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包头中医医院治疗不孕不育价格内蒙古一机医院 看男科怎么样Business商业报道Paying chief executives高管薪酬Fortune favours the boss好运垂青老板Big, controversial golden goodbyes to bosses are probably here to stay老板们巨额而有争议的黄金告别可能会被留下来IS THE new boss of Time Warner Cable about to become one of the luckiest-ever winners of the great chief-executive pay lottery?时代华纳有线电视公司的新老板会成为伟大的首席执行官中最幸运的赢家之一吗?Robert Marcus is set to take over as boss on January 1st.罗伯特·马库斯将于1月1日接任老板。If rumours are to be believed, that will be just in time for the cable firm to be bought by one of a host of rivals that are now circling it.如果传言是可信的,那恰好有线电视公司被环绕的竞争对手中的一位收购。A change-of-control clause in his contract means he could go straight back out of the door with a golden goodbye of over m.合同中的变更条款意味着他可以拥有超过5,600万元的黄金告别走出大门。The biggest loser, in contrast, may be Philippe Varin, who will step down as boss of PSA Peugeot Citron, a struggling French carmaker.相反,最大的输家可能是菲利普·瓦兰,他从一个苦苦挣扎的法国汽车制造商PSA标致雪铁龙老板的位置上下来。On November 27th, he issued a statement saying he would give up a pension provision valued at 21m.11月27日,他发表声明说,他将放弃价值2100万的养老金保障。The board will decide his future pension arrangements before he retires, probably with an eye on public opinion.董事会将在他退休前安排他未来的养老金,可能会顾及舆论的反应。He follows in the footsteps of Fred Goodwin, who presided over the collapse of Royal Bank of Scotland.他步了弗雷德·古德温的后尘,其导致了苏格兰皇家的崩溃。In , again after a public outcry, the man known as Fred the Shred, because of his fondness for firing people, agreed to reduce his pension by 212,500 a year to a paltry 342,500.在年舆论再次哗然,那个喜欢裁人的被称为弗雷德的同意将他的退休金的减少额从212500英镑一年增加到区区342500英镑。It is rare for public disapproval of generous golden goodbyes to have so much impact.公众很少认为这些慷慨的黄金告别有这么大的影响。Even the introduction of say on pay votes in countries such as America and Britain seems only to have curbed the most egregious excesses.甚至在一些引进了薪酬话语权投票的国家如美国和英国似乎只能抑制最令人震惊的过激行为。Ira Kay of Pay Governance, a consultant, says that in America, most company boards facing such votes have managed to win them by dropping overgenerous perks like the automatic vesting of the bosss share options even when he has kept his job following a takeover.薪酬管理顾问艾拉凯指出,在美国,面临着这样投票的公司的董事会已经设法通过清理过于慷慨的激励措施,如老板股票期权的自动归属权,甚至在被收购后还继续他的工作。The once-widesp practice of paying a bosss taxes on his post-takeover payout, a nice little earner known as the excise tax gross-up, has also ended, costing some chief executives millions of dollars, says Mr Kay.凯先生说,在老板的税收上过往的做法是在他退休后出,一个很好的被称为包税的赚钱者也结束了,花掉了首席执行官们数百万美金。Bosses can no longer trigger big severance payouts by self-termination—quitting or retiring—adds Doug Friske of Towers Watson, another pay consultant.另一家薪酬顾问公司韬睿惠悦的道格Friske说,老板们以后不能靠通过自行终止-辞职或退休增加巨额的退休金。Topping up the pension fund for a boss who leaves earlier than expected is now frowned on too.为提前退休的老板补足养老基金现在也行不通了。Say on pay has also forced boards to get better at costing perks that once were wrongly regarded as practically free.薪酬话语权也迫使董事会在之前被认为是随意额外津贴上做的更好。Yet the golden parachute is a chronic problem that I dont see changing anytime soon, says Donald Hambrick, a management professor at Pennsylvania State University.然而,金降落伞是一个老大难问题,我没看到最近会有什么变化,宾夕法尼亚州立大学管理学教授唐纳德·汉姆布瑞克说。The procession of bosses exiting with fabulous pay-offs continues.老板们难以置信的离职金仍在继续进行。Pay consultants brought in by firms seeking a new boss often get blamed for regarding the most generous existing package in the market as the baseline for negotiations.薪酬顾问为企业寻求新的老板常常会因为以市场最多的离职金为基准进行谈判而被责怪。But there is also a small cottage industry of elite lawyers who are used by any candidate to be boss, and who have mastered every trick in the book, Mr Hambrick says.汉姆布瑞克先生说,也有一些曾是老板候选人的小企业中的精英律师,他们懂得书中的所有技巧。By the time the public is frothing at the mouth about some fired corporate failure walking off with a fortune, it is usually too late to do anything about it.这时公众议论的是解雇失败损失的钱,而这通常是来不及做任何事情补救。Everything is negotiated up front; that is the time to be outraged, he advises.他建议一切都协商都进行在前面,这是被激怒的时候。Once a boss has failed and pulled the cord on his golden parachute, boards typically conclude that it is best just to pay up quietly.一旦老板已经失败并且拉着他的黄金降落伞的绳子,董事会一般认为最好是默默的把钱付了。Even though recent legal changes have made it easier, even in America, to claw back some of the money paid to failed bosses, in practice firms will only try to do that if there is cast-iron evidence of fault, such as a financial misstatement.即使在美国,尽管最近的法律变化使得更容易夺回部分付给失败老板的钱,在实践中如果据确凿公司将尝试这样做,如财务失实。None of this should come as a surprise to anyone familiar with the myopic ways boards tend to work in practice.董事会在实践中的目光短浅对所有的人来说这一切都不应该是一件惊讶的事。The moment when a company is paying off a failure is also the moment it is trying to attract the best possible candidate to sort out the mess.当一个公司为失败付钱的那一刻也是它正试图吸引尽可能最好的人选来收拾烂摊子。Contesting the last bosss deal could easily scare off the ideal new one.争辩最后老板的这笔交易很容易吓跑新的理想人选。The CEO wheel of fortune keeps on turning.CEO的命运之轮仍在不断向前。 /201312/270624包头九洲妇男科医院人流手术价格 German roads德国公路Charging the neighbours向邻居收费Bavaria is getting Germany to make foreigners pay for driving on its roads巴伐利亚正努力促使德国向使用本国公路的外国人收取费用。BAVARIANS have long been cranky about having to pay road tolls every time they drive through Austria, say, whereas foreigners pay nothing to drive on German roads. Last year the Christian Social Union (CSU), a party that exists only in Bavaria but is the partner of Angela Merkels Christian Democratic Union (CDU), campaigned on “plugging this justice gap.” Mrs Merkel found the proposal silly, and against European Union rules. But the CSU made it a condition of joining a coalition government.每当开车去奥地利的时候都要交通行费,而外国人在德国公路上行驶啥都不交。巴伐利亚人提到这事就抓狂,忍了很久了。去年基督教社会联盟(CSU)—这个党只存在于巴伐利亚州但它是Angela Merke所领导的基督教民主联盟的伙伴—宣称要“塞上这个公平的缺口”。默克尔觉得这项提议很荒唐,而且违反欧盟法令。不过CSU却把这条当作加入联合政府的一样条件。On July 7th Alexander Dobrindt, the transport minister and a rising talent in the CSU, unveiled a plan to square a tricky circle. The new law must charge foreign drivers on German roads; but, second, impose no extra costs on German drivers; and, third, comply with EU law, which forbids discrimination against other EU citizens.在7月7日的时候,Alexander Dobrindt,这位德国交通运输部部长和CSU正在崛起的天才,目前揭示了一项计划,用以打破紧箍咒。首先,新法令规定必须向在德国公路上行驶的外国驾驶员收费;不过其次对于德国驾驶员而言,并不收取额外的费用;而第三点是遵循欧盟法令而言的,禁止对他过欧盟公民的歧视。Mr Dobrindt proposes to charge everybody, foreign or German, for driving on any German road from January 2016. Drivers will have three options: a ten-day pass for 10 (.60), a two-month one for 20, or an annual one. The third of these, which all German drivers need by default but foreigners may also buy through the internet, would cost 88 on average, but vary with the size and emissions of the car.Dobrindt 承诺2016年1月开始,只要在德国公路上开车,就对所有人收费,无论是外国人还是德国人。驾驶员将有三种选择:10天的过路许可为10欧(13.60美元),两个月的过路许可为20欧,或者选择一个年许可。对于第三项选择,所有德国驾驶员不用理会而外国人也可以通过网上渠道办理,平均费用为88欧,但具体花费要根据车型和排放量而定。To ensure that Germans will not pay any more overall, Mr Dobrindt simultaneously wants to reform Germanys vehicle tax. Drivers of cars registered in Germany would be given a new tax exemption worth the exact amount of their new annual road-user charge.为了保总体上德国人不必为过路费问题而花钱,Dobrindt同时想改革德国的交通税。在德国登记注册测量的车主将享受新的免税政策,其所免额度相当于他们办理新的年度许可所花费的费用。The Netherlands and Austria threaten to take Germany to court if the law passes. Siim Kallas, the EUs transport commissioner, has so far given “no green or red light.” German opposition parties ridicule the idea as bureaucratic overkill. Even members of the ruling coalition are rolling their eyes. But as so often before, the Bavarians must be accommodated to keep the peace.荷兰和奥地利威胁德国人,如果这项法令得以通过,就将德国告至欧盟法院。欧盟交通运输委员会委员Siim Kallas目前为止并未“明确提出行还是不行”。德国反对党嘲笑这个想法,认为这是官僚式的矫揉造作。即便是联合政府的同盟们也睁大眼睛对着这项法案滴溜查看。不过和之前一样,巴伐利亚人必须忍耐,保持淡定。 /201407/311749达茂旗蒙医医院治疗腹胀多少钱

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固阳县妇幼保健人民中医院阳痿早泄价格 Books and Arts; Book Review;The science of music;Sounds wonderful;文艺;书评;音乐的科学;听起来很美;The Music Instinct: How Music Works and Why We Cant Do Without It. By Philip Ball.音乐本能:音乐的作用机理及人们欲罢不能的缘由。Philip Ball著。Music is a mystery. It is unique to the human race: no other species produces elaborate sound for no particular reason. It has been, and remains, part of every known civilisation on Earth. Lengths of bone fashioned into flutes were in use 40,000 years ago. And it engages peoples attention more comprehensively than almost anything else: scans show that when people listen to music, virtually every area of their brain becomes more active.音乐真是神秘。它对人类具有独一无二的意义:没有其他事物可以无端发出如此精美的声音。它曾是且仍然是地球上任何一个已知文明的一部分。人类40000年前就开始使用骨头制成的笛子。而且,音乐较任何其他事物更能让大家全神贯注:观察发现,当人们聆听音乐的时候,大脑的几乎每一个部分都会变得更具活力。Yet it serves no obvious adaptive purpose. Charles Darwin, in “The Descent of Man”, noted that “neither the enjoyment nor the capacity of producing musical notes are faculties of the least direct use to man in reference to his ordinary habits of life.” Unwilling to believe that music was altogether useless, Darwin concluded that it may have made mans ancestors more successful at mating. Yet if that were so, you might expect one gender to be musically more gifted than the other, and there is no evidence of that. So what is the point of music?但音乐无法满足适应性需要。查尔斯·达尔文在“人类的遗传”中说道“既非谱曲的乐趣也非此种能力在人们的日常生活习惯方面没有丝毫的直接用处。”由于不相信音乐一无是处,达尔文推断它或许可以使人类祖先的交配成功率更高。然而,如果事实如此,可以预料某一种性别会较另一种在音乐方面更具天赋,而并无显著的据实这一点。于是音乐的意义何在呢?Steven Pinker, a cognitive psychologist best known for his book “The Language Instinct”, has called music “auditory cheesecake, an exquisite confection crafted to tickle the sensitive spots of at least six of our mental faculties.” If it vanished from our species, he said, “the rest of our lifestyle would be virtually unchanged.” Others have argued that, on the contrary, music, along with art and literature, is part of what makes people human; its absence would have a brutalising effect. Philip Ball, a British science writer and an avid music enthusiast, comes down somewhere in the middle. He says that music is ingrained in our auditory, cognitive and motor functions. We have a music instinct as much as a language instinct, and could not rid ourselves of it if we tried.认知心理学家Steven Pinker因作品“语言的本能”而出名,他将音乐称为“听觉上的奶酪蛋糕,一份精心制作的高级甜点,至少能对六种心理官能的敏感点有所刺激。”他说,如果人类突然失去音乐,“我们的生活方式将几乎一成不变。”有人争论认为,与此相反,音乐及艺术和文学是人之所以为人的一部分;没有音乐恐怕会使人更具兽性。英国科学作家及音乐的狂热爱好者Philip Ball在其中有所领悟。他认为音乐根植于人们的听觉、知觉和运动技能之中。人类的音乐禀赋同语言不相上下,摆脱音乐可谓欲罢而不能。Music can mean different things in different cultures. But although it is culturally specific, some of its building blocks are universal: melody, harmony, rhythm, the timbre produced by a variety of instruments and the distinctive style added by particular composers. Almost all musical systems are based on scales spanning an octave—the note that sounds the same as the one you started off with, but at a higher or lower pitch. Pythagoras, a Greek philosopher who lived around 500, is said to have discovered that notes that sound harmonious together have simple ratios between their frequencies: for example, one that is an octave higher than another has double the frequency. The Pythagorean “diatonic” scale, still the basis of most Western music, is made up from seven notes. But it is far from the only one. Javanese gamelan uses two scales with different numbers of notes; North Indian music has 32 different scales. Arnold Schoenberg devised a 12-tone scheme of atonal music about a century ago.音乐的意义因不同文化而异。但是,即使音乐带有文化特殊性,其某些构建模块却具有普适性:节奏、和谐、韵律、不同乐器产生的音色和特别作曲家增添的迥异乐风。几乎所有的音乐体系都是基于所跨越的八度音阶范围——这一音符的发音同开始时的完全一样,只是音高或高或低。据说,公元前500年左右,希腊哲学家毕达哥拉斯已经发现了发音和谐的音符在频率之间成简单比例:例如,高一个八度的音符具有两倍的频率。毕氏“全音阶”范围仍然是多数西方音乐的基石,它由七个音符组成。但是,这远不是仅有的一个。爪哇的加麦兰乐器使用两个音阶范围,每个音阶具有不同的音符数;北美印第安音乐具有32个不同音阶范围。一个世纪以前,Arnold Schoenberg已经设计出一种无调音乐,由12音色组合而成。Mr Ball goes through each component of music in turn to explain how and why it works, using plentiful examples drawn from a refreshingly wide range of different kinds of music, from Bach to the Beatles, and from nursery rhymes to jazz. If you can music, you will find yourself humming aloud to see what he means. If you cant, you might occasionally get lost among the technicalities. But before things get too rarefied, Mr Balls facility for conveying complex facts in simple language comes to the rescue.Ball先生曾通过依次检查音乐的每个成分来解释其运作机理,他从大量不同种类的音乐中抽取实例,从巴赫到披头士,从童谣到爵士乐。如果你能领悟音乐,你会发现自己通过大声哼唱来理解其中的含义。如果不能领悟,或许你会偶尔迷失在专业术语中。但是在事情变得简化之前,Ball先生以简单语言表达复杂实事的作用可以来救救场。His basic message is encouraging and uplifting: people know much more about music than they think. They start picking up the rules from the day they are born, perhaps even before, by hearing it all around them. Very young children can tell if a tune or harmony is not quite right. One of the joys of listening to music is a general familiarity with the way it is put together: to know roughly what to expect, then to see in what particular ways your expectations will be met or exceeded. Most adults can differentiate between kinds of music even if they have had no training.他的基本信息就是鼓励和激昂:大家对音乐的了解远超所想。通过倾听环绕周身的音乐,人们对音乐规则的无师自通与生俱来,或许更早。特别年幼的儿童也能感觉出一个曲调或和声是否正确。聆听音乐的一大乐趣就是对音乐组合方式的总体领悟:大概了解所期望的内容,而后知道你所期望的东西以什么具体方式得到满足或超越。多数成年人即使不经特殊训练也能区分不同类型的音乐。Music is completely sui generis. It should not tell a non-musical story; the listener will decode it for himself. Many, perhaps most, people have experienced a sudden rush of emotion on hearing a particular piece of music; a thrill or chill, a sense of excitement or exhilaration, a feeling of being swept away by it. They may even be moved to tears, without being able to tell why. Musical analysts have tried hard to find out how this happens, but with little success. Perhaps some mysteries are best preserved.音乐完全自成一格。它不应该讲述一个无音乐的故事;听者会自我解构。许多人,或许是大多数人,曾经历过一听到某首特别的乐曲而突然迸发情感;一个震颤或寒颤,一份激动感或者兴奋感,被其一扫而空的感觉。人们甚至不知道究竟就被感动落泪。音乐分析家曾努力寻找发生这些现象的原因,但鲜有成功。或许,某些神秘隐藏其中。 /201306/245434内蒙古科技大学第一附属医院耳鼻喉科巴彦淖尔人民医院预约挂号

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