德国绿党(Green Party)下属政治基金会海因里希·伯尔(Heinrich-B#246;ll-Stiftung)的会长阿尔夫·富克斯(Ralf Fücks)说。“我们在这一领域创造了大众市场,从而提高生产效率,大幅压低成本。”这一切,都是由一个国土北端跟阿拉斯加南端在同一纬度上的国家实现的!This is a world-saving achievement. And, happily, as the price fell, the subsidies for new installations also dropped. The Germans who installed solar ended up making money, which is why the program remains popular, except in coal-producing regions. Today, more than 1.4 million German households and cooperatives are generating their own solar/wind electricity. “There are now a thousand energy cooperatives operated by private people,” said the energy economist Claudia Kemfert.这是一项拯救世界的成就。而且令人欣喜的是,随着价格的下降,对新装用户的补贴也下降了。安装了太阳能板的德国人最终是赚钱的,这就是为什么该项目始终很受欢迎,只有产煤区例外。目前德国有140多万户家庭和协作组织在使用自己的太阳能/风能电力。“现在有上千个私立能源协作组织在运行,”能源经济学家克劳迪娅·肯福尔特(Claudia Kemfert)说。Oliver Krischer, the vice chairman of the Green Party’s parliamentary group, told me: “I have a friend who comes home, and, if the sun is shining, he doesn’t even say hello to his wife. He first goes downstairs and looks at the meter to see what [electricity] he has produced himself. ... The idea now is that energy is something you can [produce] on your own. It’s a new development.” And it has created so much pushback against the country’s four major coal/nuclear utilities that one of them, E.On, just split into two companies — one focusing on squeezing the last profits from coal, oil, gas and nuclear, while the other focuses on renewables. Germans jokingly call them “E.Off” and “E.On.”绿党议会党团副主席奥列佛·科舍尔(Oliver Krischer)告诉我:“我有个朋友,在有太阳的日子,到家都顾不上跟妻子打招呼,会径直到楼下去查电表,看看自己发了多少[电]。现在有了能源可以自己来[生产]的观念。这是个进展。”该国的四大煤电/核电公司受到极大冲击,以至于其中意昂集团(E.On)分拆成了两个公司——一个专注于榨取煤炭、石油、天然气和核能最后的一点利润,另一个专注可再生能源。德国人开玩笑说它们分别叫“E.Off”和“E.On”。One problem: Germany still has tons of cheap, dirty lignite coal that is used as backup power for wind and solar, because cleaner natural gas is more expensive and nuclear is being phased out.这里有一个问题:德国仍然有大量廉价、肮脏的褐煤,用来作为风能和太阳能的后备,因为更清洁的天然气要更贵,而核能正被逐步淘汰。So if that’s the story on renewable power, how about national power? Two generations after World War II, Germany’s reticence to project any power outside its borders is deeply ingrained in the political psyche here. That is a good thing, given Germany’s past. But it is not sustainable. There is an impressive weight to Germany today — derived from the quality of its governing institution, its rule of law, and the sheer power of its economy built on midsize businesses — that is unique in Europe.可再生电力是这样,那么国家势力的情况如何呢?经过二战后两代人的发展,不愿意将自己的力量伸展到国境之外的心态,已在德国政治中深深扎根。考虑到历史,这是好事。但这是不可持续的。以当今德国的地位之重要,在欧洲绝无仅有——这是源于它在行政制度、法治方面的高水准,以及基于中型企业的强势经济。When you talk to German officials about Greece, their main complaint is not about Greek fiscal policy, which is better lately, but about the rot and corruption in Greece’s governing institutions. The Greeks “couldn’t implement the structural reforms they needed if they wanted to,” one German financial official said to me. Athens’s institutions are a mess.当你跟德国官员谈起希腊时,他们的主要不满不是希腊的财政政策——这方面近来已经好转了——而是它的政府机构的腐败。一位德国财政官员跟我说,希腊人“无法实施结构性改革,有这个意愿也做不到。”希腊的政府部门一团糟。With America less interested in Europe, Britain fading away both from the European Union and the last vestiges of it being a global military power, France and Italy economically hobbled and most NATO members shrinking their defense budgets, I don’t see how Germany avoids exercising more leadership. Its economic sanctions are aly the most important counter to Russian aggression in Ukraine. And in the Mediterranean Sea, where Europe now faces a rising tide of refugees (and where Russia and China just announced that their navies will hold a joint exercise in mid-May), Germany will have to catalyze some kind of E.U. naval response.美国对欧洲的兴趣在减少,英国正淡出欧盟,而最后仅存的那点作为全球性军事力量的身份,也将荡然无存,法国和意大利的经济不振,大多数北约(NATO)国家都在缩减国防预算,德国发挥更多领导作用,在我看来是不可避免的。它对俄罗斯的经济制裁,目前是对抗该国对乌克兰的进犯的最重要手段。此外在地中海,欧洲要面对一股越来越汹涌的难民潮(而俄罗斯和中国刚宣布,两国海军五月中旬会在那里举行联合军事演习),德国别无选择,只能力主欧盟海上力量进行某种回应。The relative weight of German power vis-à-vis the rest of Europe just keeps growing, but don’t say that out loud here. A German foreign policy official put their dilemma this way: “We have to get used to assuming more leadership and be aware of how reluctant others are to have Germany lead — so we have to do it through the E.U.”德国跟其他欧洲国家在影响力上的差距还会进一步拉大,但话不能说太直白。一位德国外交政策官员表达了他们的两难境地:“我们要做好担负更多领导角色的准备,并且要清楚,其他国家有多不情愿让德国来带头——所以我们必须通过欧盟行事。”Here’s my prediction: Germany will be Europe’s first green, solar-powered superpower. Can those attributes coexist in one country, you ask? They’re going to have to.我的预测:德国会是欧洲第一个绿色的、由太阳能驱动的超级大国。你也许会问,一个国家能同时具备这几个属性吗?他们别无选择。 /201505/374189

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