旅游  |  攻略  |  美食  |  自驾  |  团购
您的位置: 青海省旅游网 / 规划 / 新闻动态 / 青海要闻


来源:安卓网络    发布时间:2018年03月17日 12:35:25    编辑:admin         

The number of bargain hunters visiting the Boxing Day sales in the UK is likely to have fallen this year, marking a further shift away from bricks-and-mortar stores towards internet transactions.今年,英国在节礼日(Boxing Day)当天四处寻找便宜货的购物者人数可能有所下滑,这标志着消费者进一步从实体店购物转向互联网购物。While footfall declined, a growing number of shoppers went online on Monday. By midday, transactions were 11.5 per cent higher than the same period in 2015, according to Springboard, a retail consultancy.在实体店客流量下滑的同时,周一在网上购物的消费者人数有所增加。根据零售业咨询公司Springboard的数据显示,截至当天中午,网上交易量较2015年同期增长了11.5%。Diane Wehrle, insights director at Springboard, said that the reduction in footfall, which at midday on Boxing day was 6 per cent lower than a year earlier, was a concern to retailers even though it was likely to be offset by the growth in internet sales. Springboard调研总监迪亚娜.韦莱(Diane Wehrle)表示,截至节礼日当天中午,实体店的客流量较上一年同期减少了6%,这一趋势值得零售商关注,即使这可能被网上销量增长抵消。She said: “Some retailers do really well from the move to online but ultimately they need people to visit their stores which are a huge fixed cost.”她称:“一些零售商在向互联网转型方面做得确实很好,但他们终究需要人们光顾实体店,因为实体店固定成本很高。”The figures showed big regional variations, with relatively strong performances from London and the north of England. In central London, the New West End Company, which represents more than 600 retailers across 25 West End streets said that average footfall was up 5 per cent by mid-afternoon on Boxing Day compared with the previous year.数字显示出不同地区之间存在很大差别,伦敦和英格兰北部的表现相对强劲。在伦敦市中心,代表伦敦西区25条街道逾600家零售商的新西区公司(New West End Company)表示,截至下午三点左右,平均客流量较上一年增加了5%。Jace Tyrrell, chief executive of New West End Company, said that prices had been slashed by up to 80 per cent, with particularly big discounts on high fashion items.新西区公司行政总裁贾斯.泰瑞尔(Jace Tyrrell)表示,有的商品才两折,时尚商品的折扣幅度很大。He said the “very strong” sales in the West End was partly driven by the decision of more retailers to open, including Bond Street shops. The fall in sterling had also increased demand, as international customers account for a third of sales.他说,伦敦西区销售业绩“非常强劲”,部分原因在于更多零售商户在当天开门迎客,包括邦德街(Bond Street)的商店。英镑贬值也提升了需求,国际顾客占到了总销售额的三分之一。West End shops were expected to report sales of £55m for the day, he said. Chinese shoppers were making a significant contribution, spending five times more than UK shoppers.他说,当天伦敦西区商店的销售额预计会达到5500万英镑。中国顾客做出了很大贡献,购物金额是英国顾客的5倍。 /201612/485708。

New fuel standards for vehicles in Beijing, the Jing-VI standards, will be implemented in January 2017, the city#39;s environmental protection department said last Monday.北京市环保局于上周一通报,北京将于明年1月起实施新的车用燃油标准--;京六;标准。The new standards are aimed at reducing the emission of volatile organic compounds, cutting the formation of PM2.5 and ozone, according to the department.北京市环保局称,油品新标准旨在降低挥发性有机物排放,减少PM2.5的形成和臭氧的生成。The improvement of fuel quality will also bring down the emission of particles and nitrogen oxide (氮氧化合物), the department said.该部门表示,燃油质量升级还将降低颗粒物和氮氧化合物的排放。For gasoline-powered cars, the new fuel will cut about 10% of particle emissions, and another 10% of non-methane organic gas and nitrogen oxide, said Li Kunsheng with the department, adding that diesel vehicles will also emit less pollutants.北京市环保局的李昆生表示,使用新油品后,汽油车颗粒物排放降幅约为10%,非甲烷有机气体和氮氧化物排放也可削减10%,此外,柴油车的污染物排放量也将下降。Beijing has upgraded its fuel standards four times, in 2004, 2005, 2008 and 2012.北京先后于2004年、2005年、2008年和2012年进行了四次燃油标准升级。The city has 5.65m registered vehicles, which emit about 500,000 tons of pollutants every year.目前,北京机动车保有量达565万辆,每年排放污染物总量约为50万吨。Li said that automobile exhaust pollution is the largest source of PM2.5 in the city.李昆生表示,机动车排污是北京本地PM2.5的最大来源。 /201611/477320。

China’s attempts to open up its equity markets to foreign investors could be undermined by the country’s deteriorating standards of corporate governance.中国的公司治理标准不断恶化,可能削弱其向境外投资者开放本国股票市场的努力。In recent years Beijing has pushed for its .5tn mainland A-shares market to be incorporated into the widely followed MSCI Emerging Market index, which could open the door to hundreds of billions of dollars of foreign portfolio investment. 近年来,北京一直在推动7.5万亿美元市值的内地A股市场被纳入广受关注的明晟新兴市场指数(MSCI Emerging Markets Index),这可能会使A股市场迎来规模庞大的境外券投资资金。Many commentators expect MSCI to grant approval next year after turning China down in June.许多人士预计,在今年6月拒绝中国之后,MSCI将在明年6月把中国A股纳入该指数。China has also started to open up its market through such measures as Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect, a similar link for the Shenzhen market, due by the end of the year, and the Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor scheme, 中国也通过诸如沪港通、计划年底启动的深港通、以及合格境外机构投资者(QDII)机制等措施,逐步开放A股市场。all of which allow foreign investors to buy into mainland Chinese stocks.这些都是允许外国投资者买入中国内地股票的渠道。However, biennial research by the Hong Kong-based Asian Corporate Governance Association, a non-profit organisation, suggests standards of behaviour in China’s equity market are plunging, even as they are improving in regional rivals such as Japan, Taiwan, India and South Korea, 但是,香港非营利组织——亚洲公司治理协会(ACGA)的双年度研究报告表明,中国股票市场上的行为标准出现大幅下滑,而日本、台湾、印度和韩国等多个地区竞争对手的标准却在提高。threatening to deter foreign investors increasingly focused on governance issues.这可能让越来越关注治理问题的外国投资者对中国市场望而却步。The overall effect of China going into the MSCI would be disastrous, says JP Smith, partner at Ecstrat, an investment consultancy. 中国股市被纳入MSCI指数总体上将是灾难性的,投资咨询公司Ecstrat的合伙人JP.史密斯(JP Smith)说,Ill-informed investors buying the index for asset allocation reasons would be exposed to companies with terrible governance. 出于资产配置原因而买入指数的消息不灵通的投资者,将承受治理水平极差的公司所带来的相关风险。There is no way MSCI should consider adding China to the index.MSCI绝对不应考虑把中国股市纳入其新兴市场指数。Minority shareholders are just there as a potential source of cash. 小股东只是作为潜在资金来源而存在,There is really not a reason for them to be acknowledged at all, he adds. 完全没有理由让他们得到认可,他接着说,Governance has definitely been getting worse.治理当然越来越糟。In its 2016 Corporate Governance Watch report, the ACGA awarded China an overall mark of just 43 per cent,在《2016年公司治理观察》报告中,ACGA给予中国的总体评分只有43%。 continuing the country’s decline from a high of 49 per cent in 2010.中国在2010年取得49%的最高分,此后一直在下降。In contrast, India, ranked level with China in 2010, has risen to a record high ing of 55 per cent, while a swath of other countries in East and Southeast Asia stretched their lead over China further still, as the table shows.相比之下,2010年与中国排名齐平的印度,其评分已上升到55%的历史最高点,而东亚和东南亚的许多其他国家,进一步扩大了对中国的领先优势,如表所示。There was a time, around 2010, when corporate governance reform in China was progressing at such a steady rate that we half-jokingly suggested it might catch up with Hong Kong in 2022. 曾有一段时间,在2010年左右,中国公司治理改革以平稳的步伐不断取得进步,乃至我们半开玩笑地说,或许到2022年中国内地就能赶上香港了。Those days are long gone, says Li Rui, an analyst at the ACGA那段日子早已经过去了,ACGA的分析师Li Rui表示。China’s score has instead been on a downward trend in recent years and it is hard to see what will change in the near future.近年来中国的得分一直呈下降趋势,在不久的将来很难看到有什么变化。The ACGA argues that China’s political and regulatory environment has deteriorated particularly sharply since 2010, as the second chart indicates.ACGA认为,自2010年以来,中国的政治和监管环境恶化得尤其厉害。Ms Li cites setbacks such as the circuit breaker temporarily imposed on the stock markets in January to attempt to slow a market sell-off, which was a well-documented disaster, causing panic in China and around the world, Li Rui列举了一些退步现象,例如在1月份为了遏制股市抛售而短暂实施的熔断机制——这是一场据充分的灾难,在中国和世界各地引起了恐慌。and Beijing’s tendency to implement periodic moratoriums on flotations, which have done more harm than good, undermining both market stability and the value of the two stock exchanges as capital raising venues.还有,北京方面倾向于每过一段时间就暂停IPO,此举弊大于利,损害了市场稳定性和两个交所作为资本募集场所的价值。She is also critical of the weakness of measures to reform state-owned enterprises,她也批评了国企改革措施的缺陷。 which have not led to an infusion of private shareholders, lessened government intervention or created more diversified boards or better governed companies, as some hoped.这些措施没有像有些人希望的那样,吸收私人股东加入、让政府减少干预,或者打造出更多元化的董事会或治理水平更高的公司。Talk of SOE reform led to a surge in the market, but most people would acknowledge that reform was a complete chimera, says Mr Smith.国业改革的话题导致了市场的大幅上涨,但大多数人会承认,国企改革是一场彻头彻尾的幻想,史密斯说。Moreover, China’s rating for the strength of its corporate governance rules and practices has fallen to the lowest level since the ACGA initiated its survey in 2003.此外,中国在公司治理规则和实践方面的评分,已下降至自ACGA于2003年开始此项调查以来的最低水平。Ms Li criticises Beijing for its stalled attempts to update its Corporate Governance Code, which dates to 2002, despite the fact that most Asian markets have revised their codes once, if not twice, since then.Li Rui对北京方面拖延修订2002年的《上市公司治理准则》提出了批评,而自2002年以来,大多数亚洲市场已修订了一至两次治理准则。She also points to problems with board composition and independence, arguing that the general consensus is that most independent directors are still just ‘vases’ in boards, there to add colour, not to object to decisions or provide useful suggestions. 她还指出了董事会人员构成和独立性的问题,认为普遍共识是,大多数独立董事仍然只是摆在董事会里的‘花瓶’,他们仅仅增添色,不会反对董事会的决定或提出有用的建议。This is largely because they are typically appointed or nominated by executive directors or the chairman, rather than general shareholders, so are not genuinely independent or committed to representing minority shareholders’ interests.这主要是因为,他们通常是由执行董事或董事长而不是全体股东任命或提名的,所以不可能真正独立,或致力于代表小股东的利益。 /201611/477157。

Every winter, as homes in northern China are warmed up by central heating, a debate emerges over whether to provide the same service to southern China. This year is no exception.每年冬天,当北方家庭享受着集中供暖的时候,关于南方是否应该供暖的争论就浮现出来。The controversy stems from a government decision made six decades ago. In the 1950s, the government drew a line on the map of China, which runs almost along the Qinling Mountains and the Huaihe River. The line not only defines China’s northern and southern regions, but also determines whether you live in a region cold enough to receive government-supported heating, Xinhua reported.争论来源于60年前的一项政府决议。20世纪50年代,我国政府沿着地图上的秦岭和淮河划了一条线,据新华社报道,这条线不仅成了中国南方和北方的界线,更决定了你住的地区是不是冷得够得上享受政府提供的集中供暖。Cities north of the line have coal-fired central heating, which circulates hot water generated by government heating stations through pipelines and radiators to almost every residential building and public facility.秦岭-淮河一线以北地区燃煤集中供暖,政府供热站生产的热水不断循环,并通过管道和暖气片向各个居民楼和公共场所供暖。Cities south of the line, including Shanghai, Chongqing and Nanjing, do not have this service. Most residents have to turn to various private heating devices to stay warm in winter, although some local governments have started to build trial heating networks in urban communities and public places.而以南的地区,包括上海、重庆和南京在内,则不能享受这项务。尽管有些地方政府在城区和公共场所开始了试点供暖系统,但大部分市民还是不得不使用各种自采暖设备在冬天取暖。In recent years, there have been growing calls to provide central heating to the south, as more and more people expect a better quality of life. But opinions are divided on the matter.近年来,随着老百姓对生活质量要求的提高,南方集中供暖的呼声也越来越高。不过大家对此事的看法却有分歧。Zhang Xiaomei, a member of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, supports reform. Pushing the line southward will keep more people warm and is “a solution for energy conservation and emission reduction”, said Zhang. But industry experts have yet to reach a consensus on this claim, as coal-fired central heating often leads to smoggy weather.中国人民政治协商会议委员张晓梅持改革。她认为将供暖界限南移能让更多人享受温暖,还能“节能减排”。不过业界专家们并未就此达成一致,因为燃煤集中供暖往往会导致雾霾天气。Han Xiaoping, CIO of the energy information site china5e.com, opposes heating the south. “It is definitely not economical, in terms of energy efficiency, to install public heating in the south,” he told China National Radio.能源信息网站——中国能源网首席信息官韩晓平就反对南方供暖。他告诉中央人民广播电台:“从能源利用率的角度来说,南方安装公共供暖(设施)并不划算。”“The coldest time in the south may not exceed 60 days each year, compared with 120 to 180 days in the north,” said Han. “Thus it is not just to build a complicated heating network from scratch.”“北方一些特别寒冷的地区,供暖期可能会达到120到180天,而部分南方地区恐怕都到不了60天,”他说。“这不仅是从零开始建设这么复杂的城市管网系统的事儿。”Another problem concerns China’s energy security. Qiu Baoxing, former vice-minister of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, worried that providing a central heating service in the south may undermine China’s energy supply.另外一个问题和中国的能源安全有关。住房和城乡建设部前副部长仇保兴担心,南方集中供暖会影响中国的能源供应。 /201512/413723。

BHDAD — Long before Fallujah was known the world over for deadly jihadis, it was known all over Iraq for its kebab — fatty lamb, ground and mixed with onion, grilled on a skewer over an open fire and served with a pinch of sumac — at a joint called Haji Hussein.巴格达——在费卢杰以杀人不眨眼的圣战者闻名于世很久之前,就以哈吉侯赛因(Haji Hussein)餐厅里的烤肉闻名伊拉克了——把肥美的羊肉切成小块,拌上洋葱,串成串儿后用明火烤,上桌时再撒点儿苏麻克。Everyone, it seemed, ate at Haji Hussein: locals, soldiers, tourists and businessmen traveling the Baghdad-to-Amman highway that runs through the city. Starting in 2003, journalists covering the war ate there, and so did U.S. soldiers and the insurgents who fought them, perhaps even at the same time.似乎人人都在哈吉侯赛因餐厅吃过东西:当地人、士兵、游客,以及经由穿城而过的高速公路往返于巴格拉和安曼之间的商人。战地记者们从2003年开始在那儿用餐;此外还有美国士兵,以及对抗美国士兵的叛军,两者甚至有可能同时在那儿吃饭。The restaurant was damaged by bombs multiple times, and entirely flattened once by a U.S. airstrike. It was rebuilt, embraced as a symbol of Fallujah’s own rebirth after years of war, only to be abandoned when the city fell to the Islamic State more than two years ago.该餐厅多次因遭到轰炸而受损,并在美军的一次空袭中被夷为平地。重建后,它被视为历经连年战乱的费卢杰获得新生的标志,直到那座城市在两年多以前落入伊斯兰国(Islamic State)之手,它才被废弃。Now the much-loved kebab restaurant has been reborn again, this time in Baghdad, in a modern, three-story building in the upscale Mansour neighborhood.现在,这家备受喜爱的烤肉餐厅已再度重生,这次是在巴格达的高档社区曼苏尔的一栋三层现代建筑里。A new entrant on the capital’s thriving restaurant scene, it offers great kebab and a dose of nostalgia for a time when Baghdadis thought nothing of zipping off to Fallujah for lunch at Haji Hussein.作为欣欣向荣的巴格达餐饮业的后来者,它既供应烤肉,又为人们提供怀恋往昔的场地——曾几何时,拔腿前往费卢杰,去哈吉侯赛因餐厅吃午饭,对巴格达人而言是稀松平常的事情。“This was the craft of my grandfather,” said Mohammed Hussein, who runs the business that has been in his family since the 1930s, when Fallujah was a city of agriculture, smuggling and tribal traditions, not a jihadi haven.“这门手艺是我祖父留下来的,”哈吉侯赛因餐厅的经营者穆罕默德·侯赛因(Mohammed Hussein)说。他的家族从1930年代开始经营该餐厅,当时的费卢杰还是一个以农业和走私为主,奉行部落传统的城市,而非圣战者的天堂。The restaurant, shiny and well lit, is packed most nights, and patrons wait for tables — 15 to 20 minutes or so, something almost unheard-of in Iraq. There are two flat-screen televisions on the first floor, tuned to news channels reporting on the military campaign to retake Fallujah from the Islamic State.这家熠熠生辉、光线充足的餐厅,在大多数夜晚都挤满了人,食客们等上15到20分钟时间才能有空桌子,这种情况在伊拉克几乎闻所未闻。一楼的两部平板电视被调到了新闻频道,正播放与旨在从伊斯兰国手中夺回费卢杰的战役有关的新闻。“I can’t bear to watch the news,” Hussein said.“我看不了这类报道,”侯赛因说。There was one news flash recently that did not escape his notice: The Iraqi air force, like the Americans 12 years ago, announced that it had struck his restaurant site in Fallujah because leaders with the Islamic State, also known as ISIS or ISIL, were meeting there.不久前的一条新闻消息没有逃过他的眼睛:像12年前的美国人一样,伊拉克空军宣布,袭击了他在费卢杰的餐厅,因为伊斯兰国(又称ISIS或ISIL)的头目正在那里开会。A statement from Iraq’s Joint Operation Command appeared on the television: “Based on intelligence information about a meeting for ISIS leaders in Haji Hussein restaurant inside the center of Fallujah an airstrike was launched on the restaurant, which led to the killing of tens of ISIS terrorists.”伊拉克联合作战司令部(Iraq’s Joint Operation Command)的一份声明出现在了电视上:“依据关于ISIS的头目在费卢杰市中心的哈吉侯赛因餐厅开会的情报,对该餐厅发动空袭,击毙了数十名ISIS恐怖分子。”But the restaurant, Hussein said, has been deserted for 2 1/2 years.但侯赛因说,那家餐厅早在两年半以前就被废弃了。When Iraqi forces recently made gains inside Fallujah, people almost immediately began talking about Haji Hussein. The federal police released a combat saying they were fighting near the restaurant, and a glimpse of the rust-colored facade showed it damaged but not destroyed. On state television, commentators expressed hope that Haji Hussein might reopen soon in Fallujah.伊拉克政府军最近在费卢杰取得了一些战果,与此同时,人们几乎立刻开始谈论哈吉侯赛因餐厅。联邦警察发布了一个作战视频,说他们正在该餐厅附近战斗,从视频中闪现的铁锈色外立面来看,餐厅虽然受损,但并未被摧毁。国家电视台的员表示,希望不久后哈吉侯赛因餐厅能在费卢杰重新开业。In 2004, the Americans bombed the restaurant based on intelligence that insurgents loyal to Abu Musab Zarqawi, the founder of al-Qaida in Iraq, the forerunner of the Islamic State, were eating there.美国人曾在2004年依据一份情报轰炸过该餐厅。那份情报称,忠于伊拉克基地组织(al-Qaida)创始人阿布·穆萨卜·扎卡维(Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi)的叛军正在那里吃饭。该组织是伊斯兰国的前身。This being the holy month of Ramadan, the Baghdad restaurant has been busy lately serving iftar, the evening meal to break the day’s fast. The parking lot is also a beehive of activity: a security guard checking cars for bombs; a man selling balloons to families; children begging.时值斋月,巴格达的这家餐厅最近正忙于供应开斋饭,即打破当日斋戒的晚餐。停车场里颇为热闹:一名保安在检查汽车是否携带着炸弹;一个男人在兜售气球;一些孩子在乞讨。As Hussein, 49, sat down to chat one recent evening, he was surrounded by bow-tied waiters — much of the staff from Fallujah now works in the new place — filling the tables with dishes of mezze, or appetizers, as diners waited to break their fast.不久前的一个晚上,当49岁的侯赛因坐下来聊天的时候,周围满是系着领结的务生——许多从费卢杰过来的员工目前在新餐厅工作。在食客等待开斋之际,他们把风味小吃端到桌上。In addition to heaping platters of the famous kebab, there were dates coated with sesame paste, watermelon, hummus, cucumber and tomato salad, pickles and soup. There were some new items on the that were not served in Fallujah: grilled river carp, called masgoof; a Yemeni chicken-and-rice meal called mandi; and maklouba, a dish of chicken and eggplant and rice that is originally Palestinian.除了一盘又一盘堆得满满的烤肉,还有裹着芝麻糊的海枣、西瓜、鹰嘴豆泥、黄瓜西红柿沙拉、腌菜和汤。菜单上有些新菜品是在费卢杰没有供应过的:烤鲤鱼,名为Masgouf;一种以鸡肉和米饭烹制的也门风味佳肴,名为Mandi;还有来自巴勒斯坦的以鸡肉、茄子和米饭做成的Maklouba。As customers streamed in, Hussein tried to recall how many times his restaurant in Fallujah had been damaged or destroyed by the war.当客人涌进门的时候,侯赛因竭力回想费卢杰的餐厅在战火中总共受损或被摧毁了多少次。“Too many to count,” he said.“多到数不清,”他说。At least inside his restaurant, Iraq does not seem hopelessly divided by sect. Sunnis and Shiites break their fast at slightly different times, and as sundown approached one of the televisions was tuned to a Sunni channel, the other to Iraqiya, the channel of the Shiite-led government.至少在他的餐厅里,伊拉克似乎并未因为教派分歧而呈现令人绝望的割裂状态。逊尼派和什叶派开斋的时间略有不同。太阳即将落山时,一部电视机调到了逊尼派电视台,另一部则调到了什叶派主导的政府设立的伊拉克国家电视台(Iraqiya)。When the call to prayer — the signal that the day’s fast was over — went out on one, the Sunnis began eating. Fifteen minutes or so later, the Shiite customers began eating.当召唤祈祷声——当日斋戒结束的信号——从一部电视机里传出来的时候,逊尼派开始用餐。过了15分左右,什叶派顾客开始用餐。 /201606/450600。

Six months ago, tech entrepreneur Rohan Gilkes tried to rent a cabin in Idaho over the July 4 weekend, using the website Airbnb. 半年前,科技创业者罗恩.吉尔克斯(Rohan Gilkes)尝试通过Airbnb网站预订爱达荷州的一间小屋,在美国独立日长周末使用。All seemed well, until the host told him her plans had changed: she needed to use the cabin herself. 一切似乎都很顺利,直到房主告诉他,她的计划有变:她自己需要使用那间小屋。Then a friend of Rohan’s tried to book the same cabin on the same weekend, and his booking was immediately accepted. 之后,罗恩的一个朋友试着在同样时间预订那间小屋,他的预订被迅速接受了。Rohan’s friend is white; Rohan is black.罗恩的朋友是白人;罗恩是黑人。This is not a one-off. 这并非一次性事件。Late last year, three researchers from Harvard Business School — Benjamin Edelman, Michael Luca and Dan Svirsky — published a working paper with experimental evidence of discrimination. 哈佛商学院(Harvard Business School)的3名研究人员——本杰明.埃德尔曼( Benjamin Edelman)、迈克尔.卢卡(Michael Luca)和丹.斯维尔斯基(Dan Svirsky)去年年末发布了一份工作论文,其中的实验据明了歧视的存在。Using fake profiles to request accommodation, the researchers found that applicants with distinctively African-American names were 16 per cent less likely to have their bookings accepted. 研究人员使用假的资料来申请订房,他们发现,如果看申请者的姓名明显像是非裔美国人,其预订被接受的可能性要低16%。Edelman and Luca have also published evidence that black hosts receive lower incomes than whites while letting out very similar properties on Airbnb. 埃德尔曼和卢卡还发布了一些据,表明在Airbnb上出租类似房源时,黑人房主的租房所得会比白人房主低。The hashtag #AirbnbWhileBlack has started to circulate.#AirbnbWhileBlack(Airbnb上的黑人)的话题标签开始传播。Can anything be done to prevent such discrimination? It’s not a straightforward problem. 可以做些什么来防止这种歧视吗?这不是一个简单明了的问题。Airbnb condemns racial discrimination but, by making names and photographs such a prominent feature of its website, it makes discrimination, conscious or unconscious, very easy.Airbnb谴责种族歧视,但Airbnb网站的一个突出特征就是显示姓名和照片,这让有意或者无意的歧视变得非常容易。It’s a cheap way to build trust, says researcher Michael Luca. 这是一种成本低廉的建立信任的方式,研究员迈克尔.卢卡说。But, he adds, it invites discrimination.但他补充道,这招来了歧视。Of course there’s plenty of discrimination to be found elsewhere. 当然,其他地方也可以发现很多歧视现象。Other studies have used photographs of goods such as iPods and baseball cards being held in a person’s hand. 另一些研究使用了卖家手持商品(如iPod或者棒球卡)拍下的商品照片。On Craigslist and eBay, such goods sell for less if held in a black hand than a white one. 在Craigslist和eBay上,黑人手持的商品卖价会比白人手持商品的卖价低。An unpleasant finding — although in such cases it’s easy to use a photograph with no hand visible at all.这个发现令人不舒——尽管在这种情况卖家想避免受到歧视很容易,只需使用不露出手的商品照片就可以了。The Harvard Business School team have produced a browser plug-in called Debias Yourself. 哈佛商学院的团队制作了一个叫做Debias Yourself的防偏见浏览器插件。People who install the plug-in and then surf Airbnb will find that names and photographs have been hidden. 安装这个插件的人在浏览Airbnb的时候会发现姓名和照片被隐藏了。It’s a nice idea, although one suspects that it will not be used by those who need it most. 这是个好主意,不过我怀疑那些最需要这个功能的人不会使用它。Airbnb could impose the system anyway but that is unlikely to prove tempting.Airbnb可以强行实施这个系统,但这样做不太可能有吸引力。However, says Luca, there are more subtle ways in which the platform could discourage discrimination. 然而,卢卡表示,平台还可以使用一些更含蓄的方式来阻止歧视。For example, it could make profile portraits less prominent, delaying the appearance of a portrait until further along in the process of making a booking. 比如,平台可以让资料中的个人照片变得不那么突出,在预订进行到一定阶段后再显现照片。And it could nudge hosts into using an instant book system that accelerates and depersonalises the booking process. 平台还可以敦促房主使用即时预订系统,这种系统即能加快预订过程,又能去除预订过程中的个人因素。(The company recently released a report describing efforts to deal with the problem.)(该公司最近发布了一份报告,描述了为处理这一问题做出的努力。)But if the Airbnb situation has shone a spotlight on unconscious (and conscious) bias, there are even more important manifestations elsewhere in the economy. 如果说Airbnb的情况让人们关注到无意识(和有意识)的偏见,那么在经济的其他领域,还有一些更重要的反映出偏见的情况。A classic study by economists Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan used fake CVs to apply for jobs. 经济学家玛丽安娜.贝特朗(Marianne Bertrand)和森德希尔.穆莱纳坦(Sendhil Mullainathan)所做的一项经典研究使用了假简历来申请工作。Some CVs, which used distinctively African-American names, were significantly less likely to lead to an interview than identical applications with names that could be perceived as white.使用明显是非裔美国人姓名的简历得到面试的几率,要低于内容一样但使用可能被认为是白人姓名的简历。Perhaps the grimmest feature of the Bertrand/Mullainathan study was the discovery that well-qualified black applicants were treated no better than poorly qualified ones. 或许贝特朗和穆莱纳坦进行的研究中最令人沮丧的一点是,完全够格的黑人申请者得到的待遇和不那么够格的申请者一样糟糕。As a young black student, then, one might ask: why bother studying when nobody will look past your skin colour? And so racism can create a self-reinforcing loop.那么,一个年轻的黑人学生或许会问:如果没人在乎你肤色以外的东西,为何还要费力学习呢?因此,种族主义可能会导致一个自我加强的循环。What to do?该怎么办?One approach, as with Debias Yourself, is to remove irrelevant information: if a person’s skin colour or gender is irrelevant, then why reveal it to recruiters? The basic idea behind Debias Yourself was proven in a study by economists Cecilia Rouse and Claudia Goldin. 有一种策略,就像Debias Yourself防偏见插件一样,是去除无关信息:既然一个人的肤色或者性别不影响其录用,那何必把这些信息透露给招聘人员呢?经济学家塞西莉亚.劳斯(Cecilia Rouse)和克劳迪娅.戈尔丁(Claudia Goldin)的一项研究明了Debias Yourself所依据的基本理念是正确的。Using a careful statistical design, Rouse and Goldin showed that when leading professional orchestras began to audition musicians behind a screen, the recruitment of women surged.通过细心的统计设计,劳斯和戈尔丁表明,当一流的专业管弦乐团开始隔着屏风面试音乐家时,女性被录取的几率激增。Importantly, blind auditions weren’t introduced to fight discrimination against women — orchestras didn’t think such discrimination was a pressing concern. 重要的是,在这里,盲试的引入并不是为了抗击对女性的歧视——管弦乐团并不认为他们在性别歧视方面存在紧迫问题。Instead, they were a way of preventing recruiters from favouring the pupils of influential teachers. 事实上,盲试是为了防止招聘者偏袒具有影响力的教师的学生。Yet a process designed to fight nepotism and favouritism ended up fighting sexism too.然而,这种旨在打击裙带关系和徇私行为的程序最终也打击了性别歧视。#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;A new start-up, Applied, is taking these insights into the broader job market. 新创立的企业Applied正把这些洞见应用到更广泛的就业市场中。Applied is a spin-off from the UK Cabinet Office, the Behavioural Insights Team and Nesta, a charity that supports innovation; the idea is to use some simple technological fixes to combat a variety of biases.Applied是由行为研究小组(Behavioural Insights Team,由英国内阁办公室(Cabinet Office)和持创新的慈善机构英国国家科技艺术基金会(Nesta)合作成立)和Nesta合作成立的公司,其创办理念是通过一些简单的技术性修正来抗击各种偏见。A straightforward job application form is a breeding ground for discrimination and cognitive error. 一份直观的工作申请表为偏见和认知错误提供了温床。It starts with a name — giving clues to nationality, ethnicity and gender — and then presents a sequence of answers that are likely to be as one big stew of facts. 这种表格把暴露申请者国籍、族裔和性别的姓名放在最开头,它接下来提供的一系列可能被看做各种事实的大杂烩。A single answer, good or bad, colours our perception of everything else, a tendency called the halo effect.只需一个我们喜欢或不喜欢的,就会影响我们对其余一切的看法,这是一种叫做光晕效应的倾向。A recruiter using Applied will see chunked and anonymised details — answers to the application questions from different applicants, presented in a randomised order and without indications of race or gender. 一个使用Applied务的招聘人员将会看到区块化和匿名化的细节——将不同申请者对申请表问题的用随机顺序列出来,不体现种族或者性别。Meanwhile, other recruiters will see the same answers, but shuffled differently. 同时,其他招聘人员将看到同样的,但以不同顺序列出。As a result, says Kate Glazebrook of Applied, various biases simply won’t have a chance to emerge.Applied的凯特.格莱兹布鲁克(Kate Glazebrook)表示,这样一来,各种偏见根本没有机会产生。When the Behavioural Insights Team ran its last recruitment round, applicants were rated using the new process and a more traditional CV-based approach. 当行为研究小组进行最后一轮招聘时,有的申请人接受的是新程序的评分,有的接受的是基于简历的更传统方式的评分。The best of the shuffled, anonymised applications were more diverse, and much better predictors of a candidate who impressed on the assessment day. 使用被打乱顺序、匿名化的申请表选出的最佳申请人更加背景各异,在评估日令人印象深刻的几率也大大提高。Too early to declare victory — but a promising start.宣布胜利还为时过早——但这是一个充满希望的开端。 /201611/480283。

A water buffalo grazes in a lush open field, an egret standing sentinel on its back. A herd of wild cattle bathes in the sunshine along the side of a winding road.一头水牛在葱翠的旷野上吃草,一只白鹭静静地立在它的背上。在一条蜿蜒曲折的路旁,一群野牛在晒着太阳。Two idyllic rural scenes, seen nearly every day.这两幅闲适恬静的郊野景致,几乎每天都可以看到。In Hong Kong.这是在香港。This is a place known for its urban superlatives. There are more skyscrapers here than anywhere on the planet. Most residents live in tiny apartments, many stacked atop sprawling shopping malls, which in turn are piled on top of subway stations. With an area about the size of Luxembourg, Hong Kong is continuously reclaiming land from the sea, making more space for its 7.2 million people.这个地方以美妙的城市景观著称,天大楼比地球上任何地方都多。大多数居民住在十分狭小的公寓内,而这些公寓有很多建在成片的购物中心之上,购物中心又往往建在地铁站之上。因为面积大概只有卢森堡那么大,香港在持续填海造地,好为720万人口创造更多空间。But there is another side to this former British colony. A wild side. Most of Hong Kong is not an urban jungle, but rather a real one, teeming with monkeys, Burmese pythons, barking deer, wild boars and 14 types of venomous snakes (eight of which, including the king cobra, are lethal to humans). About three-quarters of the land here is countryside, mostly mountainous terrain and much of it protected as parkland.不过,这片英国的前殖民地还有另一面——野性的一面。香港大多数地方并不是都市森林,而是覆盖着真正的森林,里面栖居着很多野生动物,包括猴子、缅甸蟒蛇、麂、野猪和14种毒蛇(包括眼镜王蛇在内的八种可以致人死亡)。香港有四分之三的地方是郊野,大多是丘陵,而且有很多作为公共绿地保护了起来。Rice paddies once dotted the lowland areas, where for generations cattle and water buffalo plowed the swampy land. By the 1970s, when Hong Kong’s economic boom and soaring land prices made farming less attractive and uneconomical, most of the work animals were abandoned.那些低洼区域也曾点缀着片片稻田,人们用黄牛和水牛世代耕种着松软的湿地。至上世纪70年代,香港经济开始繁荣,土地价格飙升,务农变得越来越没有吸引力,又缺乏经济价值,大多数农畜遭到遗弃。They seem to have done just fine.不过,它们似乎过得也不错。As many as 1,000-odd feral bovines — mostly cattle but also water buffaloes — remain. While many make their homes deep inside the country parks, others live near people, grazing at bus stops, occasionally raiding gardens and blocking traffic.目前香港有1000多头野牛——大多数是黄牛,也有水牛。尽管它们当中很多在郊野公园深处找到了自己的家,但也有一些聚居在靠近人类的地方。它们会在出租车站附近吃草,偶尔还会突袭花园或造成交通堵塞。This month, an immense, horned water buffalo surprised students by running alongside them in a cross-country race. For many residents venturing outside the city’s urban core, cattle are the first wild animals they encounter.本月,正进行越野赛跑的学生,就意外地碰上一大群长角的水牛跟着他们一起跑。对于很多到城市核心区域之外的地方游玩的居民来说,牛往往是他们首先看到的野生动物。Animal-rights advocates say the cattle have helped bring a sea change in attitudes toward wildlife in recent years, both among the populace and the government. A decade ago, the animals’ future looked uncertain as developers, especially on Lantau Island, home to the city’s airport and Disneyland, pushed the government to remove them to clear land for new houses.动物权益倡导人士表示,最近几年,因为牛的存在,不管是民众还是政府,对野生动物的态度都大为改观。10年前,动物们的未来显得并不确定,因为开发商,尤其是香港机场和迪士尼乐园所在的大屿山岛上的开发商,竭力促使政府除掉野生动物,腾出地方建造新项目。Many cattle, which are not a protected species, were slaughtered, and the herds on the island were on the verge of being eliminated, said Ho Loy, who leads the Lantau Buffalo Association.大屿山爱护水牛协会负责人何来(Ho Loy)表示,由于牛不是保护物种,当时有许多被屠宰,岛上的牛群濒临灭绝。“It was just like a war,” said Ms. Ho, whose group seeks to preserve the island’s cattle and buffalo.“就像一场战争,”何来说。她领导的团体致力于保护大屿山的黄牛和水牛。Now, the Hong Kong government agency in charge of managing wildlife is working to preserve the cattle, monitoring their health, tagging them, tracking some with GPS collars, and performing selective sterilizations to keep their numbers in check. Since the agency, the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, set up its cattle management team in 2011, more than 300 animals have been sterilized, it said in an emailed response to questions.现在,负责管理野生动物的香港政府机构正努力保护牛群,检测它们的健康状况,给它们做标记,带上有GPS定位功能的项圈以追踪其活动。他们还会有选择地给牛做绝育,以控制种群规模。这一部门名为香港渔农自然护理署。通过邮件回答采访问题时,护理署表示,自2011年成立牛只管理队以来,他们已经给超过300头牛做了绝育。Volunteer groups like Ms. Ho’s, as well as similar organizations in other parts of Hong Kong, work closely with the government and the public to protect the animals and handle complaints.诸如大屿山爱护水牛协会这样的志愿团体,以及香港其他地区的类似机构,还和政府、公众紧密合作,保护动物,处理投诉问题。The beasts’ higher profile has given rise to a new breed of residents: urban cowgirls.野牛受关注程度的提高还催生了一种新的居民类型:都市女牛仔。Karina O’Carroll, 32, is one of them. As a founder of Sai Kung Buffalo Watch, she takes calls from the public at all hours, responding to reports of cattle blocking roads, and protests from people annoyed by piles of steaming cow patties. All in an effort to maintain bovine-human harmony.32岁的拉琳娜·欧卡罗尔(Karina O’Carroll)就是其中一员。作为西贡野牛观察(Sai Kung Buffalo Watch)机构的一名创始人,她会接听公众的来电,在接到有关野牛堵塞交通的报告,或被一堆堆热气腾腾的牛粪惹恼的人们的抱怨时,加以解决。这些都是为了实现人畜和谐共处。“We have gone to pick up poo to appease people,” she said, explaining to them that “it’s the best thing for your gardens and your plants.”“为了安抚人们的情绪,我们有去捡牛粪,”她说,还会向他们解释,“对你家的花园和植物来说,牛粪是最好的东西。”Ms. O’Carroll does not have a lasso. She has found that the best way to shoo cattle off the road is to jingle some car keys — they will move away from the sound. Failing that, splash them with water. And though she does not carry a six-shooter, she does on occasion fire antimaggot medication at their hindquarters.欧卡罗尔不用套索。她发现把牛从道路上赶走的最好的办法,是用车钥匙发出叮当的响声。它们听到那种声音就会离开。如果这个办法行不通,可以向它们撒一些水。尽管不曾用左轮手对付过这些动物,但她偶尔会向它们的臀部及后腿上喷防蛆剂。“They don’t like the sound of sprays,” she says. “You’ve got one shot, and then they’re gone.”“他们不喜欢喷雾器的声音,”她说。“你只要喷一下,它们就走了。”Ms. Ho is more of a cow whisperer, talking to the animals in a soothing voice to make them move off the roadway, out of harm’s way.何来则更像是一个牛语者,会以柔和的声音和动物们说话,让它们离开道路,免受伤害。Both women are helped by scores of volunteers, as interest in the cattle grows. The government now sees the animals as less of a nuisance and more of a tourist attraction.随着人们对牛群的兴趣增大,不少志愿者前来帮助二人做这些工作。政府现在更多地把这些动物看做吸引旅游的元素,而不是把它们当作麻烦。“The department recognizes that the cattle and buffalo are part of the heritage of rural Hong Kong and that it brings pleasure to visitors and locals alike to see these animals in a natural environment,” the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department says on its website.“本署认同黄牛及水牛是本港农村生活历史遗产的其中一部分,本地和外地游客亦乐于见到它们在自然环境中活动,”渔农自然护理署在其网站上表示。Cows are far and away the most common wild animal seen in Hong Kong, but encounters with other creatures also take place as the city expands and people venture into the wilderness.牛无疑是香港最常见的野生动物,远远超出其他物种。但随着城市扩大,以及人类的活动范围深入郊野,和其他动物相遇的情况也时有发生。In May, a wild boar entered a shopping mall on Hong Kong Island, rampaging through a children’s store before being tranquilized and returned to the wild. The next month, a 12-foot python had to be removed from a village grave site where it had taken residence. Families hiking in the wilderness have been known to lose a family dog to a python’s stranglehold.今年5月,一头野猪闯进港岛一家商场,在一间儿童商店里横冲直闯,之后被麻醉并送回野外。6月,一座村子不得不从墓地移走了一条盘踞在那里的12英尺长巨蟒。有一家人在旷野徒步时,一只宠物被巨蟒缠绕勒死。Last month, more than a dozen macaque monkeys took over a school playground, forcing students to move inside while animal control officials tried to remove the primates. Eventually one, lured by a banana, was caught in a cage, prompting the others to retreat, local news media reported.上个月,十几只猕猴占领了一所学校的运动场,学生们不得不回到室内,等待管控动物的官员驱散这群灵长目生物。据当地新闻媒体报道,最终一只猴子受不了香蕉引诱,被关进了笼子,其他猴子才撤离了运动场。Hong Kong’s thriving wild fauna stands in sharp contrast to the rest of China. From 1970 to 2010, the population of reptiles and amphibians fell 97 percent in China, while the mammal populations — humans excepted — fell 50 percent during the same period, according to a study released this month by the World Wide Fund for Nature.野生动物在香港的生机勃勃,与中国其他地区形成了鲜明的对比。世界自然基金会(WWF)本月公布的一项研究显示,从1970年到2010年,中国爬行动物和两栖动物的总量下降了97%,而哺乳动物数量——人类除外——在同一时期下降了50%。Cattle here are bucking that trend. Their numbers on Lantau Island have more than tripled in recent years, Ms. Ho estimates.香港的牛群则逆势增长。据何来估计,近年来大屿山的牛只数量增加了两倍多。Feral cattle, which do not meet the government’s definition of wild animals, do not enjoy government protection. In Hong Kong, killing or possessing a wild Burmese python, fox, squirrel, monkey or any bird subjects violators to a fine of as much as ,900 and up to a year in prison.野牛不符合政府对野生动物的定义,并未受到政府保护。在香港,猎杀或拥有野生缅甸蟒蛇、狐狸、松鼠、猴子或任何鸟类会被处以至多10万港元(约合人民币8万元)的罚款、最高一年的监禁。But these days, few people set out to harm the animals, and though Ms. O’Carroll and her colleagues fear that cattle rustlers from mainland China could spirit whole herds away on boats in the dead of night, so far that does not appear to have happened.但现如今,几乎没有人会做出伤害动物的行为,不过欧卡罗尔和同事们担心,来自中国大陆的偷牛贼可能会在夜深人静的时候把整群牛带上船运走。但这样的事情至今并没有出现过。Instead, more people seem to enjoy just having them around as a living reminder of Hong Kong’s bucolic past.更多的人似乎喜欢野牛在周围流连,因为这是一个生动的提醒,令人想起香港昔日的田园风情。“They’re part of our community,” Ms. O’Carroll said. “They have to stay. They were here before a lot of us.”“它们是我们社群的一部分,必须留下来。它们比我们很多人来这里的时间都早,”欧卡罗尔说。 /201511/412021。