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楼主:同城卫生 时间:2018年04月21日 23:15:58 点击:0 回复:0
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Topped with red tomato, white mozzarella and green basil, The Margherita, one of the pillars in the Neapolitan pizza family, was designed to bring to mind the colors of the Italian national flag.那不勒斯披萨家族的当家之作——玛格丽特披萨,以红番茄、白干酪、和绿色的罗勒为馅料。这种馅料的颜色搭配旨在让人联想到意大利国旗。Italy, the birthplace of Neapolitan pizza, has been trying to draw the world’s attention to its fading pizza culture. Xinhua News Agency reported that Italy has filed an application requesting to put this pizza on the UNESCO Intangible Heritage List.意大利正是那不勒斯披萨的发源地。在那里,日渐衰退的披萨文化正在努力引起全世界的关注。据新华社报道,意大利已经提出申请,希望将那不勒斯披萨列入联合国教科文组织非物质文化遗产。Naples, located in Italy’s south, supposedly invented the dish back in the 1700s. With its unique artistic value as well as its cultural heritage, the Neapolitan not only sets the standard for what a good pizza is, but also represents the pizza culture of Italy.那不勒斯坐落在意大利南部,据推测,其披萨的制作历史可追溯到18世纪。那不勒斯人民凭借独特的艺术美感和文化传承,不仅为好披萨定下了标准,更代表了意大利披萨文化。Hand-crafted art出自双手的艺术As chefs the world over focus on artisanal cooking, the culinary skills behind the Neapolitan pizza have gained even greater value and distinction.由于世界各地的厨师十分关注手工艺烹饪,那不勒斯披萨的烹饪技巧因此更具价值,也备受赞誉。Unlike with most mass-produced pizzas, preparing a Neapolitan requires pizza makers follow an exact formula and be skillful in spinning the pizza dough. Additionally, pizza makers should include natural Neapolitan yeast and extra virgin olive oil in the dough preparation process.不同于批量生产的披萨,制作那不勒斯披萨需要遵循精准的配方,要想用手将披萨饼胚在半空中旋转起来也要掌握特殊的技巧。此外,披萨饼师傅还需要天然的那不勒斯酵母与特级初榨橄榄油来发面和面。To ensure their products are quality, pizza makers bake their pies in ovens fired by oak wood to bake dough that has fermented for 24 hours, ensuring each Neapolitan pizza has an elastic, crispy and tender crust and aromatic toppings.为了确保披萨的质量,师傅们将生面团发酵24小时后再放入烤箱,并用橡木火烘焙。这样,每一个那不勒斯披萨才能面饼筋道、外皮酥脆香嫩,馅料芳香可口。Pizza culture披萨文化Immigrants brought Italian pizza to US shores in the late 19th century. Since then, it has gradually turned into a fast-food business staple.十九世纪晚期,意大利披萨随着移民传入北美。自此,渐渐走上了快餐主食的道路。Last year the B estimated that there were more than 40 million Americans who consumed pizza on any given day. But there are fundamental differences between Italian pizza and its better-known American counterpart.据B去年的估算,在美国,披萨每天的购买量已超过四千万人次。但意式披萨与这种大家熟知的美式披萨有着天壤之别。“You have to bear in mind that while in the majority of Italy this [pizza] is an artisanal product, in the US it is more related to ‘junk food’,” European nutritionist Giuseppe Russolillo told the B.欧洲营养学家朱塞佩#8226;鲁索利洛在接受B采访时表示:“大家应该知道大多数意大利披萨都是手工艺作品,而美国的披萨往往是‘垃圾食品’”。Italians view their pizza as a national icon and source of pride. For some, being a pizza maker isn’t frowned upon, but something to be celebrated.意大利人将披萨视为他们的国家标志和骄傲。对一些人来说,成为一名披萨饼师傅没什么不好,而且还更值得庆祝。“In Italy, when you say, ‘Hey, I am a pizza maker,’ it’s a job that’s very respected and very well-paid,” pizza chef Graziano Bertuzzo told NPR. Whereas in the US, he says, it is more common to see “a 17-year-old boy going to a local pizza shop and slapping an apron on and throwing some sauce and cheese on a pizza”.正如披萨厨师格拉齐亚诺#8226;贝尔图左在接受NPR采访时所说:“在意大利,如果你说,‘嗨,我是一名披萨饼师傅,’ 那你正在做着一份受人尊敬且收入颇丰的工作。而在美国,你在披萨店里更常见的是那些拍拍围裙,把果酱和干酪扔在披萨上的十七岁大男孩。” /201506/381501Yiliang Roast Duck宜良烤鸭During the period of Emperor Guangxu, the closing years of the Qing Dynasty, a Yunnanese named Xu Shi from Yiliang goes to Beijing sitting for the imperial examinations in the hope of winning an official rank. He is companied by an attendant named Liu Wen who is all eyes and all ears to learn cookery from a Beijing Roast Duck Restaurant, most notably for the art of preparing Peking duck. Later, when they return to the hometown Gouzhen of Yiliang, Xu Shi finally wins a seventh rank, the same as the post of county magistrate while Liu Wen opens a restaurant called Zhibin Garden at the local train station. But restaurateur Liu is not content to merely reproduce the Beijing Duck of the capital; he wants to localize it and make it unique to the region. Liu uses a mud oven instead of a brick oven, honey instead of malt syrup for the glaze, and most distinctively pine branches and needles instead of the Gaoliang hardwood normally used for Peking duck. The end result is now called Yiliang Duck and has become a Yunnanese speciality. Half a century rolls by, when mentioning Liu Wen’s roast duck, many people will still be eaten outflow to drool. 清光绪年间宜良人许实进京赶考,带了个随从陪侍叫刘文。许实备考应试,刘文则常去一家烤鸭店眼观鼻嗅耳闻地偷学技艺;许实考取功名得了个七品官,刘文学得了技艺回乡,在街火车站开了个烤鸭店名为“质彬园”,刘文因地制宜,他改用土坯火炉,用松毛结暗火烘烤,北京用麦芽糖水做涂料上色,北京烤鸭用高粱秆做撑筒,他改用芦苇,做出了街烤鸭的特点. 半个世纪过去了,吃过的人回忆起刘文的烤鸭,仍然食欲大动,终涎欲滴,赞不绝口。 /201505/375126Young people in China get a bad rap. Conventional wisdom says the boys are spoilt and fat, the girls flighty gold diggers — and the whole lot of them lazy, selfish and greedy. I have lived in China for seven years, and have met precious few mainland youths who fit those descriptions (except for maybe the plump part).中国的年轻人名声很差。人们普遍认为,男孩太宠溺又肥胖,女孩则是轻浮的拜金女——而且不管男孩女孩都懒惰、自私、贪婪。我在中国生活了7年,但遇到过的符合这种表述的内地年轻人少得可怜(可能除了胖墩那部分)。But don’t take it from me: I’m old enough to be their granny. Jemimah Steinfeld, on the other hand, has studied the Chinese twenty to thirtysomething in its own habitat: the bars, sex shops, online dating sites and matchmaking corners where the country’s complex, controversial and confusing youth culture is being made.但是别轻信我的话:我都老得可以当他们的奶奶了。另一方面,耶米马#8226;斯坦菲尔德(Jemimah Steinfeld)深入第一线,在近距离对中国二、三十岁的年轻人进行了研究,其中包括酒吧、性用品店、交友网站、相亲角,这些地方育着复杂、有争议、令人困惑的中国年轻人文化。Little Emperors and Material Girls: Sex and Youth in Modern China is based on extensive field research on the male and female of the species by Steinfeld, a London-based journalist and “self-confessed sinophile, feminist and history junkie” who has lived and worked in Shanghai and Beijing.《小皇帝和拜金女:现代中国的性和年轻人》(Little Emperors and Material Girls: Sex and Youth in Modern China)基于斯坦菲尔德对中国年轻男女的大量实地调研。斯坦菲尔德是一名驻伦敦的记者,曾在上海和北京生活、工作,是一名“自己承认的中国粉、女权主义者以及历史迷”。This generation will end up running the nation — at which point who they are, how they think and how they were raised will really matter. And Steinfeld, too, thinks they are not as bad as advertised.这一代人最终将统治这个国家——到那时,他们是谁、他们的思维习惯和成长环境将会很重要。而斯坦菲尔德也认为,中国的年轻人并不像传说中那么糟糕。Nor are they easy to stereotype. China has as many people under the age of 30 as the US has people of any age, notes Steinfeld. Not surprisingly, they don’t all fit neatly into categories.也不容易对他们进行分类。斯坦菲尔德指出,中国30岁以下的人口与美国的总人口相当。并不奇怪的是,他们并非都完美符合各个类别的定义。This meticulously researched but highly able book lets the people in question prove that themselves (I’m glad she asked these questions and not me, since sex in China is still a very sensitive issue). She allows a dozen or so young people to speak at length, from “leftover women” and “bare branches” (spinsters and bachelors), through the gamut of mistresses, gays, sexual rebels, Christians and even Communist party members who populate the younger generation. And the one thing she finds she can say about them with certainty is: they are very different from their parents.这本书调查严谨但可读性极高,让调查对象自己倾述(我很高兴她问了这些问题而不用我来问,因为性在中国仍然是个非常敏感的话题)。她让十几个年轻人娓娓道来,其中既有“剩女”和“光棍”(大龄单身女人和单身汉),还有“二奶”、同性恋者、性反叛者、基督徒、甚至共产党员,这些人构成了年轻一代。她发现她能确定的一点是:这些年轻人与父辈截然不同。In fact, she avers, China has one of the world’s biggest generation gaps. “It’s a fundamental difference between them and us,” she writes. “While the West continues to change, it does so at a slower pace. It’s a gentle gradient rather than a steep slope and therefore the schism between old and young is much less pronounced.”事实上,她断言,中国有着世界最大的的代沟之一。“他们与我们有着根本上的区别,”她写道,“虽然西方也在持续改变,但步伐较慢。西方的改变是平缓而不是陡坡式的,因此年长者与年轻人之间的代沟远没那么明显。”Many parents of her subjects grew up during the Cultural Revolution, and suffered famine as toddlers. Their grandparents may even remember when women had bound feet, she points out. But those born in the 1980s and 1990s — the balinghou and jiulinghou — are the first generation to grow up rich. And therein lies their biggest problem, Steinfeld writes: their parents and grandparents want to live through them, counting on their only offspring to make up for the privations of decades.在她的研究对象中,很多人的父母是在文化大革命期间长大的,幼年时曾经历过饥荒。而他们的祖父母也许还记得女人裹小脚的时代。出生在上世纪80和90年代的年轻人——80后和90后——是在富裕条件下长大的第一代人。斯坦菲尔德写道,这就带来了他们最大的问题:父母及祖父母把希望全寄托在他们身上,指望自己唯一的后代弥补数十年的艰辛。Unlike in the west, many of these children are willing at least to make the effort. Steinfeld points out that, while 21st century China is unrecognisable from that of the 20th century, one cultural th remains: children’s powerful duty of filial piety. And duty number one is to marry and bear offspring. Love and sex today are still very much Mum and Dad’s business. Steinfeld even profiles one rake who takes Mummy along on dates in his Porsche.与西方不同,这些孩子中有很多人至少愿意付出努力。斯坦菲尔德指出,尽管21世纪的中国与20世纪已经不可同日而语,但一条文化脉络依然存在:子女孝敬长辈的重大责任。而第一要务就是结婚生子。如今,子女的爱情和性生活在很大程度上仍然是爸妈要操心的事。斯坦菲尔德甚至描述了一个浪子开着保时捷带上老妈去约会的事。But there’s a statistical problem. A preference for boys, exacerbated by the one-child policy, will leave China with an estimated 20m more men under 30 than women by 2020, according to government research.但是,这里存在一个统计学问题。政府研究显示,独生子女政策加剧的重男轻女倾向意味着,到2020年中国30岁以下的男性估计会比女性多出2000万。And, since the existing men like to marry beneath them, that leaves “alpha women and beta men” without partners. Perhaps as a result, extramarital sex is on the increase. Steinfeld says the percentage of urbanites who have premarital sex — a big taboo before China opened up to the west a generation ago, and even since — quadrupled between 1989 and 2010 to 60 per cent. Yet 80 per cent of men still say they want to marry a virgin. Good luck with that.而且,由于男性喜欢与不如自己的女性结婚,这导致“A档女人和B档男人”找不到伴侣。也许是因为这一点,婚外性行为呈上升趋势。斯坦菲尔德称,2010年,有过婚前性行为(在一代人之前,即中国改革开放前,甚至是开放以来,这都是一大禁忌)的城市人口比例达到60%,是1989年的四倍。不过,竟有80%的男性仍然称,他们希望娶一个处女。祝他们好运吧。So spare a thought for China’s poor conflicted young people: caught between village and skyscraper, between one millennium and the next. They are sexual adventurers who still live at home with Mummy. They may be gay but still plan to marry to keep up appearances. And increasingly large numbers have no interest in bearing children but must do so to satisfy Granny. And I thought growing up in the 1960s was difficult.所以,想想中国那些可怜而又矛盾的年轻人吧:他们被夹在乡村和天大楼之间,一个千年和下一个千年之间。他们进行着性的探索,却仍然与老妈住在一起。他们也许是同性恋,却仍计划结婚来顾全面子。越来越多的年轻人对生儿育女不感兴趣,但又必须生个孩子让爸妈满意。我原本还以为在上世纪60年代长大很艰难呢。The writer is the FT’s Shanghai correspondent本文作者为英国《金融时报》驻上海记者Little Emperors and Material Girls: Sex and Youth in Modern China, by Jemimah Steinfeld, I. B. Tauris (RRP#163;14.99, .95)《小皇帝和拜金女:现代中国的性和年轻人》(Little Emperors and Material Girls: Sex and Youth in Modern China),耶米马#8226;斯坦菲尔德(Jemimah Steinfeld)著,I.B.Tauris出版社,建议零售价14.99英镑/19.95美元 /201506/381140奶奶:Nelson, this is your last warning.小盆友,我再警告你最后一次...奶奶:Earl, I can#39;t get Nelson to go to bed. I#39;ve tried bribes. I#39;ve tried threats. Nothing works.老公,我管不了小孙孙。这熊孩子死守着电视不睡觉,软硬都不吃。爷爷:Nelson, it#39;s time for bed.乖孙儿,该睡觉觉咯。孙子:I#39;m not sleepy.不嘛,我还不困。爷爷:Not sleepy? Great!! Then I can tell you the complete story of my life. I promise I#39;ll spare no details. Okay. Let#39;s see...It all started...还不困?好极了!那我就继续给你讲咱这半辈子的故事,我这回保毫无保留,爷爷小时候哇....爷爷:Nelson?孙儿?孙儿?孙子:ZZZZZ...ZZZZ!!!呼(~ o ~)~zZ,呼(~ o ~)~zZ!爷爷:It#39;s gift, I guess.看我这实力,了吧? /201506/379712

Lisa Borgnes Giramonti had families from books in mind when researching “Novel Interiors: Living in Enchanted Rooms Inspired by Literature” (due next month, ). Scouting homes in Southern California, Manhattan and New Jersey, she found details evoking British moors and New England cottages.丽莎·伯格涅斯·吉拉蒙迪(Lisa Borgnes Giramonti)在为撰写《小说中的室内装潢:生活在文学世界的美屋里》(Novel Interiors: Living in Enchanted Rooms Inspired by Literature)(下月发售,定价35美元[约合人民币214元])做调研的时候,脑海中浮现出了很多书中的家庭。她在加州南部、曼哈顿和新泽西州寻访住宅的过程中,从一些细节联想到了英伦沼地和新英格兰别墅的风情。Rough wood furniture on pale stone floors reminded her of chairs at Wuthering Heights that Emily Bront#235; called “high-backed, primitive structures.” Gently worn sofas raised the specter of drawing-room upholstery described by Jane Austen as “under the influence of four summers and two children.” Overflowing library shelves looked as enticing as Louisa May Alcott’s “wilderness of books,” where Jo March liked to retreat. And rooms piled with unfinished projects called up Virginia Woolf’s taste for some creative chaos of one’s own. Referring to these messy spaces, Ms. Borgnes Giramonti said in an interview, “It means that there’s life and soul and action and ideas.” Information: randomhouse.com.浅色石头地板上的粗木家具,让她想起了艾米莉·勃朗特(Emily Bront#235;)在《呼啸山庄》中描绘的那种“结构粗糙的高背椅”。一些略旧的沙发,令人联想到简·奥斯汀(Jane Austen)笔下,“经过四个春秋和两个孩子的折腾”(摘自《劝导》[Persuation]译林1996年版——译注)的客厅家具。塞得满满当当的书架,就和路易莎·梅·奥尔科特(Louisa May Alcott)笔下的“书海”一样令人憧憬,那是乔·马奇(Jo March,《小妇人》[Little Women]的主人公——译注)的心灵港湾。而堆满未完成作品的房间,不由让人联想起弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫(Virginia Woolf)对一些属于自己的独具创意的混乱的喜好。当谈到这些凌乱的空间时,伯格涅斯·吉拉蒙迪在采访中表示,“这就意味着,那里是有生命、有灵魂、有行动、有创意的。”详见:randomhouse.com。 /201412/347012

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