包头青山区人流专家

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年12月14日 17:57:48
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Britain has fallen behind Germany and France in Beijing’s estimation, China warned, in unusually blunt language, before its premier visits the UK.中国总理访问英国之前,中国以异常直率的措辞警告称,按照北京方面的估计,英国已落后于德国和法国。China’s ambassador to the UK complained that visa restrictions and delays in expanding Heathrow airport had hurt Britain’s competitiveness while a freeze in relations after David Cameron met the Dalai Lama had left Britain at a disadvantage to its European rivals.中国驻英国大使抱怨称,签限制和伦敦希思罗机场扩建工程的延误,损害了英国的竞争力,而在戴维#8226;卡梅伦(David Cameron)会晤达赖喇嘛(Dalai Lama)之后两国关系冻结,使英国相对于它的欧洲竞争对手处于劣势。“Before I came here, we used to say, when we talked about Europe: ‘Britain, France and Germany’, Liu Xiaoming told journalists.“在我来这里之前,我们过去在谈到欧洲时会说:‘英国、法国、德国,”刘晓明告诉记者。“But unfortunately many opportunities were missed in the past year or so – and we all know the reason behind it – people now start talking about ‘Germany, France and Britain’.”“但不幸的是,过去一年左右时间里,很多机会都被错过了——而我们都知道这一切背后的原因——现在人们开始说‘德国、法国和英国’。”Li Keqiang, the Chinese premier, arrives in London on Monday at the start of a three-day trip. This is the first by a Chinese premier to the UK since 2011, before Mr Cameron’s meeting with the Dalai Lama sparked anger in Beijing and put relations on hold for 18 months.中国总理李克强将于周一抵达伦敦,对英国展开三天访问。这是自2011年以来中国总理首次访问英国。上一次中国总理访英之后,卡梅伦会晤达赖喇嘛引起北京方面愤怒,导致两国关系被搁置了18个月。The trip is meant to cement the full restoration of diplomatic ties after Mr Cameron visited China last year.卡梅伦去年访问中国后,英中全面恢复外交关系,李克强此行意在巩固这一成果。But trade data show the UK still performing substantially worse than France and Germany in its exports to China. Britain’s exports to the fast-growing market were worth .1bn last year, compared with Germany’s .4bn and France’s .bn.但贸易数据显示,英国在对华出口方面仍远逊于法国和德国。去年,英国对快速增长的中国市场的出口达到101亿美元,而德国和法国对华出口分别达到734亿美元和190亿美元。China has often complained about restrictive British visa rules, comparing the UK unfavourably with the Schengen border-free zone covering most of the rest of the EU. Mr Liu said: “Visa restrictions are eroding Britain’s strength.”中国经常抱怨英国的苛刻签规则,称英国的制度不如覆盖欧盟大部分国家的申根(Schengen)区。刘晓明表示:“签限制正在削弱英国的优势。”Ministers are expected to announce a liberalisation of visas to Chinese tourists on Monday.预计英国大臣将在周一宣布对中国游客放宽签。Another worry is the lack of capacity at Heathrow, with a consultation on whether to build a third runway not due to report until after next year’s election. Mr Liu said: “We do expect, maybe even pray, that Heathrow airport will have a third runway.” China Investment Corporation, the country’s sovereign wealth fund, has a 10 per cent stake in the consortium that owns Heathrow.另一个令人担心的地方是希思罗机场的承载力,围绕要不要建造第三条跑道的意见征询工作要到明年大选后才会发表报告。刘晓明表示:“我们确实期望,也许甚至祈祷,希思罗机场将有第三条跑道。”中国的主权财富基金中投公司(CIC)在拥有希思罗机场的企业集团中持有10%股份。Both countries are keen to build business. Mr Cameron last year led what Britain said was the biggest trade delegation ever to visit China. Mr Li will reciprocate next week with a similarly large group of business delegates, 200 in all, although they are not part of the premier’s official entourage.两国都希望发展商业关系。卡梅伦去年率领号称英国史上最大规模的贸易代表团访问中国。李克强本周将带领类似规模的商界代表(200人)回访,尽管这些人不是中国总理官方随行人员的一部分。Mr Liu said bn of deals will be signed between the two countries during the visit, although he was unclear on the status or timescale of the spending.刘晓明表示,李克强访英期间,两国将签署总值300亿美元的协议,尽管他不清楚这些出的具体情况或时间表。One deal is authorisation for China Construction Bank to clear renminbi trading, enhancing London’s lead over European rivals in a race to be the continent’s main centre for the Chinese currency.其中一份协议将是授权中国建设(CCB)在伦敦清算人民币交易,在成为欧洲主要人民币中心的竞赛中使伦敦进一步领先于欧洲竞争对手。Other planned investment from Chinese sources has been slow to materialise. Beyond some much hyped UK property projects with long timetables backed by private sector Chinese tycoons, Beijing’s plans for major state investments in British infrastructure are proceeding slowly.中国其他对英投资计划迄今落实得较慢。除了一些大肆吹嘘的英国房地产项目(这些具有漫长时间表的项目由中国私营部门富豪参与出资)以外,中国国有部门对英国基础设施的重大投资计划进展缓慢。George Osborne, the chancellor, has announced that two Chinese state-owned companies would take up to 40 per cent in the planned #163;16bn Hinkley Point nuclear power plant in Somerset. But industry executives say it could be the end of the year before the companies confirm that investment.英国财政大臣乔治#8226;奥斯本(George Osborne)宣布,两家中国国有企业将在160亿英镑的萨默塞特郡欣克利角核电厂项目中持有最高达40%的股份。但业内高管称,这两家公司可能要到今年底才能确认这笔投资。Mr Li’s suggestion that China could invest in the UK’s HS2 high-speed rail network met a cool response as London says the project will be entirely taxpayer funded.李克强曾提议,中国可以投资于英国的HS2高铁网络,但英方对此反应冷淡。伦敦方面称,该项目的建设资金将完全来自纳税人。Mr Cameron’s focus on Chinese trade has seen the British government do all it can to ensure Mr Li is given a warm welcome, including arranging a meeting with the Queen. Mr Liu described reports that Mr Li had threatened to call off the trip if he was not allowed to meet the Queen as a “misunderstanding”, adding: “Chinese diplomacy is more subtle than that.”卡梅伦对英中贸易的重视意味着,英国政府将竭尽所能确保李克强得到高规格欢迎,包括安排他与女王会晤。此前媒体报道称,中方曾威胁,如果李克强不能见女王,他将取消访英行程。刘晓明形容这样的媒体报道是“误解”。他补充说:“中国的外交做法要更加细腻一些。”A Downing Street official said: “We are focused on how the relationship can benefit both the Chinese and British people. That’s about building a strong economic partnership between our two countries that delivers growth, reform and innovation.”英国首相府一名官员表示:“我们专注于让英中关系造福于中英两国人民。这意味着在我们两国之间构建牢固的经济伙伴关系,带来增长、改革和创新。” /201406/306065

Chinese conglomerate Fosun has entered the bidding war for Espírito Santo Saúde, offering 0m for the Portuguese hospital operator.中国综合企业复星(Fosun)以5.8亿美元的出价,加入到了对葡萄牙医院运营商ESS(Espírito Santo Saúde)的竞购战中。Fidelidade, the Portuguese insurer and a Fosun subsidiary, is offering 4.72 a share for the healthcare business, according to a statement to the Hong Kong stock exchange on Tuesday. The bid represents a premium of 31 per cent above the average share price over the previous six months, Fosun said. Shares in ESS closed at 4.70 in Lisbon on Monday.根据周二递交给香港交所的一份声明,葡萄牙保险公司、复星子公司Fidelidade提出以每股4.72欧元的价格收购ESS。复星表示,这一出价较过去6个月ESS的平均股价溢价31%。ESS股价周一在里斯本收于4.70欧元。ESS is 51 per cent-owned by Espírito Santo group, the troubled family company that controls Portuguese lender Banco Espírito Santo.陷入困境的家族企业Espírito Santo集团持有ESS 51%股权,这个家族企业还控股了葡萄牙Banco Espírito Santo。The offer from China’s largest privately held conglomerate trumps the previous top bid of 4.50 a share by Mexico’s Grupo Angeles. José de Mello Saúde – a local rival to ESS – has also submitted an offer for the business.复星是中国最大私人持股综合企业。它对ESS的出价超过了此前墨西哥公司Grupo Angeles每股4.50欧元的最高出价。ESS的本国竞争对手José de Mello Saúde也提出了收购报价。Fosun took control of Fidelidade, Portugal’s largest insurer, this year in a 1bn deal that signalled its intention to build a long-term international presence.复星今年斥资10亿欧元控股葡萄牙最大保险公司Fidelidade,表明它构建长期国际影响力的意图。“Fosun deals increasingly need to be thought about in terms of portfolio optimisation as opposed to thinking it is making a quick punt,” said one analyst, who linked its interest in ESS to its participation in April in a TPG-led consortium that won the bidding for US-listed Chinese hospital chain Chindex.一位分析人士表示:“复星的交易越来越追求投资组合的最优化,而不是快进快出的投机。”他认为,复星对ESS的兴趣与此前一笔交易有关——今年4月,复星曾加入由德州太平洋集团(TPG)牵头的财团,成功收购在美国上市的中国医院连锁美中互利(Chindex)。 /201409/331585

The health authority in Anhui province has issued China#39;s first provincial guide-line for cesarean sections, aimed at bringing down the excessively high level of such procedures in the province.安徽省卫生局发布了国内首个关于剖腹产的省级指导方针,旨在降低本省过高的剖宫产率。The guideline listed 14 types of medical requirements for a C-section, such as fetal distress (for lack of oxygen, for example) or abnormality of the birth canal.此项方针列出了14种医学需要的剖宫产手术,如胎儿窘迫(比如缺氧)或者产道异常。The guideline was issued to all medical institutions in the province in July, according to Wang Hai, chief of maternal health at the Anhui provincial Bureau of Health and Family Planning.据安徽省卫生计生委妇幼保健处处长王海称,这项方针在七月份便已经下发给全省所有医疗机构。;Doctors are duty-bound to refuse to perform a C-section without the presence of a clear need,; Wang said at a news conference on Monday.“若无明确的剖宫产需求,医生是有责任拒绝的,”王海在周一的新闻发布会上如是说。Doctors can perform a C-section when there is no medical requirement if the pregnant woman or her family demands it, and only after receiving signatures from both the pregnant woman and her doctor in charge, Wang said.王海称,若无医学需要,但妇及其家人要求剖宫产时,只有在妇和其主治医生都签名后,医生才能进行手术。The guideline is expected to reduce the rate of C-sections in the province, which was about 40 percent last year, to 30 percent in the next three to five years, the provincial family planning bureau said.省计生局称,去年本省的剖宫产率达到了40%左右,而此项方针意在未来三到五年之内,将这一比率降低到30%。Forty-six percent of women in China deliver by C-section, one of the highest rates in the world, according to the World Health Organization. The organization recommends a rate of no higher than 15 percent.世界卫生组织称,我国剖宫产率位居世界第一,46%的妇女通过剖宫产分娩。而世界卫生组织建议的剖宫产比率是不要超过15%。Cesarean sections are necessary in emergency cases, but excessive use of unnecessary surgeries, such as for giving birth on a lucky day, poses serious health risks to mothers and babies, according to the Anhui health authority.安徽省卫生局称,对于一些急症病例,剖宫产十分必要,但非必要手术的滥用,比如为了让孩子在幸运日出生而进行手术,则会为母婴带来严重的健康风险。Cai Wenzhi, deputy dean of the School of Nursing at Southern Medical University in Guangzhou, said that in practice many hospitals are trying to reduce C-sections, but government intervention will be more effective.广州南方医科大学护理学院的副院长蔡文智说,实际上许多医院都在设法减少剖宫产手术,但政府干预更为有效。;The move by Anhui#39;s health commission is a good start for other areas in China,; she said. With the guideline, doctors in Anhui province will find it easier to refuse unreasonable requests for C-sections from their patients.“对中国其他地区来说,安徽省卫生委员会的此项举措是个良好的开端,”她说。在此项方针的指导下,安徽省的医生们将会发现,拒绝病人不合理的剖腹产要求会更容易些。;Hospitals charge much more for C-sections than for natural birth,; she said. ;C-sections are also faster, while midwives may have to keep waiting for more than 20 hours for a natural delivery.;“医院对于剖宫产的收费比自然分娩要高,”她说。“剖宫产也更快些,自然分娩的话,助产士有时候可能要等上20多个小时。” /201508/395988

  Though Wei Christianson is one of the most powerful figures in Asian investment banking, her entry into the industry was a bit of an accident.尽管孙玮(Wei Christianson)是亚洲投行界最有权势的人物之一,但她进入这一行却有一点儿偶然。Five years before she became a banker, Christianson was at a party in Hong Kong. She was talking to a neighbour who suddenly said: “You’re a godsend.”孙玮曾在香港参加过一个派对,五年后她成为了一名家。在那场派对上,她与旁边的人聊天时,对方突然说:“你真是上天派来帮我的。”“To do what?” she asked.“帮你做什么事?”“To list Chinese companies in Hong Kong,” came the reply.对方回答说:“让中国企业在香港上市。”The neighbour was a senior official at Hong Kong’s market regulator, the Securities and Futures Commission, which was preparing for the first overseas listings of Chinese companies in the then-British colony. The SFC was looking for someone with Christianson’s skills to join its corporate finance department.此人是香港市场监管机构——券及期货事务监察委员会(Securities and Futures Commission)的一名高官,因为当时该机构已开始筹备第一批中国企业赴香港海外上市的工作,所以正在物色有孙玮那样技能的人加入其企业融资部。当时的香港还是英国殖民地。Christianson, who is now Morgan Stanley’s Beijing-based China chief executive, says: “I don’t believe that women in the financial services sector are treated very differently in China than they are in the US or Europe,” she says. “Banking is only one portion of my job right now. I spend a lot of my time focusing on supervision of all our business platforms and building our management team.”常驻北京、现任根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)中国区首席执行官的孙玮说:“我认为,中国金融务行业的女性受到的对待与美国和欧洲没有太大的不同。现在业务只是我职责的一部分。我花很多时间专心监督我们所有业务平台,并建设我们的管理团队。”Her role is twofold. She chases deals and represents Morgan Stanley’s Asia and China franchises globally. At the same time, Christianson must oversee the development of Morgan Stanley’s overall China business. This encompasses a wide range of joint ventures – in everything from asset management to securities and trusts – in which foreign investment banks can only hold minority stakes.她的职责是双重的。她要在全球为根士丹利赢得交易,并作为根士丹利亚洲区和中国区业务的代表。与此同时,孙玮必须掌管根士丹利全部中国业务的发展,既涉及一系列合资企业,又涵盖从资产管理到券和信托的各个领域——外国投行在这些业务中只能持有少数股。“The restriction on [foreign] ownership is unfortunate,” she says. “We’re lucky in the sense we have great partners#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;Hopefully it will open up soon. I’m cautiously optimistic.”她说:“限制外资持股令人遗憾。所幸我们有着很好的合作伙伴。希望限制不久就能放开。对此我持谨慎乐观态度。”Christianson grew up in China and came of age just as Deng Xiaoping was consolidating his grip on power, ushering in a long period of political stability and economic growth. That translated into an opportunity to go to university in the US – at Amherst College in Massachusetts – after which she studied law at Columbia University and worked as a corporate lawyer in New York.孙玮在中国长大,她成年的时候,邓小平正在巩固权力、带来长期政治稳定和经济增长。于是,她有了机会去美国读大学——就读于马萨诸塞州阿默斯特学院(Amherst College)——之后又在哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)学习法律,然后在纽约担任一家公司的律师。In 1992, Christianson and her American husband, also a corporate lawyer, moved to Hong Kong for his job. She, meanwhile, was contemplating a career change. “After giving birth [to my first child] I realised there was no way I could travel; but if you were a corporate lawyer in Hong Kong, you travelled,” she says. “I wanted to have more kids and build a family, so I had to do something else but I didn’t know what.”1992年,同为公司律师的美国丈夫因为工作关系要去香港,孙玮便和丈夫一起到了香港。与此同时,她也在考虑改变职业。“在生下(第一个)孩子之后,我意识到我不能出差,但在香港当公司律师就少不了出差,”她说,“我想再要几个孩子,把家庭照顾好,所以我必须换个工作,但当时我不知道该做什么。”That’s where her new neighbour came in. Christianson understood both the law and the securities business, and was fluent in Mandarin and English. “My neighbour said, ‘You’re hired.’ I said, ‘Wait a minute, I have to see how much you pay – I’ve got to support a family,’#8202;” she recalls. “The next day I went to their offices and got the job.”这个时候她遇到了新的邻居。孙玮精通法律和券业务,汉语和英语都很流利。她回忆说:“邻居说,‘你被雇用了。’我回答说,‘等一下,我想知道你们付多少工资,我还要养活家庭呢。’第二天我来到他们的办公室,于是就得到了这份工作。”Christianson’s husband, however, felt she had a brighter future ahead of her as poacher rather than gamekeeper. “He said I don’t see you thriving as a regulator,” she says. “He put the idea in my head to become a banker. I was intrigued but I didn’t really know what it entailed.”然而,孙玮的丈夫认为她当“偷猎者”比当“猎场看守人”更有前途。“他说我当监管者没有前途,”她说,“他建议我当一名家。我很好奇,但我并不知道这意味着什么。”In the late 1990s, she joined Morgan Stanley’s investment banking arm and – apart from a detour from 2002 until 2005, to run Credit Suisse’s China business and then to Citigroup – has steadily climbed up the ranks. This year, Christianson’s China investment banking team advised Shuanghui International on its successful .1bn takeover of Smithfield Foods, America’s largest pork producer, the largest US acquisition by a Chinese group.上世纪九十年代末,她加入了根士丹利的投行部——除了2002年到2005年期间先是负责瑞士信贷(Credit Suisse)的中国业务,然后加入花旗集团(Citigroup)——她一直是稳步上升。今年,孙玮的中国投行团队为双汇国际(Shuanghui International)以71亿美元成功收购美国最大猪肉制造商史密斯菲尔德食品公司(Smithfield Foods)提供了咨询。这是中国集团对美国公司完成的规模最大的一宗收购案。For her generation, the broader sweep of Chinese history is never far away. Christianson’s mother was a doctor who joined the communist revolution in 1939, and later became a hospital administrator. Her father was in the military.对于她这代人来说,中国历史的深刻印记从来都没有远去。她母亲是一名医生,1939年参加共产主义革命,后来成为一名医院管理人员。她父亲是军人。“I was raised during the cultural revolution, when people didn’t have many options,” she says. “But sometimes there was a little light at the end of the tunnel and you had to work really hard and persistently towards that light#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;I was old enough to remember but young enough not to participate. I was not in the Red Guards but I have other memories#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;” She stops herself, careful not to reveal too much. But the subject lingers. “I am amazed, thinking back to how horrible everything was,” she suddenly adds. “It all seems quite sad now and yet there were sparks of optimism because of this very strong desire [people had] to try to make something out of nothing#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;I don’t want to get into personal stories but I can tell you one thing – what I’ve learnt from my parents is the toughness of the human spirit. No one can defeat you but yourself.”她说:“我在文革时期长大,当时人们没有太多的选择。但有时候隧道尽头还是有一线光明的,你必须非常努力、坚持不懈,才能看到那束光。那时我已记事,但还做不了什么事。我没有参加红卫兵,但我也记得其他一些事。”她谨慎地停下来,不想透露太多。但话题开始转移。她突然补充说:“回想起一切曾经是那么地可怕,让我感到吃惊。一切都那么悲剧,但人们那种绝处逢生的强烈愿望,却闪耀出乐观的火花。我不想说具体故事,但我可以告诉你一件事:我从父母那学到的就是人类精神的坚韧。除了你自己,没有人可以打倒你。” /201312/268905

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  HONG KONG — American allies in Asia on Wednesday welcomed a ed States Senate vote that appeared to clear the way for a final round of negotiations over a sweeping trans-Pacific trade pact and may have made it easier for governments to make politically risky concessions.香港——周三,美国的亚洲盟友对联邦参议院的表决结果表示欢迎。这一结果看来为一项广泛的跨太平洋贸易协定开展最后一轮谈判扫清了障碍,而且可能会令各国政府更易于做出带有政治风险的让步。Japan’s minister responsible for trade negotiations, Akira Amari, said a congressional victory for President Obama could open the way for a deal as soon as next month.日本负责贸易谈判的大臣甘利明(Akira Amari)表示,奥巴马总统在国会获取的胜利或许会为最快于下月达成协议铺平道路。“It’s possible we could have a ministerial-level meeting in July and conclude a broad agreement,” he told reporters. Any agreement would then require putting legislation in each country into effect, followed by approval there, which could take months.“我们有可能在7月举行部长级会议,达成一项广泛的协议,”他告诉记者。无论内容如何,协议均需各个国家的立法机构批准并实施,而这个过程可能需要好几个月的时间。China, which is not among the 12 nations negotiating the deal and had proposed a competing agreement, refrained from criticizing the vote.中国并未包含在参与这项协定谈判的12个国家中,并已提出了一个与之竞争的协议。它没有对参议院的此次表决提出批评。For Mr. Obama, the deal, which appeared headed toward passage on Wednesday, represents an important element of the so-called pivot to Asia to help maintain ed States influence as countries grow increasingly dependent on trade with China. For American allies, it offers the political cover to commit to trade concessions, removing the risk that Congress might reject the negotiated deal.看起来,该协定在本周三离获得通过更进一步。对于奥巴马来说,它是“重返亚洲”战略的重要一环。就在各国日益依靠对华贸易的时候,美国实施了“重返亚洲”战略,以维持自身在该地区的影响力。对于美国的盟友来说,它为承诺做出贸易让步提供了政治掩护,消除了美国国会拒绝接受谈判协议的风险。China was initially wary of the trade measure, the Trans-Pacific Partnership, seeing it several years ago as potentially giving an advantage to American allies’ business over Chinese companies in ed States markets. But those objections have faded as China has begun energetically pursuing its own regional trade agreements with East Asian neighbors.中国起初对这项名为“跨太平洋伙伴关系”(Trans-Pacific Partnership,简称TPP)的贸易协定持警惕态度,头几年的时候认为它可能会使来自美国盟友的公司在美国市场上比中国公司更占优势。然而,随着中国开始积极与东亚邻国达成区域性的贸易协议,这种反对的声音逐渐消退。“Even if T.P.P. is done, I don’t think it will pose any threat to China — we follow our own efforts,” said He Weiwen, a former Chinese commerce ministry official who is now a director of the influential China-ed States-European Union Study Center at the China Association of International Trade in Beijing.曾担任商务部官员的中国国际贸易学会中美欧研究中心主任何伟文表示,“即便达成了TPP协定,我觉得也不会对中国构成威胁——我们要走自己的道路。”The Senate voted on Tuesday to end debate on legislation that would give Mr. Obama and his successor the authority for the next six years to negotiate trade agreements and submit them to Congress with no amendments or filibusters allowed.参议院周二的表决是为了结束围绕授予奥巴马总统及其继任者贸易谈判权的立法所展开的辩论。这项授权将允许总统在接下来的六年时间里就贸易协定开展谈判,并将协议提交给国会,而国会无权修订最后的协定,也无法再实施冗长演说拖延战术。Ending debate required 60 votes, which the Senate’s Republican leadership barely mustered with limited support from Democrats. Passage of the actual legislation requires only 51 votes and would send the bill to the president, as the House of Representatives has aly approved it.参议院的共和党领导层获得了民主党人的有限持,勉强凑够了结束辩论所需的60票。实际的授权只要51票便能获得通过,然后就可以提交给总统签署,因为众议院已经批准同样的提案。Like previous presidents, who have had similar trade negotiating authority, Mr. Obama contended that the authorization was necessary so other countries would make all available concessions in talks with American trade negotiators, instead of reserving some in case Congress rewrote a deal.前几任总统也拥有类似的贸易谈判权。与他们一样,奥巴马提出,这种授权是必要的,如此一来,其他国家才会在与美国贸易谈判代表进行协商的时候做出所有可能的让步,而不是有所保留,以防美国国会改写协议。But American labor unions, environmental activists and other critics bitterly opposed passage of the negotiating authority, contending that it undermined the ability of Congress to stop administration negotiators from working with large corporations to craft deals that might not be advantageous to workers or the environment.不过,美国国内的工会组织、环保人士及其他一些持批评态度的人士强烈反对通过授予总统谈判权的法案,认为这会削弱国会阻止政府谈判代表与大企业携手达成可能会对劳动者或环境不利的协议的能力。Final congressional approval of the legislation would clear the way for a difficult final round of talks on the details of the trade agreement, which would remove trade barriers from Canada and Chile to Australia, Singapore and Japan.国会最终通过这项授权会为开启最后一轮有关TPP细节的艰难谈判扫清障碍。该协议将会移除从加拿大、智利到澳大利亚、新加坡和日本的贸易壁垒。Japan has been an especially difficult negotiating partner for the ed States because it wants to preserve trade barriers on rice, pork and other agricultural products. Tokyo has indicated that it is prepared to compromise but, fearful of Japan’s restive farm lobby, it has refused to discuss details in public as long as it was unclear whether Mr. Obama had the power to conclude a deal.对于美国来说,日本是一个特别难对付的洽谈伙伴,因为日本希望保留大米、猪肉及其他一些农产品的贸易壁垒。东京方面已经表明,日本准备做出让步,但由于担心强硬的本国农业游说团体,只要尚不确定奥巴马是否有权达成协议,日本就拒绝公开探讨细节。Another difficult question, which comes up for practically every free trade agreement, lies in so-called rules of origin: how to determine which goods are really made predominantly within the free-trade region and therefore qualify for tariff removal and other preferential trade access.另一个难题几乎每项自由贸易协议都会遇到,那就是所谓的“原产地规则”:如何确定哪些商品真的是在自由贸易区制造的,因此有资格免除关税,并获得其他优惠贸易待遇。Under the North American Free Trade Agreement, for example, garments do not just need to be sewn in North America to cross borders without being subject to tariffs; the garments generally need to be made from fabric that was woven in North America, and the fabric itself must be woven from yarn that was made in North America. That rule was written to prevent Mexican manufacturers from buying lots of precut, cheaper fabric from China and elsewhere and assembling it into inexpensive shirts for duty-free shipment to the ed States.例如,根据北美自由贸易协定(North American Free Trade Agreement)的规定,要想免除关税,装类产品不仅需要在北美缝制,通常还需要由北美的布料制成,而这些布料本身必须由北美生产的纱线制成。制定这项规定是为了防止墨西哥生产商从中国等地方购买大量预先裁剪的便宜布料,再利用这些织物缝制成便宜的成衣,运往美国,而不用交税。The Trans-Pacific Partnership includes Vietnam, a large garment-manufacturing nation that relies heavily on fabric imported from China. The negotiations pose the next battleground in a decades-long fight. The American textile industry consistently lobbies for the trade status of garments to be determined by where the material was made, not just where garments were sewn.TPP谈判国中包括越南。这个装生产大国严重依赖从中国进口的布料。相关谈判为这场长达几十年的争斗开辟了另一个战场。美国纺织业一直在开展游说活动,希望装的贸易地位由原材料的产地决定,而不仅仅是缝制成衣的地点。But large retailers and fashion brands want to link the trade status only to where garments are sewn, making it easier to use low-cost Chinese fabrics.不过,大型零售商和时尚品牌希望这种贸易地位只由成衣产地决定,更易于它们使用成本较低的中国布料。China’s trade policy analysts are eager to scrutinize the language of the 12-nation Trans-Pacific Partnership pact as soon as it is completed and released, to determine how it might actually affect Chinese exporters, Mr. He said.何伟文表示,这12个国家一达成并公布TPP协定,中国的贸易政策分析人士就会马上细读协定条文,从而判断实际上它会如何影响中国出口商。 /201506/383097

  The EU has criticised the glacial pace of UN negotiations on a global deal to combat climate change due to be signed in Paris this year, in a sign of the growing unease among some countries about the eventual outcome of the agreement.欧盟(EU)批评联合国(UN)为达成全球气候变化协议的协商进程过于缓慢,这表明一些国家对最终可能形成的协议日益感到不安。各方计划今年12月在巴黎签署新气候协议。“Time is of the essence here,” said Ilze Pruse, a senior EU delegate, as a week of talks ended in Geneva where representatives from more than 190 nations produced an official negotiating text for the Paris pact, due to be signed in December.190多个国家的代表在日内瓦举行了为期一周的会谈,会上产生了巴黎气候协议的正式谈判文本。“时间已经十分紧迫,”欧盟高级代表伊尔泽#8226;普鲁谢(Ilze Pruse)在会后说。The draft document ballooned from fewer than 40 pages to 86 pages during the week and is full of what Ms Pruse said were repetitive options that could have been easily trimmed before envoys knuckle down to the far harder task of deciding what may actually stay in the agreement at their next scheduled negotiating session in Bonn in June.在日内瓦会谈中,草案文件的篇幅从原本的不到40页增加到86页。普鲁谢认为,文本中存在许多重复的内容,在下一次会谈时,这些很轻易就会被删减。代表们预定今年6月在波恩举行下次会谈,着手处理一个难度大得多的任务——决定协议中应该保留哪些内容。The Paris deal, if agreed, will be the first in more than 20 years of UN climate negotiations to require all countries, rich and poor, to do something to stem the rising greenhouse gas emissions that scientists say are warming the atmosphere, raising sea levels and fomenting more ferocious weather.巴黎气候协议一旦达成,将是联合国气候协商进程20多年来,首次要求所有国家,不论贫富,均需采取行动遏制不断上升的温室气体排放。科学家们表示,温室气体排放正在导致大气升温、海平面上升,以及极端天气现象增多。It would effectively replace the 1997 Kyoto protocol, an international climate treaty that requires wealthy countries to cut their emissions but not nations then classed as developing, such as China, which is now the world’s biggest carbon polluter.它将有效地取代1997年签署的《京都议定书》,该条约只要求富国减排,对当时被界定为发展中的国家则不作要求,比如现在已经是世界最大碳排放国的中国。While the Geneva meeting was only supposed to come up with an official negotiating text for the Paris pact, informal talks during the week revealed that a vast array of differences remain between countries over what the final agreement should look like.尽管日内瓦会议的目的只是为巴黎协议形成一份正式谈判文本,会议期间的非正式会谈却表明,各国对最终协议的内容还存在大量分歧。“There remain deep and longstanding divisions on key issues,” said Alden Meyer of the US-based Union of Concerned Scientists.“在关键问题上还存在着各种深刻、长期以来就一直存在的分歧,”总部在美国的忧思科学家联盟(Union of Concerned Scientists)的奥尔登#8226;迈耶(Alden Meyer)表示。Small island states most at risk from rising sea levels are among those demanding the deal should include a firm date some time this century, perhaps as soon as 2050, for phasing out man-made emissions, the bulk of which come from burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas.海平面上升对小岛国家最为不利,这些国家和其它一些国家一起,要求协议为逐步停止人为排放温室气体设定一个本世纪内的确定时限,比如2050年。人为排放的很大一部分来自于燃烧煤、石油和天然气等化石燃料。Oil-rich Saudi Arabia and many other countries that do not rely as heavily on fossil fuel exports for their national income say this date is completely unrealistic and even later deadlines could be difficult.石油大国沙特阿拉伯以及许多不那么依赖化石燃料出口的国家则表示,这一期限根本就不切实际,即使是再晚一些的期限,要达成目标也十分困难。The EU and many middle-income countries insist that whatever emissions targets are eventually pledged by countries as part of the agreement, they should be made as legally binding as possible, a position other countries are uneasy about.欧盟及许多中等收入国家坚持认为,无论各方最终在协议中达成何种排放目标,都应该尽可能使这些目标具有法律约束力。这种立场让其他国家感到不安。Meanwhile, the question of how much responsibility which developed versus developing countries should bear — and pay — for lowering emissions hangs over the whole agreement. The US and many others say 20-year-old divisions between rich and poor nations enshrined in earlier UN agreements cannot be maintained in Paris.与此同时,关于发达国家和发展中国家应该分别承担多少减排责任——以及分担多少经费——的问题,困扰着整个协商进程。美国及其他许多国家称,早前联合国协议中存在了20年的富国与穷国的差别待遇,不能继续保留在巴黎协议中。With so many disagreements to be resolved, some countries are concerned that the final Paris deal may be far too weak to accomplish the emissions cuts that scientists say are necessary to ward off potentially dangerous changes in the climate.等待解决的分歧如此之多,使得一些国家担心最终的巴黎协议可能会缺乏力度,以至于无法完成必要的减排。科学家称,为了避免出现潜在的危险气候变化,减排必须达到一定规模。French climate envoy, Laurence Tubiana, said this was why it was crucial for the Paris pact to produce a system of long-lasting and increasing global action on climate change.法国气候问题特使洛朗斯#8226;蒂比亚纳(Laurence Tubiana)称,正是出于这个原因,巴黎协议必须产生一项系统性的持久并逐步加强的全球应对气候变化行动。“We have to embed in the agreement an upscaling spiral of more actions,” she said.“我们应该在协议中规定要采取更多的逐步升级的行动,”她称。While the EU was frustrated by the slow pace of progress in Geneva, Christiana Figueres, head of the Bonn-based UN secretariat that helps manage the talks, said the week had offered an invaluable opportunity for all delegates to meet and understand each other’s positions better before they start tougher negotiations in Bonn in June.尽管欧盟对日内瓦会谈进展缓慢感到失望,波恩帮助协调会谈的联合国秘书处的负责人克里斯蒂娜#8226;菲格雷斯(Christiana Figueres)称,本周为所有代表提供了一次宝贵的机会,让他们6月在波恩开始更艰难的谈判前,更好地理解彼此立场。“Of course, the downside is that in June they do have 86 pages to deal with and that is an added challenge,” she said.“当然,不利的一面是他们6月要应付86页的协议内容,这是一项额外挑战,”她称。Climate campaigners, who often loudly criticise UN negotiations for being too slow and out of touch with the public’s desire for greater climate action, were unusually positive about the meeting.经常公开批评联合国谈判进程缓慢、与公众希望采取更多气候应对措施的诉求脱节的气候活动家,此次却对会议持乐观态度。“Yes, the text has grown but it was always going to grow,” said Julie-Anne Richards of the Climate Action Network, adding it was much more important that countries had agreed relatively swiftly and harmoniously on what such a complicated document could look like.“的确,文本内容是增加了,不过它总是要增加的,”气候行动网(Climate Action Network)的朱莉-安妮#8226;理查兹称。她说,更为重要的是,各国相对快速、和谐地就这样一个看起来可能十分复杂的文本达成了一致。Meanwhile, countries around the world are preparing to formally publish their emissions reduction targets ahead of the Paris meeting, with the EU, the US and others expected to divulge them before the end of March.另外,世界各国正准备在巴黎会议前正式公布各自的减排目标,欧盟、美国等预计在3月底前公布。 /201502/360318

  This year brought so many promising new shows: 2014 was the year of “True Detective,” “The Honorable Woman,” “Fargo,” “The Affair,” “Olive Kitteridge” and “Silicon Valley,; among others. But there were also older shows that either stayed the course or somehow climbed their way back from a dip or even total eclipse, notably “The Comeback,” starring Lisa Kudrow, a HBO comedy that was canceled in 2005 after one season and then resurrected in November.2014年出现了这么多大有前途的新剧:《真探》(True Detective)、《荣耀之女》(The Honorable Woman)、《冰血暴》(Fargo)、《婚外情》(The Affair)、《奥丽芙·基特里奇》(Olive Kitteridge)和《硅谷》(Silicon Valley)等。有些老剧仍在坚持,或者莫名其妙地重振雄风,或者在被砍后再次回归,最显眼的是丽莎·库卓(Lisa Kudrow)主演的HBO喜剧《归来记》(The Comeback),它在2005年播出一季后被砍,今年11月回归。These are a few old shows that found new vigor in 2014 and deserve another look — and also a few that don’t.下面是2014年的几部重现活力、需要刮目相看的老剧——以及几部死气沉沉的老剧。‘Homeland’ This Showtime espionage thriller seemed destined for irrelevance after Brody (Damian Lewis) was finally killed at the end of Season 3. Season 4 has so far turned out to be remarkably vital and exhilarating without him, this time by pitting Carrie (Claire Danes) against a beautiful, deceitful Pakistani intelligence officer, Tasneem, (Nimrat Kaur).《国土安全》(Homeland):第三季末布洛迪(Brody,戴米恩·路易斯[Damian Lewis]饰)最终被杀后,映时频道(Showtime)的这部间谍惊悚剧似乎走到了尽头。目前看来,第四季没了他却变得充满活力,令人喜爱。卡莉(Carrie,克莱尔·丹尼斯[Claire Danes]饰)这次的对手是美貌、狡猾的巴基斯坦情报官塔斯尼姆(Tasneem,尼姆拉特·考尔[Nimrat Kaur]饰)。‘The Good Wife’ Once Will (Josh Charles), Alicia’s illicit love interest, died at the end of Season 5, this sexy CBS courtroom drama seemed as if it might droop and wither, but instead, the sixth season steamed with almost madcap energy, mixing Alicia’s newly fledged political campaign, a war of the roses between Alicia’s new firm and her old one, and the legal travails of Cary, her legal partner. Alicia isn’t quite so good anymore, and that makes “The Good Wife” all the better.《傲骨贤妻》(The Good Wife):艾丽西娅(Alicia)的秘密暧昧对象威尔(Will,乔希·查尔斯[Josh Charles]饰)在第五季末死去,CBS频道的这部性感法庭剧似乎要完蛋了,但是第六季却似乎充满了疯狂的能量——艾丽西娅初露头角的政治竞选、新旧公司的权力之争、合伙人卡里(Cary)的棘手法律事务。艾丽西娅不再那么完美,《傲骨贤妻》因此更好看了。‘Law amp; Order: SVU’ This N ripped-from-the-soap-opera perils of Olivia (Mariska Hargitay) — psychopath rapist-stalker, tortured love affair, new baby — that took up so much air last season finally died down, and this season, the show’s 16th, the detectives got back to sex crimes à clef, including a Ray Rice-inspired episode about a star sportscaster who was seen on a surveillance camera punching the lights out of his wife.《法律与秩序:特殊受害者》(Law amp; Order: SVU):N频道的这部电视剧上一季中的危机仿佛是从肥皂剧中搬来,发生了各种大事,奥利维亚(Olivia,玛莉丝卡·哈吉塔[(Mariska Hargitay]饰)经历了许多危险——喜欢跟踪的变态强奸犯,折磨人的婚外恋,新生婴儿,现在这一切终于平息下来。在今年的第16季中,侦探们回到了重要的性犯罪上,其中一集的灵感来自雷·赖斯(Ray Rice),讲述的是从监控录像中看到一个著名体育广播员殴打自己的妻子。‘The Mindy Project’ It doesn’t matter that Mindy Kaling’s comedy on Fox is in its third season and still not a hit, because it keeps improving with age. It has grown from a one-comedian showcase into a very funny ensemble effort, thanks in part to the addition of Adam Pally in Season 2 and jokes about Ms. Kaling’s alma mater, Dartmouth.《明迪烦事多》(The Mindy Project):福克斯频道的这部明迪·卡灵(Mindy Kaling)创作的喜剧已经在播第三季,但仍不热门,不过这无关紧要,因为它在不断进步——从单个喜剧演员的独角戏发展成非常有趣的集体表演,部分原因在于第二季增加了亚当·帕利(Adam Pally),并且对明迪的母校达特茅斯学院开起了玩笑。‘Episodes’ This comedy on Showtime, too often overlooked, follows the bewilderment of two British TV writers stuck in Hollywood creating a series for Matt LeBlanc, who plays a diva version of himself very convincingly. Not many shows set in the entertainment industry can sustain the conceit, but this is one that got even better in its third year.《剧集人生》(Episodes):映时频道的这部喜剧经常被忽视,它讲述的是两位被困在好莱坞的英国电视编剧在为马特·勒布朗(Matt LeBlanc)创作电视剧时遇到的困惑。勒布朗在剧中饰演他自己,演得很精。以业为背景的电视剧很少能保持最初的巧妙构思,但这部剧的第三季比前两季还要精。‘Veep’ “House of Cards,” the Netflix phenomenon, showed its weaknesses this year, but HBO’s “Veep,” the other most cynical show about Washington, got stronger in its third season. The scene in a restroom in which Selina (Julia Louis-Dreyfus) and her assistant, Gary (Tony Hale) discover that she is going to become president and dissolve into uncontrollable laughter was one of the great comic moments of 2014.《副总统》(Veep):Netflix公司的热门剧《纸牌屋》(House of Cards)今年露出疲态,但另一部讽刺华盛顿的HBO电视剧《副总统》却在第三季中更上一层楼。塞琳娜(朱莉娅·路易斯-德莱弗斯[Julia Louis-Dreyfus]饰)和助手加里(Gary,托尼·黑尔[Tony Hale]饰)在洗手间里发现自己即将成为总统后,激动得失声大笑,成为2014年喜剧片中最滑稽的一幕。‘The Americans’ Set in the Reagan era, this FX series is nearly as deceptive as KGB agents posing as suburban American couple: In its second season, “The Americans” proved to be a drama about love, family, friendship and mistrust disguised as a Cold War thriller.《美国谍梦》(The Americans):FX频道的这部电视剧以里根时代为背景,它和剧中两位伪装成美国郊区夫妻的克格勃间谍一样具有欺骗性:第二季表面上看是冷战惊悚剧,实际上是关于爱情、家庭、友谊和猜忌的情节剧。‘Jeopardy!’ This game show celebrated the 50th anniversary of its debut (broadcast on March 30, 1964), and proved it can still not only stump viewers but also surprise them. That’s not just because the host, Alex Trebek, briefly regrew a mustache after 13 clean-shaven years, but also because some contestants showed they could still rile an audience. This year, it was Arthur Chu, who introduced a blitzkrieg style of gamesmanship that provoked a cyber hate-fest. His strategy was thrilling and certainly effective: he came in second in the Tournament of Champions. (Ben Ingram, the nice guy, finished first.)《危险!》(Jeopardy!):这个游戏节目今年已播出50年(1964年3月30日首播),它明自己不仅能难住观众,而且能令他们感到意外。不仅是因为主持人亚历克斯·特里贝克(Alex Trebek)留起了胡子(之前13年他都是把胡子剃得干干净净),而且是因为仍有些选手表明自己能刺激观众。今年刺激观众的是亚瑟·朱(Arthur Chu),他采用闪电战式的答题方式,在网上引起一片哗然。他的策略令人兴奋,当然也很奏效:他在锦标赛中夺得第二名(友善的本·因格拉姆[Ben Ingram]最后得了第一)。Some hits have gone so far over the top they should be winded, yet instead keep on puffing gusts of hot air, including “Downton Abbey,” “Scandal” and “Revenge.” A new addition on A, “How to Get Away With Murder” was a fun substitute, a lurid nighttime soap opera about lawbreaking defense lawyers — “Law amp; Disorder.”有些热门剧已经走得太远,应该降降温了,却仍在大张旗鼓,比如《唐顿庄园》(Downton Abbey)、《丑闻》(Scandal)和《复仇》(Revenge)。A频道的新剧《逍遥法外》(How to Get Away With Murder)是一部有趣的替代品,它是一部耸人听闻的夜间肥皂剧,讲述不法辩护律师的故事,简直可以称为“法律与无序”。There were also shows that didn’t live up to early expectations but still had traction, most notably “The Affair,” on Showtime, which began as a Hamptons film noir and instead turned into a French art film. The crime may not be commensurate with the series’s punishingly slow pace and “Rashomon;-like storytelling, but the series picked up momentum — and suspense — in the final episodes.还有些电视剧不如人们最初预料的好,不过仍有吸引力,最显眼的是映时频道的《婚外恋》,它一开始看起来像汉普顿斯式黑色电影,后来变成了法国艺术电影。剧中的罪行与过于缓慢的节奏以及《罗生门》(Rashomon)式的讲述方式不太相称,不过该剧在最后几集势头大涨,悬念丛生。That was true, too, of “Mad Men” on AMC. which in its seventh season has all but exhausted its characters and its 1960s setting, but is still keeping viewers guessing about the end, which won’t air until next year. “The Sopranos” ended ambiguously. “Breaking Bad,” put an end to Walter White. Now, the next television mystery looming ahead centers on Don Draper’s last moments, dead or alive.AMC频道的《广告狂人》(Mad Men)也是如此。该剧演到了第七季,剧中人物和20世纪60年代的背景似乎已被挖掘干净,不过它仍在让观众猜测结局,结局要到明年才播出。《黑道家族》(The Sopranos)结局模糊。《绝命毒师》(Breaking Bad)以沃尔特·怀特(Walter White)死去告终。现在,隐约显现的下一个电视谜题是唐·德雷珀(Don Draper)的最后时刻——究竟是死去还是活着。 /201412/348800。

  Billionaires Mike Bloomberg and Bill Gates have launched an anti-smoking legal fund designed to help lower-income countries defend their tobacco-control laws against lawsuits by cigarette companies.亿万富翁迈克#8226;布隆伯格(Mike Bloomberg)和比尔#8226;盖茨(Bill Gates)创建了一只禁烟法律基金,旨在帮助较低收入国家保护它们的烟草控制法不受烟草公司诉讼的影响。The fund will raise the pressure on the tobacco industry, which has seen tough anti-smoking regulation sp from mature markets in places like western Europe to fast-growing developing countries seen as key sources of growth.这只基金将给烟草行业带来更大压力。发展中国家被视作烟草行业最重要的增长来源,但这些国家也越来越多地跟随西欧等成熟市场,采取更严格的禁言规定。In response, tobacco companies have used trade agreements as a way to challenge national laws on smoking. Philip Morris International, the world’s largest seller of cigarettes outside of China, is suing Uruguay over claims that its tobacco-control measures violated a trade agreement with Switzerland, where PMI is based.作为回应,烟草企业一直利用贸易协议挑战各国禁烟法律。总部位于瑞士、全球(中国以外)最大烟草销售商菲利普莫里斯国际公司(Philip Morris International)正起诉乌拉圭,指控该国控烟措施违反了与瑞士签订的一项贸易协议。The claim, which marked the first time a tobacco company sued a country in an international court, concerns a law passed in 2009 that requires health warnings to cover 80 per cent of tobacco packaging and banning different variants of the same brands, like Marlboro Red and Marlboro Gold.这是烟草企业首次在国际法庭起诉一个国家,这一指控与2009年签署的一项法律有关。该法律规定,健康警告需要占到香烟包装的80%,同时禁止同一品牌使用不同名称,例如万宝路红(Marlboro Red)和万宝路金(Marlboro Gold)。Mr Bloomberg said the tobacco industry was using costly legal battles to “intimidate” lower-income countries.布隆伯格表示,烟草行业一直在利用代价高昂的法律诉讼“恐吓”较低收入国家。“This is not about trade. No one is a stronger supporter of capitalism and trade than I am,” he said. “This is about sovereignty and whether a country has the right to set its own public-health policies.”“这不关乎贸易。没有人比我更强烈持资本主义和贸易,”他表示,“这关乎主权以及一国是否有权制定自己的公共健康政策。”He and Mr Gates have committed m to initiate the fund, which will be administered by the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, a US charity.他和盖茨已出资400万美元作为这只基金的初始资金。该基金由美国慈善组织Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids管理。It will offer countries assistance in drafting anti-smoking laws, create a network of trade-litigation lawyers, and provide financial support for states facing legal action.该基金将向各国提供草拟禁烟法律方面的协助,创建一个贸易诉讼律师网络,并为那些面临法律诉讼的国家提供持。Mr Bloomberg said the relatively small financial investment was “just a start” and pointed to the 0m that Bloomberg Philanthropies, his charitable giving vehicle, had spent on anti-smoking work since 2007.布隆伯格表示,这笔规模相对较小的投资“只是一个开始”。他表示,自2007年以来,他的慈善捐赠机构布隆伯格慈善基金会(Bloomberg Philanthropies)已花费6亿美元用于禁烟工作。Trade laws have also been used to challenge Australia’s plain-packaging legislation, which was passed in 2012. A subsidiary of PMI is suing Australia over claims that the law violated a trade agreement between the country and Hong Kong.此外,烟草公司还在利用贸易法律来挑战澳大利亚2012年通过的简易包装立法。菲利普莫里斯国际公司子公司正起诉澳大利亚,指控该法律违反了澳大利亚与香港签订的一项贸易协议。Tobacco companies have vowed to sue Ireland and the UK, which also passed plain packaging laws this month.烟草公司还誓言将起诉爱尔兰和英国。英国本月也通过了香烟简易包装法律。Mr Gates, co-chair of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, said that while wealthy countries like Australia could afford to defend their laws, “smaller, developing countries don’t have the same resources”.比尔和梅琳达盖茨基金会(Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation)联合主席盖茨表示,尽管澳大利亚等富国能够承担得起维护其法律的诉讼费用,但“较小发展中国家不具备这种财力”。 /201503/365636

  

  This week’s landmark agreement between the U.S. and China on limiting emissions of carbon dioxide marks a significant diplomatic milestone in the struggle against global climate change. The fact that the two largest sources of CO2 have finally agreed to do something about it should, in theory, give a boost to next year’s ed Nations climate summit. Whether the actual terms of the deal—which calls for the U.S. to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 26% to 28%, compared to 2005 levels, by 2025, and for China to cap its emissions by 2030—have a realistic shot at being met is another question.上周,中美就限制二氧化碳排放达成重大协议,这在应对全球气候变化方面是一个里程碑式的外交事件。理论上,世界上最大的两个二氧化碳排放国最终同意就此采取行动将为明年的联合国气候变化峰会带来积极影响。按照协议,到2025年,美国的温室气体排放量将比2005年下降26-28%;到2030年,中国将实现温室气体排放零增长。不过,问题在于,这些目标能否真的实现。On the U.S. side, Republicans emboldened by the midterm elections will work to block any attempt to fulfill America’s side of the bargain, which Republican Sen. Jim Inhofe, of Oklahoma, soon to be chairman of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, called “a non-binding charade.”美国方面,中期选举增强了共和党的实力。该党成员将阻止美国政府试图履行协议中的自方责任。即将担任参议院环境和公共工程委员会(Senate Environment and Public Works Committee)主席的俄克拉荷马州共和党参议员吉姆o英霍夫(Jim Inhofe)将中美之间的这份协议称为“毫无约束力。”China’s challenge in meeting the terms of the bilateral agreement are not political but structural: simply put, to reduce emissions growth, China must reduce the size of its coal industry, which supplies some three-quarters of China’s electricity. That is no easy task.就履行这份双边协议而言,中国面临的并非是政治难题,而是结构性挑战:简而言之,要降低温室气体排放增速,中国就必须压缩煤炭行业规模。而煤电约占中国目前发电量的四分之三,这绝不是一项轻而易举的工作。But Beijing must take action, because the smog-choked nation can hardly stick with the status quo. The climate deal is part of a larger strategy to address China’s pollution crisis.但中国政府必须采取行动,因为这个雾霾笼罩下的国家无法再安于现状。而这份气候协议正是中国应对污染危机宏图大略的一部分。The costs of China’s heavy reliance on coal for power generation were highlighted again days before the deal with President Obama was announced, when a pair of researchers at the prestigious Tsinghua University released a study showing that around 670,000 people die prematurely every year as a result of air pollution from coal. Every ton of coal produced in China adds more than 286 yuan () in environmental damage and health costs, reported Teng Fei, an associate professor at Tsinghua University. China produced nearly 4 billion tons of coal in 2013, according to the World Coal Association.就在中美宣布签署协议前几天,知名学府清华大学两名研究人员所发布的一项报告显示,燃煤引发的空气污染每年都会造成约67万人过早死亡,这再次突出了中国严重依赖煤电所付出的代价。清华大学副教授腾飞指出,中国每生产一吨煤,就会产生286元人民币的环境和健康成本。而据世界煤炭协会(World Coal Association)的数据显示,2013年中国生产了近40亿吨煤炭。The Tsinghua study follows a 2011 report by the World Health Organization, published in The Lancet, that estimated that 1.2 million people in China died in 2010 from diseases related to all forms of air pollution. China also has by far the deadliest mining industry in the world: One thousand forty-nine coal miners died in accidents in 2013, down 23% from the year before but still far more than any other country.上述研究成果出炉前,世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)曾于2011年在医学杂志《柳叶刀》(The Lancet)上发表报告称,2010年有120万中国人死于各种空气污染引发的疾病。同时,中国还是世界上死于矿难人数最多的国家:2013年有1049名生产人员死于煤矿事故,虽比上年下降了23%,但仍远高于世界其他国家。Mounting evidence of coal’s environmental damage comes as China’s slowing economy has reduced demand for electricity, creating an oversupply crisis for an industry that has known nothing but steady growth for the last three decades. China has reached “a very critical moment in the management of its coal resources, and in the history of the coal industry,” says Cao Xia, a professor of environmental law at Shanxi University of Finance and Economics, in China’s coal heartland, Shanxi Province.就在经济增速放缓造成中国电力需求下降之际,体现煤炭污染环境的据越来越多,这给30年来一直以稳定增长著称的煤炭行业带来了供给过剩危机。在中国产煤大省山西,山西财经大学环境法教授曹霞认为:中国在煤炭资源管理方面以及在煤炭行业发展史上已经到了“一个非常关键的时刻。”The direct, domestic impacts of the nation’s massive coal industry, which produces and consumes about as much coal as the rest of the world combined, are added to the indirect, worldwide costs in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. No international program to combat climate change can succeed unless China slashes its burning of coal.中国煤炭行业规模庞大,煤炭产销量几乎和全球其他地区的总和相当。除了在国内造成的直接影响,这个行业产生的温室气体排放还给整个世界带来了间接成本。除非中国削减煤炭消费量,否则任何应对气候变化的国际性方案都无法获得成功。“The actions China takes in the next decade will be critical for the future of China and the world,” wrote Fergus Green and Nicholas Stern in a research paper for the Center for Climate Change Economics and Policy, in London. “Whether China moves onto an innovative, sustainable, and low-carbon growth path this decade will more or less determine both China’s longer-term economic prospects … and the world’s prospects of cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions sufficiently to manage the grave risks of climate change.”费格斯o格林(Fergus Green)和尼古拉斯o斯特恩(Nicholas Stern)在向伦敦气候变化经济和政策中心(Center for Climate Change Economics and Policy)提交的研究报告中写道:“中国在今后10年采取的行动对中国和全球的未来都很关键。在这10年里,中国能否实现创新和可持续的低碳增长将或多或少地决定中国的长期经济前景……也将决定全世界的温室气体减排幅度是否足以应对气候变化带来的重大风险。”Facing mounting public outrage over air and water pollution, the central government’s actions to limit coal use have multiplied in recent months. The Airborne Pollution Action Plan, unveiled by the central government in September 2013, calls for a reduction of air pollution in the northern region surrounding Beijing by 25%, and 20% in the Yangtze River Delta.随着公众对空气和水污染不满的渐增,近几个月,中国中央政府限制使用煤炭的力度倍增。2013年9月,中央政府发布了《大气污染防治行动计划》,目标是让京津冀地区细颗粒物浓度下降25%,长三角地区下降20%。Aly, strict limitations on coal use in major urban areas, including Beijing and Shanghai, are in place. Planning to cap total coal production at 4.1 billion tons as of 2015, the government said in October it will no longer approve new coal mining projects below 300,000 metric tons (330,000 short tons), effectively banning the small, unregulated mines that have contributed to the coal glut. Hundreds of small mines have aly closed, and the government has also taken steps to restrict imports of “dirty” coal—i.e., coal with high levels of ash and sulfur. (Although China’s coal market is oversupplied, imports continue because domestic transport issues mean it’s often cheaper to purchase coal shipped from Indonesia or Australia than buy domestic coal from the northern provinces of Shanxi and Inner Mongolia.)包括北京和上海在内的主要城市已经对使用煤炭做出了严格限制。按照十二五规划,2015年中国煤炭产能将达到41亿吨。今年10月份,中国政府表示,将不再核准新建30万吨(约合33万净吨)以下的煤矿,这实际上封杀了那些造成煤炭供给过剩的小型不规范煤矿。数百个小煤矿已经关闭,中国政府同时采取措施限制进口“脏”煤,即含硫量和灰分高的煤炭(尽管中国煤炭市场已经供过于求,但受国内运输条件限制,购买印尼或澳大利亚煤炭要比购买山西和内蒙等国内北部省份的煤炭便宜,所以中国一直在进口煤炭)。At the same time, though, China is embarking on a grandiose plan not to shut down the coal industry but to move it inland, away from the big cities of the coast and from the prying eyes of international environmental groups. As I reported for Fortune from Shanxi Province in April, coal producers, under the direction of the central and provincial governments, are building huge “coal bases” in the northwest provinces that will include large mines, power plants connected to coastal cities via gigantic high-voltage transmission lines, huge plants to convert coal to liquid fuel, and related facilities such as concrete plants and chemical plants.与此同时,中国正在实施一项宏伟计划,其内容不是整体关闭煤炭行业,而是将其迁移到内陆,远离沿海地区大城市以及国际环保团体的挑剔目光。今年4月份我曾从山西向《财富》杂志发回过报道,在中央和省政府的指导下,煤炭企业正在西北省份建立大型煤炭基地。这些基地将包括大型煤矿、通过特高压输电线路和沿海城市相连的发电厂、大型煤制油工厂以及混凝土厂和化工厂等配套设施。This huge migration and consolidation may well clean up the skies in cities like Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen, thus reducing rates of respiratory disease and deaths linked to air pollution. It could also rationalize the coal industry, better matching supply to demand, and reduce China’s imports of foreign oil. What it won’t do is reduce the country’s overall carbon emissions; in fact, it could drastically increase them, as more coal gets burned and more carbon-intensive processes – particularly coal-to-liquids conversion – are expanded.这项重大的迁移及整合计划可能会让北京、上海和深圳等城市的天空蓝起来,从而降低空气污染引发的呼吸道疾病发病率和死亡人数。这项措施还有可能理顺煤炭行业格局,让供需更加平衡,并减少中国的石油进口。但它无法降低中国的整体碳排放水平。实际上,此举可能大幅度提高中国的碳排放量,原因是燃煤数量的增多以及碳密集型生产工艺将得到更普遍的使用,特别是煤制油。“We are very concerned” about the coal-base plan, says Ailun Yang, a senior associate with the World Resources Institute who focuses on energy issues in China. “Enforcing tougher air pollution standards along the coast will lead to shutting down coal plants, and create demand for a lot more gas. The western parts of China want to supply the gas by turning coal into gas. That process will be very, very bad for the world.”世界资源研究所(World Resources Institute)重点关注中国能源问题的高级研究员杨艾伦(音译)说:“我们非常担心。在沿海地区执行更严格的空气污染标准意味着关闭燃煤发电厂,这将为天然气带来大量需求。中国西部地区想将煤转换成天然气并对外供应。这对全世界来说是一项非常不好的工艺。”Headline writers often refer to China’s “addiction” to coal. The relationship might be better thought of as a bad marriage, where neither partner can afford to leave. China needs the coal industry to fuel its demand for energy, which will surely continue to rise as the economy grows (even at rates of 7% to 8% a year, rather than the red-hot 10% to 12% annually of the last decade) and the middle class expands. The coal industry, of course, requires rising demand to continue to grow, to generate returns on its huge capital investments of the last decade, and to provide jobs for the hundreds of thousands of people who work in coal mines, coal plants, and related industries. In Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, and Xinjiang, entire cities depend on coal production and processing.新闻头条记者经常用“依赖上瘾”来形容中国与煤炭的关系。将此想象为一场失败的婚姻也许更为合适——在这里,双方谁也离不开谁。中国需要煤炭行业来满足国内能源需求。随着经济的增长(就算年增长率为7-8%,而不是过去10年中白热化的10-12%)和中产阶层的扩大,中国的能源需求必将继续上升。当然,煤炭行业也要依靠需求的不断扩大来保持增长,从而为10年来投入的大量资金提供回报,并通过煤矿、燃煤发电厂以及相关行业创造出数以十万计的就业机会。在山西、内蒙古和新疆,都存在着整座城市都依赖于煤炭开采和加工的现象。Coal in China has created an economy within an economy, and reducing the size of the coal industry would result in massive unemployment across large swaths of the country. Notwithstanding China’s huge push on renewable energy and natural gas, it’s hard to see how this co-dependency will be broken any time soon.煤炭行业已经在中国经济体系中自成一体。压缩煤炭行业的规模将造成大量人员失业。尽管中国正在大力推广可再生能源和天然气,但很难想象中国经济和煤炭的这种相互依存关系很快就会被打破。That’s not to say there’s no hope. China’s overall energy intensity (the amount of energy required to produce a given unit of GDP) has gone down in recent years, as the export-led economy shifts toward higher-tech products and services. Most areas of the country are on track to meet or exceed energy-conservation targets for 2015, according to the National Development and Reform Commission (as reported by Reuters), and the rate of growth in energy use is expected to fall by half this year compared to 2013. According to China-based researchers for Greenpeace, the total amount of coal burned in the first three-quarters of 2014 was 1% to 2% lower than the same period a year earlier.但这并不是说没有希望。近几年,随着中国的出口型经济向科技含量较高的产品和务转移,中国的整体能源密集度(创造单位GDP所需的能源)已经下降。据路透社(Reuters)报道,国家发改委表示,中国大多数地区都将达到或者超额完成2015年节能目标;预计今年中国的能源消费增速将比2013年下降一半。绿色和平组织(Greenpeace)驻中国研究人员指出,2014年前三个季度,中国的燃煤总量比上年同期减少了1-2%。“The data suggests the world’s largest economy is finally starting to radically slow down its emission growth,” wrote the Greenpeace analysts.绿色和平组织的分析师们写道:“相关数据表明,作为全球最大的经济体,中国终于开始从根本上降低温室气体排放增速。”Still, the coal beast on the mainland continues to grow. In October, just as the results of the Tsinghua University study of coal fatalities was being released, the national news agency Xinhua reported that a huge coal field, containing 12.8 billion tons, had been discovered in western Xinjiang. Mining has aly begun.不过,难以驾驭的中国煤炭行业仍在增长。今年10月份,就在清华大学公布上述研究结果的同时,新华社报道称新疆西部发现了储量128亿吨的大型煤田,而且已经开始采煤。 /201411/343049

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