四川 | 原创| 国内| 国际| 娱乐| 体育| 女性| 图片| 太阳鸟时评| 市州联播| 财经| 汽车| 房产| 旅游| 居家| 教育| 法制| 健康| 食品| 天府新区| 慢耍四川
您当前的位置:四川新闻  >  本网原创


2018年03月17日 12:34:39

Science and technology科学技术Social status and health社会地位与健康Misery index贫困指数Low social status is bad for your health. Biologists are starting to understand why社会地位低对身体不好,生物学家开始理解此中的奥秘ONCE upon a time the overstressed executive bellowing orders into a telephone, cancelling meetings, staying late at the office and dying of a heart attack was a stereotype of modernity.曾今,人们对现代化的一个根深蒂固的印象是,领导们在巨大压力的折磨之下,对着电话狂吼,下达命令,取消会议,待在办公室到很晚,最后死于心脏病。That was before the Whitehall studies, a series of investigations of British civil servants begun in the 1960s.可是,自1960年代开始的英国白厅对英国政治家们展开的一系列调查之后,这种印象开始改变,These studies found that the truth is precisely the opposite.因为调查发现事实却完全不是那么回事。Those at the top of the pecking order actually have the least stressful and most healthy lives.实际上处于社会高层的人们承受的压力最小,生活最健康。Cardiac arrest—and, indeed, early death from any cause—is the prerogative of underlings.心跳骤停—而且,确实是,不管是出于什么原因的早死—那都是做下属的才有的事。Such results have since been confirmed many times, both in human societies and in other primate species with strong social hierarchies.在人类社会,还有等级严格的其他的灵长类物种中,都已多次验这种结果的正确性。But whereas the pattern is well-understood, the biological mechanisms underlying it are not.但是,虽然这种模式很容易理解,潜在的生物学机制却并不这么认为。A study just published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, however, sheds some light on the matter.杂志《国家科学院》最新出版的专题里,对此现象有相关阐述。In it, a group of researchers led by Jenny Tung and Yoav Gilad at the University of Chicago looked at the effects of status on rhesus macaques.专题里,詹妮东和要吉拉德领导的研究小组在芝加哥大学,研究地位之于恒河猴的影响。Experience has shown that these monkeys display the simian equivalent of the Whitehall studies findings.实验经过表明,这些猴子所表现出来的是英国白厅研究发现的猴子版本。The high risk of disease among those at the bottom of the heap in both cases suggests that biochemical responses to low status affect a creatures immune system.社会地位低的患病风险高,这既适用于人类界也同样适用于猴子。这暗示了社会地位低的物种的生物化学反应影响其免疫系统。Those responses must, in turn, depend on changes in the way the creatures genes are expressed.反过来,这种生物化学反应又取决于物种生物基因的变化方式。To investigate this phenomenon means manipulating social hierarchies, but that would be hard if it were done to human beings.若要调查这种现象,那就意味着需要控制社会等级,在人类身上进行,很困难。You can, however, do it to monkeys, and the researchers did.但是,你可以在猴子身上做实验,而且研究人员也是这么做的。Unhappy minds in unhealthy bodies不健康的身体,不快乐的心情Dr Tung and Dr Gilad took 49 middle-ranking female macaques and split them into groups of four or five.士东和吉拉德,用49个中等地位等级的女性猴子做实验,并把他们分为四到五组。The researchers were able to control where in a group an individual ranked by the order in which it was introduced into its group.根据猴子们加入研究群体的时间顺序,研究人员给她们的地位等级编号。The hierarchies thus established, the team conducted tests on cells in the monkeys blood, in an attempt to determine the effect of a macaques rank on her biochemistry and, in particular, on how rank influences the activity of various genes.等级于是得以建立。研究团队采集猴子血液做细胞研究,试图搞清楚恒河猴的地位等级对其生物化学的影响,特别是地位等级是如何对各种基因活动起作用的。The answer is, a lot.研究结果有很多。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad looked at the expression in each animal of 6,097 genes.每个动物有6097个基因,士东和吉拉德观察每个动物的基因,寻找社会等级与基因活动之间的相互关系。They were searching for correlations between social rank and gene activity, and in 987 genes they found one.在987个基因中,他们找到了一个。Some genes were more active in high-ranking individuals; others were more active in low-ranking ones.某些基因在等级高的个体中更活跃,而其他的基因则活跃于等级低的个体中。The relationship was robust enough to work the other way round, too.这一结果很牢靠,倒过来看也成立。Given a blood sample and no other information, it was possible to predict an individuals status within her group with an accuracy of 80%. 只提供血液样本而没有其他相关信息,就可以预测个体在群体里的地位等级,且精确度达到80%。The next question was what all these genes actually do.下一个问题,所有这些基因,真正起的是什么作用。Sure enough the answer, for a substantial fraction of them, was that they regulate aspects of the immune system.很显然,对大部分基因而言,它们起着调节着免疫系统的作用。In particular, low-status individuals showed high levels of activity in genes associated with the production of various immune-related cells and chemical signalling factors, as well as those to do with inflammation.这非常明显地体现在,社会地位低的个体,产生各种与免疫相关的细胞和化学信号基因的活动更为明显,还有那些有关于炎症的基因。Although the researchers did not explicitly examine the health of their simian charges, chronic, generalised inflammation is a risk factor, in people, for a long list of ailments ranging from heart trouble to Alzheimers disease.虽然研究人员没有仔细分析参与实验的猴子们的健康状况,但是慢性的、全身性的炎症对猴子们来说是危险因素,人类的部分,就是从心脏病到老年痴呆症等一大长系列疾病。Finally, the team investigated the mechanisms behind these differences in gene expression.最后,研究小组用基因表达调查造成这些不同的机理原因。In keeping with previous work, they found that high-and low-rank individuals showed different levels of responsiveness to a class of hormones called glucocorticoids, which regulate immune-system activity and response to stress.与之前工作结果一致,他们发现地位高和地位低的个体,对被称为糖皮质激素的一组基因,表现出的反应级别不一样。糖皮质激素控制免疫系统活动和对压力的反应。They also found changes in the mix of cells within the animals immune system itself.同时他们发现,在动物免疫系统自身,混合细胞有发生改变。But what is new, and intriguing, is that they discovered, for the first time, evidence that a phenomenon called epigenetic change is at work.但是最为新奇的是,他们头一次发现了后天改变在起作用的据。Epigenetics—currently one of molecular biologys hottest topics—is a process by which genes are activated or deactivated by the presence or absence of chemical structures called methyl and acetyl groups.表现遗传学—目前分子生物学最热的话题之一—是这样一个过程,基因的激活或是失效取决于被称为甲基和乙酰基的化学结构的存在或是消失。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad found that methylation patterns were systematically different in high- and low-ranking animals.士东和吉拉德发现甲基模式在地位高级和地位低级的动物之间是不一样的,且这种不一样是系统性的不一样。Crucially, these changes are generally passed on to the daughter cells produced when a cell divides, and are thus perpetuated throughout an animals life.至关重要的一点是,这些变化一般在细胞分裂的同时传递给子细胞,因此这些变化将贯穿动物的一生。To the extent that epigenetic marking is involved in creating social status, then, status may be being maintained by the animals cells as they replicate.从此意义上讲,后天标记参与社会地位的形成,社会地位的维持靠动物细胞的复制。Destinys child?命运的产物?Those who believe in progress will, however, be pleased to know that epigenetics is not necessarily destiny.但是,相信事物是发展变化的人们会很高兴,因为表现遗传学并不是上天注定,难以改变的。Methyl groups may help maintain the status quo, but if that status quo is interrupted by outside events they can be wiped away and a new lot put in place.甲基或许可以帮助维持现状,但是如果外来事件打断了它,那么甲基将被移除,新的一批上任。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad discovered this because a few of their monkeys did change status within their groups.士东和吉拉德能够发现了这一点,是因为,参与实验的几个猴子确实改变了她们在群体中的地位等级。When that happened, changes in gene expression appropriate to the new status quickly followed.地位等级一旦发生改变,与之相应的基因表达随即改变。Those who do break free from their lowly station, then, may begin to reap the health benefits almost immediately.那些确实改变了它们之前卑贱地位的猴子们,身体状况几乎都立刻获得改善。As with any animal study, this one cannot simply be mapped straight onto humans.不管以什么动物为研究对象,结果都不能直接简单地运用于人类,这个也不例外。But it does provide pointers that researchers who work on people can use.但它确实给研究人类的学者们提供了一些建议。In particular, the experiment ensured that social rank was the only factor being changed, providing strong evidence that the chain of causality runs from low social status, through a disrupted immune system to worse health, and not the other way around.该实验的独特之处是,它确保了实验中社会等级是唯一发生改变的因素。它为因果关系链的正确模式提供了一个强有力的据,正确模式是低等的社会等级通过被破坏了的免疫系统损害健康。The best medicine, then, is promotion. Prosper, and live long.而不是反过来的顺序。晋升是疗效最好的药物。因为成功,所以活得长久。 /201403/278292呼和浩特医院检查梅毒项目有哪些And at the heart of the celebration is the liberation of the ancient Israelites from slavery in Egypt,the story of stories, replayed around the Seder table with the help of the Seder plate and its symbolic foods, and a ritual book called the Haggadah.庆祝活动的核心是古代以色列人从埃及的奴役中获得解放,其中所蕴含的故事,通过逾越节家宴的餐桌及其具有象征意义的食物,以及一种称为哈加达的仪式书传递。This is the b of affliction which our ancestors ate in the land of Egypt.这是苦难的面包,我们的祖先在埃及之地所食用的。All who are hungry, let them come and eat.致所有人感到饥饿的人,请他们来吃。But this is about more than just retelling an ancient story. Its about reliving it.但这不仅仅是重新讲述一个古老的故事。这是关于重温。What do we think, everybody, um, salt water for tears or Red Sea?我们会作何选择,每一个人,嗯,眼泪流成的盐水还是红海海水?What do we think? Tears?我们想的是什么呢?眼泪?Is Red Sea an alternate, er...?红海是一种选项吗?And the Haggadah provokes questions that belong as much to the here and now as to the long ago.而哈加达所在这里尽可能多提出的问题属于很久以前。In every generation, there are those who rise up against us and seek to destroy us,but the Holy One, blessed be he,saves us from their hands.在每一代中,有些人起来反对我们,试图摧毁我们,但圣者是应当称颂的,他们拯救我们。This is a tough passage, really.那是一种艰难困苦,真的。I mean, this says that we can predict, really, that in every generation there will be exterminators just around the corner.我的意思是,这表示,我们可以预测,真的,在每一代会有毁灭者在伺机而动。I mean, is Jewish culture always expecting the worst?我的意思是,犹太文化总是期待最糟糕的情况发生? 201403/282570呼市第二附属医院治疗肛周囊肿多少钱French business法国商业Outside in由外到内France just might be growing more tolerant of disruptive outsider法国也许会对外来的破坏分子越发纵容THE French do have a word for “entrepreneur”, pace George Bush, and more than 500,000 new businesses in 2013 to prove it. What they struggle to translate precisely is “outsider”.在法国有一个词是用来描述“企业家”的,在乔治·布什的书籍《步伐》中,以及在2013年有超过五十万的新业务明了这一点。而他们难以用精确的语言来翻译的这个词语便是“外来者”。Patrick Drahi, a Moroccan-born, Swiss-resident, Franco-Israeli billionaire who has just won a bitter takeover battle for SFR, a telecoms operator, happens to be both. It was a striking victory over the Bouygues family, a powerful industrial clan at the heart of the establishment, who were backed by a clutch of other well-connected family businesses, a state investment agency, a big union, and above all by the industry minister, Arnaud Montebourg. This is quite a feat in a country where disruptive newcomers have rarely been made welcome at the big-business high table.帕特里克·德拉希,一位洛哥出生,定居于瑞士的以籍法裔亿万富翁,于不久前赢得了一场发生在收购SFR的恶战,SFR是一家电信运营商。这是一场出人意料的战役,因为它战胜了布依格家族,这个强大工业帝国的核心,是由以众多其他出生名门的家族企业为靠山构成的,它不仅拥有政府投资,而且拥有一个巨大的联盟,其中以工业部部长,Arnaud Montebourg为首。在一个具有破坏性的外来者在大企业的谈判桌上是不被欢迎的国家,这是一个相当了不起的壮举。Mr Drahi attributes his win to the simple fact that his was a better project than Bouygues Telecoms, and logic prevailed. Others argue that the board of Vivendi, the media group that was selling SFR, is stiff with unusually independent-minded men whose backs were put up by the public pressure that the Bouygues family and their chums brought to bear.Drahi把他的胜利归结为一个简单的原因:他比布依格电信公司拥有更周全的计划,因此理应胜利。还有一些人认为这是因为试图出售SFR的维旺迪董事会(Vivendi SA;又译威望迪,前名为维旺迪环球(Vivendi Universal)是法国一家巨型媒体跨国集团。业务范围包括音乐、电视、电影、出版、电信、互联网和等行业。)出人意料的是因为无党派人士背后有布依格家族以及其同盟所施加的社会压力。Even so, it is not implausible to see in it the beginnings of a sea-change in French capitalism. The long-standing assumption that with the states blessing, the destinies of entire industries should be overseen by a charmed circle of interconnected people from the grandes ecoles and the haute bourgeoisie seems to be wearing thinner these days. One line in Mr Drahis CV implies he is part of that circle—he attended the elite ecole Polytechnique—but rather than continuing on the usual route via public service and politics to the top of a giant French corporation, the son of humble Moroccan teachers pursued a rather Anglo-Saxon career as a buyer, seller and stitcher-together of cable and telecoms companies around the globe, alongside buy-out firms.即便如此,法国资本主义史上这样一个如此重大的变革依然是令人难以置信的。一个长期存在的猜想就是在国家的庇佑下,法国整个实业的前途应该是在一些来自grandes ecoles以及haute bourgeoisie(法国中产阶级上层)的互通有无排外团体的严密监管之下的,这些些日子,他们看起来似乎衣着单薄。从Drahi先生的简历看来他似乎也是也是这个团体之中的一部分——因为他参与了整个的法国高等工商学院的整个精英班的学习——但是比起沿着通过公共务以及政治活动等成为法国的巨头企业这一条寻常之路,这位洛哥普通老师的儿子追随了盎格鲁-撒克逊的道路作为一个买家,卖家和有线电视遍布全球的电信公司,他与全面收购并驾齐驱。Not many such disruptive outsiders have risen to the very top, but there are a few. One is Xavier Niel, founder of Iliad Group, a mobile-phone operator that has grown fast by drastically undercutting its rivals prices. The co-owner these days of Le Monde, a newspaper, and partner of the daughter of Bernard Arnault, boss of LVMH, a luxury group, Mr Niel is being clasped to the establishments bosom. Another iconoclast is Jacques-Antoine Granjon, the billionaire co-founder of an early online-retail business, Vente-privee.com.并没有很多这样具有颠覆性的局外人达到如此顶端之高度,但也不是没有。其中之一便是Xavier Niel,Iliad Group的创始人,一位增长迅猛与竞争对手议价能力极高的移动电话运营商。这些日子他成为了《世界报》的合伙人以及LVMH这个奢侈品集团老板Bernard Arnault女儿的合伙人,Niel先生已经紧紧扣住了当权者的心扉。另一个打破常规的人便是Jacques-Antoine Granjon,这位亿万富翁是Vente-privee.com.这个早期网上零售商的共同创始人。More shaking-up is on the cards. Frances business climate is changing as its flagship companies go global. Some are now run by foreigners—for example, Sanofi, a pharmaceuticals giant with a German chief executive, its first non-French boss. Others have shifted senior management overseas: Essilor, the world leader in corrective lenses, is mainly overseen from Texas these days. And foreign investors, with their Anglo-Saxon expectations of corporate governance, own around half the shares of the biggest firms, the CAC-40.巨变即将来临。当其旗舰企业走向国际的时候法国商业环境就已变化。其中一些企业现在还是由外国人经营的,例如Sanofi,这家制药业巨头有一个德国的首席执行官,这是非法籍人士的首次担任公司最高层。其他的一些公司也开始雇佣外籍人员作为公司高管:Essilor,矫正视力业内的领头羊,大体上已经处于特克萨斯州的监管下了。并且外国的投资者带着盎格鲁-撒克逊的法人管理期望值,大约拥有这家最大公司一半的一半份额,从CAC-40指数来看。There is another reason, too, why France is set to become more open to entrepreneurs, outsiders and disrupters. “Frances back is to the wall economically,” says Mr Drahi, “President Hollande has realised that only enterprises create jobs and Manuel Valls, the new prime minister, is aly pushing that line.” Just as Fran?ois Mitterrand, elected president in 1981 on an intensely socialist platform, had to change tack to woo back business and save the economy, so Fran?ois Hollande has begun to do the same. Among the 1980s returners, from self-imposed exile in America, was Mr Arnault, a disruptive force in his day. Helped by the French state, he acquired the kernel of what was to become the worlds largest luxury group.同时还有另一个原因,为什么法国对于企业家、外来者、以及颠覆者的设定变得更加开放。“法国背靠经济墙,” Drahi先生说道“奥朗德总统已经实现了只要企业能够创造了就业机会并且Manuel Valls,这位新总理已经在推广这条线。”正如Fran?ois Mitterrand,于1981年在强烈的社会主义平台中竞选总统,认为必须改变策略招商引资以挽救经济,所以奥朗德也开始着手做同样的事情。在十九世纪八十年代的在美国自我放逐的回归者中,是Arnault先生,一个破坏者,得到了法国的帮助,由此他获得了世界最大奢侈品集团的核心。 /201404/288202呼和浩特首大治疗膀胱炎多少钱

新城区妇幼保健人民中医院盆腔炎多少钱呼和浩特首大生殖专科医院有没有前列腺科Telling jokes谈独特玩笑Have you heard the one…你有没有听过…Groucho Marx liked a good oneGroucho Marx喜欢听精的No Joke: Making Jewish Humour.By Ruth Wisse.不许说笑:犹太式的玩笑THIS sharp and thoughtful study presents a reviewer with an unusual challenge: which joke do you e? One cannot tell them all, both because space forbids it and because some of them replicate, in order to mock and render harmless, noxious Jewish stereotypes.尖锐而又内涵的研究将一个不寻常的挑战放在读者面前:这句玩笑你引自何处?人们通常说不出所有之乎者也来,一方面是篇幅限制,另一方面是很多玩笑是照葫芦画瓢的,用以嘲讽和带恶意的或没有恶意的犹太人的固有看法。The most telling joke is one that Ruth Wisse, professor of Yiddish literature at Harvard, attributes to Immanuel Olsvanger, a folklorist who was born in Poland in 1888 and who collected Yiddish humour. Here it is, paraphrased. When you tell a joke to a peasant, he laughs three times: once when you tell it, next when you explain it to him and finally when he understands it. The landowner laughs twice: once when you tell it and again when you explain it. The policeman laughs only when you tell it, because he does not let you explain it and so never understands. When you tell a Jew a joke he says, “Ive heard it before. And I can tell it better.”有个讲的最多的笑话是 哈佛希伯来语文学教授Ruth Wisse属于Immanuel Olsvanger ,后者是个搜集希伯来语笑话的民俗学家,于1888年出生于波兰。这里只是转述一下。跟农民讲笑话他会大笑三次,第一次是你给他讲的时候,第二次是你向他解释的时候,最后一次是当他终于听懂的时候。地主会笑两次:你讲的时候还有听你解释的时候。而警察只会在听你讲时候笑一笑,他不会让你解释所以他也不会听懂。但当你跟一个犹太人讲笑话时,他会跟你说“噢,这我以前就听过,我可以讲的更好”。His joke hinges not just on Jews fondness for humour, but also on Jewish verbal dexterity, competitiveness and anxiety over social status. But, as Ms Wisse explains, the Jewish reputation for humour is neither universal nor ancient. The connection began with the Enlightenment, but even in the late 19th century Londons chief rabbi felt obliged to defend Jews against charges of humourlessness. Jews in Arab countries do not seem to have had the laughing gene, but in the Yiddish-speaking world—and in America and Israel, where many, if not most, Jews descend from Yiddish speakers—the connection between humour and Jews is so strong as to be almost axiomatic. Ms Wisse sees it as similar to “French cuisine” or “Turkish baths”.他的玩笑不拘泥于犹太式的幽默,更有犹太人的巧舌如簧,和在社会地位上犹太人的竞争力与焦虑感。但Wisse教授解释说,犹太人的幽默感,名声在外,说既不是被普遍接受的也不是有史可溯的。这种形象起源于启蒙时期,但19世纪末的伦敦的犹太教大法师都感到有必要反驳犹太人无幽默感的说法阿拉伯世界的犹太人也不像有笑神经的人,但在希伯来语世界以及美国和以色列,很多犹太人,如果不是绝大多数,犹太人与幽默的联结在希伯来语世界中强大得如同与生俱来,不言自明的一样。Wisse教授把这种怪圈比作“法国烹饪”或者“土耳其浴”一样。To her credit, Ms Wisse offers no general theory of Jewish humour in her book, preferring description and textual analysis, at which she excels, to psycho-historical puffery. Yet certain traits persist across temporal and geographic boundaries. Jewish humour tends, paradoxically, to provoke both relief and discomfort, as with Heinrich Heines sharp send-ups of Jewish converts in early 19th-century Germany. Much of it tends towards the absurd: consider the inspiring lunacy of Lenny Bruce, the dark surrealism of Franz Kafka or the comparatively light version that imbues the short fiction of Etgar Keret, an Israeli writer.出于她信誉的原因,Wisse并没有在书中做出犹太式笑话的概括性的论述,而是在她擅长的历史心理学吹赞方面做了些描述以及逐字逐句的分析。但在一定时间、地理范围内是有确切依据的。犹太式幽默常常是似是而非的,带来轻松或者抒发不悦,就像19世纪初德国的Heinrich Heine对犹太人尖酸嘲讽改变了一样。很多犹太人都偏荒诞:比如鼓舞人心的疯子Lenny Bruce,暗黑超现实主义的Franz Kafka又或者相比之下程度较轻的以色列短片科幻小说作家Etgar Keret。Jewish humour also rests on a closeness but separateness from the societies in which Jews lived—particularly Yiddish-speaking Jews in Europe—and on paradoxes. “A culture forged in the ancient East that developed in the modern West, and a theology founded in divine election whose adherents have been targeted for genocide—such incongruities tickle the modern Jewish imagination,” explains Ms Wisse. In other words, it is much better to have defiant, life-affirming laughter than tears and lamentation.犹太式幽默同样依存于一个与他们生活的社会分离的,私密的环境以及种种悖论。Wisse教授解释说,“一个由古老东方育在现代西方发展的,他们的神学体系建立在曾经历过大屠杀的后代的牧师选举制之上的文明-诸如此类的不协调启发着当代犹太人的想象力。”也就是反抗着总是好的,生命赋予我们比泪水和哀鸣更多的欢笑。 /201404/293151呼和浩特和林格尔县泌尿系统在线咨询Remember that hit song from the 80’s that featured thechorus:还记得80年代那首红极一时歌曲吗?它的合声部分极有特色:And I would walk five hundred miles/and I would walk five hundred more/Just to bethe man who walks a thousand miles/to fall down at your door?我愿步行500里/我愿再行500里/成为行完千里路程,倒在你门前的男人。What sounds romantic in popsong fantasy would be painful in reality.流行歌曲里诠释的歌词传达给我们的感觉非常浪漫美好,但实际情况则是痛苦不堪。Anyone who walks a thousand miles would indeed fall down, thanks to the large blisters that wouldmost likely form on the heels and soles of weary feet.因为经过一千里的跋涉,疲惫的脚底和脚跟都极有可能会长出大水泡,所以任何人都会跌倒。Whether from playing too much basketball or jogging in ill-fitting sneakers, we’ve all had blisters.打篮球的时间太长或是穿着不合脚的运动鞋慢跑都会产生水泡。But what are blisters, and how do they form?但什么是水泡?它们是怎样形成的呢?Blisters come in all shapes and sizes, and some are more serious than others.水泡形状大小不一,有些水泡的症状比其它水泡要严重。The typical, jogging-related blister is a round patch of elevated skin containing a clear fluid.由于慢跑引起的典型水泡呈圆形,一小块皮肤会凸起并且里面含有透明液体。Blistering occurs when anupper layer of skin rubs against the underlying layer.当表皮与皮下层相互擦时,就会产生水泡。As a space opens between the skin layers, chemicals cause the blood vessels in the area to leakand allow a clear fluid to seep out and fill the space between layers of skin.当皮层之间形成隔离空间以后,化学物质造成此区域血管渗透,从而会有透明液体渗出,填充在皮层之间的部位。This fluid is a sort of clear plasma, or blood without the red blood cells.这种液体是一种透明的血浆,或者可以说是没有红细胞的血液。Blisters usually occur in the uppermost layers of skin, and are normally harmless.水泡通常出现在皮肤表层,对人体无害。Because the blood vessels are only made more porous but not actually damaged, red blood cells do not fill the blister.血管仅多了一些空隙而已,并没有实际遭到破坏,红细胞也不会出现在水泡里面。But if a blister does fill with red blood, it means the damage is more serious, and should becarefully treated.如果水泡里面出现红色血液,这意味着血管损伤比较严重,需慎重进行处理。 201402/276625内蒙古呼和浩特市治疗附件炎多少钱

分页 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29