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Last time we talked about the false belief that evolutionary theory says human beings descended from monkeys.上次我们谈论到了关于人类进化论的错误观念:人类是猴子演变而来的。In fact, evolution says that both human beings and monkeys descended from a common ancestor that existed about thirty million years ago.其实,进化论阐述的是人类和猴子都是同一个祖先的后裔。而这个祖先存在于三千万年前。Across time, species can give rise to otherspecies, which can in turn give rise to others.斗转星移,物种会产生其他的物种,这样依次发展又会产生别的不同物种。So, while its not true that human beings evolved from monkeys, if you stretch your thinking youcan see how monkeys can be considered relatives of ours.因此,尽管人类从猴子演变而来不是真的,但如果你发散思维,就会明白为什么会说猴子是我们的近亲。After all, I call someone my cousin if she and I have a common ancestor.终究,我把和我有共同祖先的人叫做表兄。If we could keep recordsacross millions of years, we might want to count monkeys and apes as our cousins too.假如我们能够备存纪录数百万年之久,可能我们会把猴子和猿也视作表兄。But wait a minute!且慢!If thats true, then arent we also related to the ancestors of that common ancestor?如果真的是这样,那我们的祖先不是也有着共同祖先?I mean, my cousin and I both share a grandparent.我的意思是,我和我的表是同一个祖母。But the family tree doesnt stopthere.但是家族谱并不会止于此。We also share that grandparents grandparents.我们也是同一个曾曾曾祖母。What about the species that diverged togive rise to the common ancestor of monkeys and humans?而那些分散发展成猴子和人类共同祖先的物种呢?If you see where this is leading, youll have understood something rather wonderful about life onearth.如果想知道哪儿是起头,就得明白和地球生物有关的一些非常奇妙的事情。In fact, if you take the longest possible perspective — now looking back about four billionyears-you will find that every life form on earth is related to every other.实际上,如果你从长远的角度来看的话—回顾到四十亿年前,你就会发现地球上的所有生物都是息息相关的。We all share commonancestors, because all life came from the first self-reproducing, single-celled organism that existedin the oceans of primal earth.我们有着共同的祖先,因为所有的生命都来源于原始地球上第一个存在于海洋中自我复制的单细胞有机体。Yes, that tree outside is your relative, as is every bug and blade of grass.是的,外面那棵树是你的亲戚。同样的,所有的虫子和青草都是。Invite them in for dinner,why dont you?邀请它们共进晚餐吧!为什么不呢? 201409/326636Gun control管制Bullets to the head射向脑袋的子弹Why James Bradys shooting led to gun control, but Gabby Giffordss did not为什么James Brady的矛头直指管制而Gabby Gifford的却没有WHEN James Brady, who at the time was Ronald Reagans press secretary, was shot in the head during a failed assassination attempt on the president in 1981, newscasts reported that he was dead. This proved premature: Mr Brady died on August 4th. After the shooting, he went on to become the countrys most successful advocate for gun control. Under a law that bears his name, over 2m applications for firearm purchases have been turned down after background checks revealed that their owners were not the sorts of people to be trusted with a Glock. Since Gabby Giffords, a congresswoman fromArizona, was shot in the head in 2011, no federal gun-control laws have passed. The different responses reveal much about what has changed in the triangular relationship between Americans, guns and politicians between the two shootings.时任里根总统新闻秘书的James Brady在1981年一次针对总统的失败刺杀中头部中弹,新闻报道说他死了。这份报道后被实有点早“Brady8月4日才死亡。在击事件后,他接着成为了全国最成功的管制拥护者。在一份以他的姓名起草的法令下,超过两百万申请军火购买许可的申请被拒绝,原因是他们的背景审查揭露他们这些买家不是那些值得信赖的持有者。自从2011年亚利桑那州的国会女议员Gabby Giffords被击头部后,再也没有通过的联邦管制法案。不同的回应声反映出了美国国民,制造商以及政客们针对两起击事件的三角关系变化。Congress has passed laws that make it impossible to know for sure how many Americans own guns, but polling data suggest that the number who do has decreased since Mr Brady was shot. Rather than make it easier to pass laws, this has made it harder: small, energetic groups have more sway over Congress than ones that are larger and more diffuse. It took 12 years from the shooting of Mr Brady to the passing of background checks, so it is too early to conclude that Mrs Giffordss wounds will not eventually result in something similar, such as a ban on the kind of oversized magazines that her shooter used. But the chances of that look remote.国会已通过法令,这也就不可能确切查明有多少美国人持,但是民意调查显示自从Brady被击后持人数已经下滑。与更简单的通过法案相比,这种做法更难:小型的,有能力的各个社团对国会的影响盖过那些更大型,更广泛的社团。通过背景审查法案从Brady击事件后算起花了12年时间,因此得出Glifford的伤不会最终开出类似果实的结论还为时过早,比如禁止射击她的凶手所使用的那种大口径子弹。但是可能性看起来很低。One reason is the pattern that follows high-profile shootings. After the murder of 20 children and six adults at a school inNewtown,Connecticutin 2012, the National Rifle Association (NRA), the biggest group representing gun owners, claims that its membership increased. This is not as strange as it seems. Shootings that make headlines lead to calls for gun control. Though these mostly fail, they provoke a pushback from pro-gun groups, which warn their members of federal plots to take their guns away. Though some states passed gun-control measures in the year after theNewtownmassacre, many others ended up with more permissive laws than before. Gun enthusiasts have had particular success with laws that allow people to carry concealed weapons, leading to a boom in sales of specially-made shirts that allow their wearers to draw quickly.一方面原因是紧跟这种模式的是高知名度的击事件。位于纽镇一所学校的20名孩子与6名成年人被谋杀后,2012年康乃狄克州的国家步协会作为代表持有者的最大社团,宣称它的会员数量上涨。这并不像它看起来那样奇怪。击事件使得头条新闻趋向于呼吁管制。尽管这些很有可能无效,他们还是使得持械的社团退让,警告联邦其他州,正计划取消他们的械持有权。尽管一些州在纽镇屠杀案那年通过了一些管制措施,很多州相对于以前停用了更多的许可法。信徒们则对法律许可人们携带隐藏武器有着特殊的成就,这也导致能快速拔出武器的特制上衣销量大增。Polling by Pew suggests that three-quarters of NRA members support the expansion of background checks to cover purchases made at gun shows or online, a loophole in the Brady law. The organisations bosses, however, take any measure that restricts access to guns to be a small step towards a final destination of anAmericadisarmed. Its scorecards are the most popular way for voters to assess a candidates soundness on guns, so congressmen often vote with them in mind, even if that means voting against laws that most NRA members support. Such was the case with a modest bipartisan attempt at federal gun control in the wake ofNewtown. Like so many before, it failed.根据皮尤民调显示四分之三的步协会会员持扩大背景调查以涵盖展览或是网上购,这也是Brady法案的漏洞。然而,协会的老大们采取了一切手段去限制那些缩小许可范围的举措,以防他们最终导致美国无化。选民评价候选人对于械公正性最流行的方法就是看计分板,因此国会议员们经常时刻记住给他们投票,甚至即使这意味着投票反对大部分步协会会员们持的法律。紧随纽镇案,这种两党间的对于联邦械管制温和举动就是这样的例子。如同之前诸多案例一样,它失败了。 /201408/319949From fluvaccines to tetanus boosters, injections are amust in modern medicine.从流感疫苗到破伤风针,注射在现代医学中是不可或缺的。But do they always have to makeyou say Ouch?但是它们是否就一定会让你尖叫呢?Eh,no?嗯,不会吗?No,indeed.If new microneedle technology is successful, we may soon have needles that inject medicine without your even knowing it.真的不会!如果新的显微针技术成功了的话,我们将很快享受甚至你都不能意识到的药物注射。How does this work, you ask?你快问它是如何办到的?How does it work?如何办到的?You feel things because of the nerves that are embedded in your skin.你有感觉是因为你皮肤里镶嵌的有神经。However, the entiresurface of your skin is not covered.然而,它却没有完全覆盖你的皮肤。From a microscopic viewpoint, there is plenty of spacebetween nerves where a super-tiny needle wouldn’t be felt.在显微镜下可以看到,神经之间有很多空间,而在这里人们便感受不到微型针。No way!不可能!Way! Researcher Mark Prausnitz and his coworkers at the Georgia Institute of Technology inAtlanta have aly built micro-injection devices.可能!亚特兰大乔治亚理工学院的研究人员Mark Prausnitz和他的同伴们已经研制出了微型注射器具。Imagine a platform the size of your thumbnail,made of silicon, metal or glass.试想它就如拇指指甲盖大小,材料是硅、金属或是玻璃。The surface is covered with a thousand needles, each no bigger than aperiod at the end of a typewritten sentence.表面被一千个微型针所覆盖,每一个都还没一个句子中的句号那么大。When this chip is placed on your skin its like rolling in a briar patch-you are pierced again andagain.当这个芯片被植入到你的皮肤就仿佛是卷入到了荆棘区一样,它会一次又一次的刺你。But so small are the briars, you feel nothing.但它是如此的小,以至于你什么都感觉不到。Because they cause no discomfort,microneedles may soon allow doctors to administer controlled amounts of medication over longperiods of time.因为它们不会带来不适感。微型针很快就能让医生在很长时间内掌管在量上有控制的药物治疗。That would be a big step toward the precision medicine of tomorrow–and awayfrom the big Ouch of yesterday.这对于告别以前的疼痛时代、对于将来药物治疗的精准性来说都是迈出了一大步。 201405/299331

Science and technology科学技术Exercise and longevity锻炼与长寿Worth all the sweat出点汗,值了!Just why exercise is so good for people is, at last, being understood为什么锻炼有利于身体健康呢,人们终于知道了ONE sure giveaway of quack medicine is the claim that a product can treat any ailment.有一种绝对能推销出去皮膏药的方法就是说它包治百病。There are, sadly, no panaceas.遗憾的是灵丹妙药并不存在。But some things come close, and exercise is one of them.但有些方法却起到类似的作用,锻炼就是其中之一。As doctors never tire of reminding people, exercise protects against a host of illnesses,医生们一直不厌其烦地提醒人们锻炼身体有助于防范一系列疾病,from heart attacks and dementia to diabetes and infection.包括心脏病、痴呆症、糖尿病以及感染。How it does so, however, remains surprisingly mysterious.但是人们一直不知道为什么。But a paper just published in Nature by Beth Levine of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Centre and her colleagues sheds some light on the matter.德克萨斯大学西南医学中心贝丝莱文及其同事最近在《自然》杂志发表的论文给出了一些解释。Dr Levine and her team were testing a theory that exercise works its magic, at least in part, by promoting autophagy.莱文士及其小组明一个理论的正确性,即锻炼之所以有神奇的作用,This process, whose name is derived from the Greek for self-eating,部分原因是它能促进自体吞噬。is a mechanism by which surplus, worn-out or malformed proteins and other cellular components are broken up for scrap and recycled.这个名称来自希腊词语自食其肉,指的是多余的、不能再用的、畸形的蛋白质和其他细胞成分被分解成碎片并再循环。To carry out the test, Dr Levine turned to those stalwarts of medical research, genetically modified mice.莱文士在这个实验中使用转基因老鼠作为实验对象,医学研究中经常使用转基因老鼠。Her first batch of rodents were tweaked so that their autophagosomes,第一组老鼠被调整使得其细胞中的自噬体发出绿光,structures that form around components which have been marked for recycling—glowed green.这种结构形成的部分被用于再循环。After these mice had spent half an hour on a tmill,这些老师被放在跑步机上半个小时后,she found that the number of autophagosomes in their muscles had increased,莱文士发现它们肌肉中的自噬体增加了,and it went on increasing until they had been running for 80 minutes.直到跑了80分钟才停止增加。To find out what, if anything, this exercise-boosted autophagy was doing for mice,为了找出这种由锻炼刺激的自噬作用对老鼠有什么作用,the team engineered a second strain that was unable to respond this way.研究小组设计了另一组不能如此反应的老鼠。Exercise, in other words, failed to stimulate their recycling mechanism.换句话说,锻炼并没刺激再循环机制。When this second group of modified mice were tested alongside ordinary ones,当第二组的转基因老鼠和普通老鼠一起接受实验时,they showed less endurance and had less ability to take up sugar from their bloodstreams.它们的耐力逊于后者,也不能很好地从血液中吸收糖分。There were longer-term effects, too.还有长期影响。In mice, as in people, regular exercise helps prevent diabetes.老鼠和人一样,定期锻炼有助于预防糖尿病。But when the team fed their second group of modified mice a diet designed to induce diabetes,但是在研究小组给第二组转基因老鼠喂了一种专门用来诱发糖尿病的食物后,they found that exercise gave no protection at all.他们发现锻炼并没有任何预防效果。Dr Levine and her team reckon their results suggest that manipulating autophagy may offer a new approach to treating diabetes.莱文士及其小组认为实验结果表明受到操纵的自噬作用有可能提供一种新的治疗糖尿病的方法。And their research is also suggestive in other ways.他们的研究在其他方面也有启示。Autophagy is a hot topic in medicine,自噬作用在医学界是个热门话题,as biologists have come to realise that it helps protect the body from all kinds of ailments.因为生物学家逐渐意识到它能抵御各种小病。The virtues of recycling再循环的功效Autophagy is an ancient mechanism, shared by all eukaryotic organisms.自体吞噬机制很古老,所有真核生物都有。It probably arose as an adaptation to scarcity of nutrients.它的产生可能是为了适应营养物质的缺乏的环境。Critters that can recycle parts of themselves for fuel are better able to cope with lean times than those that cannot.有些家畜能循环利用它们身体的一部分作为养料,这样的动物比其他的动物在食物匮乏期更容易生存。But over the past couple of decades,但是在过去几十年里,autophagy has also been shown to be involved in things as diverse,自体吞噬在其他很多地方也有所体现,as fighting bacterial infections and slowing the onset of neurological conditions like Alzheimers and Huntingtons diseases.比如对抗细菌感染、放缓老年痴呆症和亨丁顿舞蹈症等神经症状的发病。Most intriguingly of all, it seems that it can slow the process of ageing.最有趣的是,看起来它还延缓了老化过程。Biologists have known for decades that feeding animals near-starvation diets can boost their lifespans dramatically.生物学家几十年来都知道在动物保持接近饥饿的状态下喂食能大幅度提高它们的寿命。Dr Levine was a member of the team which showed that an increased level of autophagy, brought on by the stress of living in a constant state of near-starvation,莱文士曾经工作的一个小组明在长期接近饥饿的状态下生存的压力引起了自体吞噬水平的提高,was the mechanism responsible for this life extension.这种原理使得寿命延长。The theory is that what are being disposed of in particular are worn-out mitochondria.被处理掉的其实是衰弱的线粒体。These structures are a cells power-packs.这种结构给细胞提供能量。They are where glucose and oxygen react together to release energy.在线粒体里,葡萄糖和氧气共同作用释放能量。Such reactions, though, often create damaging oxygen-rich molecules called free radicals,不过这种反应却常常制造出有害的富氧分子,即自由基,which are thought to be one of the driving forces of ageing.它是促成老化的原因之一。Getting rid of wonky mitochondria would reduce free-radical production and might thus slow down ageing.除掉没用的线粒体可以减少自由基的生成,这样就可能减缓老化过程。A few anti-ageing zealots aly subsist on near-starvation diets,一些反老化的狂热分子已经开始靠保持饥饿状态的饮食为生了,but Dr Levines results suggest a similar effect might be gained in a much more agreeable way, via vigorous exercise.但是莱文士的实验结果表示通过积极锻炼身体这样一种更随和的方式也能得到类似的效果。The teams next step is to test whether boosted autophagy can indeed explain the life-extending effects of exercise.该小组下一步将测试被激发的自体吞噬是否真的能解释锻炼有助于长寿。That will take a while.这尚需时间方能出结果。Even in animals as short-lived as mice, she points out, studying ageing is a long-winded process.她指出即使研究像老鼠这样寿命很短的动物也是长期曲折的过程。But she is sufficiently confident about the outcome that she has, in the meantime, bought herself a tmill.但是她对结果非常自信,于此同时还给自己也买了一个跑步机。 /201403/281866

The spying trade间谍这一行Success by stealth“隐”者为赢What business executives can learn from intelligence officers企业管理者所能从情报官身上学到的Work Like a Spy: Business Tips From a Former CIA Officer. By J.C. Carleson.书名:《像间谍一样工作:前 CIA 特工教你“生意经”》作者:J.C. CarlesonTrading Secrets: Spies and Intelligence in an Age of Terror. By Mark Huband.书名:《行业秘密:恐怖时代的间谍和情报》作者:Mark HubandSPIES are often wrongly presumed to work in a shadowy and exotic world. In fact they are more like unusually crafty bureaucrats than James Bond. Their skills would be quite handy for business executives, according to J.C. Carleson, a former CIA officer. In “Work Like a Spy”, her gripping laymans guide to spycraft, she shows how adopting an intelligence officers mindset can make managers more efficient and better at handling people.人们常常认为间谍这份工作神神秘秘、认为他们总是活动于异国他乡,其实这种想法是错误的。实际上,与詹姆斯-邦德相比,他们更像是狡诈非凡的官员。前CIA 特工J.C. Carleson认为,间谍所掌握的技巧对于企业管理者来说相当受用。在《像间谍一样工作》一书中,她为大众介绍了间谍所掌握的技能,内容十分引人入胜。她为我们讲述了运用情报官的思维方式是如何会让管理者更有效率、更好地管理人力资源的。In her eight years undercover, Ms Carleson ran agents in hostile countries, getting them to risk their lives to steal secrets for America. Targeting and recruiting such people offers lessons in what might be called “strategic networking”: gaining information about customers and competitors. How do you make contact without seeming pushy? What is the hook, and what are the incentives? It turns out that offering consultancy fees and lavish entertainment rarely works; appealing to the ego is far more effective.在她八年的卧底行动中,Carleson带领特工在敌国活动,她让手下冒着生命危险为美国窃取机密。这些特工人选的寻找过程和招募过程会给我们些许启示,这些启示在管理中可被叫做“战略性人脉网”,即了解有关顾客和竞争者的信息。如何在不显得莽撞的前提下与人沟通?引鱼上钩的“钩”是什么?鼓励对方进一步配合的措施是什么?结果明:提供好处费或奢侈的款待很少能奏效;投其所好远远更加有效。While steering clear of real secrets, Ms Carleson gives an accurate account of how intelligence officers operate. Her “strategic elicitation exercise”, in which she pushes ers to get random information from a stranger, is particularly well described.尽管Carleson绕开了真正的秘笈不谈,但她准确地描述了情报官是怎么工作的。她对“战略导出练习”的描述尤其出色,在这种练习中,她迫使读者从陌生人那里获取任意信息。In a trade in which deceit is a tool, knowing when to be honest is important. Ms Carleson describes the ideal CIA officer as a “Boy Scout with a secret dark side”. Her terse remarks on ethics sound convincing, not preachy. She explains, for example, why fiddling expenses leads to instant dismissal in the CIA: if you cheat your country out of money, you may betray its secrets too. Readers doing business in places where sleaze is endemic will find these points instructive. It is wise to work out in advance the red lines you and your company will not cross—and make sure everyone involved knows what they are.在以欺骗为手段的间谍行业中,知道何时诚实很重要。Carleson把理想的中央情报局官描述为“表面老实,但有着不为人知的阴暗面”。她对伦理学所做的简洁听起来很有说力,但并无说教意味。比如说,她解释了为什么在中央情报局,如果一个人在公司开上做手脚,就会被立即开除—因为如果一个人骗了国家的钱,他就可能也会泄露国家的机密。如果你经商的地方欺诈行为泛滥,你就会感觉这些观点很有启发性。事先制定好你和你的公司不会超越的“红线”—并且确保所有规定涉及到的人知道这些“红线”是什么,才是明智的做法。While Ms Carlesons book highlights the skills of individual intelligence officers, Mark Hubands “Trading Secrets” gives a glimpse of what spy agencies actually do and how they are evolving to combat new 21st-century threats. A former journalist who now runs a security consultancy, he argues that undercover agents are often most useful not when they are spying on a countrys enemies, but when they are talking to them. He gives new details about the role that Britains Secret Intelligence Service (SIS, commonly called MI6) played in opening channels of communication with the IRA in Northern Ireland, and with Colonel Qaddafis regime in Libya.Carleson的书突出了单个情报官的技能;至于间谍机构到底是干什么的、又是怎样参与到打击21世纪人们所面临的新威胁中的,Mark Huband所著的《行业秘密》让读者得以一窥其貌。曾经是一名记者的Mark Huband现在正经营一家安全咨询公司。他认为通常来说,卧底最有用的时候,不是他们暗中监视一个国家的敌人之时,而是他们与其交谈的时候。对于英国秘密情报局在与北爱尔兰的爱尔兰共和军和与利比亚的卡扎菲政权打开了信息交流的渠道中所起的作用,作者给出了新的细节。Mr Huband also deals with fiascos, such as the political misuse of the sketchy intelligence available about Saddam Husseins weapons programmes. Spies rarely provide solid answers, he says, but offer confusing bits of a jigsaw puzzle of unknown size and shape. At best, secret intelligence removes an element of surprise from foreign affairs, but it rarely makes it clear what to do.Huband也会谈到失败的例子,像对于萨达姆的武器计划,情报人员得到的情报并不完全,结果这些情报被政府误用了。他说,间谍很少会提供可靠的,他们只会提供零零碎碎的令人困惑的信息,至于那些零零碎碎的信息所拼成的“拼图”有多大、是什么形状,谁也不知道。至多,秘密情报能让外事工作少遇到一些意料之外的事情,但很少会让人清楚该做什么。The picture he paints is tantalisingly incomplete. His reporting, based on his years as a journalist, hops across decades and between fronts, chiefly in the “war on terror” . He concludes that spooks are “awash with more information, insight and knowledge than ever before”, but that the “intrinsic power” of intelligence has waned. One reason is that some of the finest spies are being lured away by the private sector. It greatly rewards those with a background in secret government service—and not only because spycraft has given them exceptional people skills.Huband所描绘的图景并不完整,但很有诱惑力。他的报道基于他多年当记者的经历,内容跨越数十年、穿梭于不同的战线、主要集中在“反恐战争”方面。他得出的结论是:“现在的间谍所能获取的信息、所具备的洞察力和知识比以往任何时候都要多”,但是情报的“内在力量”已经衰减。原因之一是有些最出色的间谍被私营部门挖走了。私营部门会特别奖励那些有在秘密政府机构工作背景的人—不只是因为间谍工作赋予了他们超乎常人的与人相处的技巧。 /201405/301197

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